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자연스러운 머리 움직임 하에서 응시점을 추정할 수 있는 시스템을 제안하였다. 이 시스템은 하나의 카메라와 2개의 거울로 구성되어 있으며, 이 거울은 안구에서 눈동자의 영상을 언제나 카메라로 획득할 수 있도록 유지시키는 기능을 한다. 그러나 영상의 획득 속도가 초당 30 프레임이므로 거울의 제어가 빠른 머리 움직임을 보상할 수 없다. 이러한 문제점을 극복하고자 현재 안구 이미지에서 다음 안구 이미지의 위치를 추정하기 위하여 Kalman filter를 적용하였다. 그 결과 수평방향으로 평균 55㎝/s, 수직 방향으로 평균 45㎝/s정도의 속도의 머리 움직임에 대한 보상이 가능하였다. 그리고, 머리 움직임의 공간도 수평 60㎝, 수직 30㎝의 넓은 범위까지 가능하였다. 공간 해상도는 수평과 수직 각각 4.5°와 5°였고, 자연스러운 머리 움직임 아래에서의 응시점의 정확도는 92% 였다. We proposed an eye gaze tracking system under natural head movements. The system consists of one CCD(charge-coupled device) camera and two front-surface mirrors. The mirrors rotate to follow head movements in order to keep the eye within the view of the camera. However, the mirror controller cannot guarantee the fast head movements, because the frame rate is generally 30㎐. To overcome this problem, we applied Kalman filter to estimate next eye position from the current eye image. In the results, our system allowed the subjects head to move 60㎝ horizontally and 40㎝ vertically, with the head movement speed about 55㎝/sec and 45㎝/sec, respectively. And spatial gaze resolutions were about 4.5 degree and 5.0 degree, respectively, and the gaze estimation accuracy was 92% under natural head movements.
Blood flow is one of vital signals related to human physiological information. Photoplethysmograph (PPG) has been used to measure indirectly heart rate, blood oxygen saturation (SpO₂), and so on. Because PPG signal is weak and sensitive to motion artifacts, it is very important to continuously obtain stable PPG signal during free movement. In this study, we applied the scaled Fourier linear combiner (SFLC) using both the adaptive filter and FLC to remove effectively the motion artifacts as well as background noise in the real time without additional signal correlated with motion from a accelerometer. The proposed method would be useful to reduce the movement and background noise which are not synchronized with heart rate.
Blistering diseases are heterogeneous and include many diverse disorders. Over the past three decades, with the availability of new investigatory techniques and more sophisticated laboratory methods, enormous progress has been made in understanding these diseases. Blistering diseases can be mainly divided into the autoimmune bullous diseases and inherited bullous diseases. To do make a correct diagnosis of these blistering disorders, one should apply four different techniques: the clinical, histological, immunological and molecular biological methods. Histologic methods include H&E stain, immunohistochemical stains and electron microscopic examinations. Immunological methods include direct and indirect immunofluorescence studies, and ELISA. Molecular biological methods include immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation.
A 26-year-old male patient presented with localized blistering since birth, accompanied with patchy, reticulated hyperpigmentation on the flexural areas since mid-teenage. He also showed mild palmoplantar keratoderma and diffuse alopecia on the scalp. Histopathology revealed intraepidermal blistering with degeneration of basal keratinocytes. Direct immunofluorescence showed negative result and immunofluorescence mapping showed KRT5, KRT10, collagen 4 & 7 deposition on the dermal side of the blister. Electron microscopy showed cytolysis and keratin clumping in the epidermis. Increased numbers of melanosomes in keratinocytes and dermal melanophages were also shown. Genetic analysis showed a mutation in KRT14 (exon1 c.374C>C, p.Arg125Cys), which is most commonly reported in the subtype previously known as EBS-DM.
In this paper, we propose a MIP model for optimal planning of Countermaneuver Support Mission (CSM) through parallel machine scheduling. CSM is carried out by battle platoons of Engineer company, and is a military operation to stop or delay the enemy's maneuver by using rockfall or bridge-blowing up. The concept of cooperation by platoons is proposed to shorten the mission completion time. We propose experimental results that the mission completion time with consideration of cooperation is shorter than that without consideration of cooperation. Additionally, we confirm that cooperation is still effective in shortening the mission completion time even if the capability is not at its maximum and is reduced by a certain ratio. Finally, since the parallel machine scheduling problem belongs to the NP-hard problem, we propose a solution approach using genetic algorithm in order to obtain a near optimal solution of a larger scale problem within a fast computation time.
EMG has specific information which is related to movements according to the activities of muscles. Therefore, users can intuitively control a prosthesis. For this reason, biosignals are very useful and convenient in this kind of application. Bioimpednace also provides specific information about movements like EMG. In this study, we used both EMG and bioimpedance to classify the typical hand gestures such as hand open, hand close, no motion (rest), supination, and pronation. Nine able-bodied subjects and one amputee were used as experimental data set. The accuracy was 98±1.9% when 2 bio-impedance and 8 EMG channels were used together for normal subjects. The number of EMG channels affected the accuracy, but it was stable when more than 5 channels were used. For the amputee, the accuracy is higher when we use both of them than when using only EMG. Therefore, accurate and stable hand motion estimation is possible by adding bioimepedance which shows structural information and EMG together.