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Kim Yu-shin(596-673.A.D.) has been the main target of criticism since the late 19th century among many Korean common people, and even historians, in respect with the way he suceeded to be related by marriage with Kim Chunchu, who was a man of influenceable as grandson of a dethroned king. Kim Yu-shin enticed Kim Chunchu to have sexual relationship with one of his two sisters, Bohee and Munhee. Kim Yu-shin's original plan was to make the coulple of Kim Chunchu and Bohee, the older of two. But Kim Yu-shin had to replace Bohee with Munhee. So what happened to Bohee? One of the two aims in my these is this. Historical documents relating to it says (1) Bohee had an illness, (2) she was faced with an accident. Any document says what kind of an illness or accident she had. But I found the illness or accident was her monthky period by comparative study of the related documents. Kim Yu-shin found it out to make the other sister Munhee Kim Chunchu's air. His maneuvering suceeded, and Munhee becamed pregnant with Kim Chunchu's baby. But Kim Yu-shin was compelled to do another maneuver, because Kim Chunchu kept on evading the wedding with pregnant Munhee. Facing with an unexpected obstacle, Kim Yu-shin sent an ultimatum to Kim Chunchu. It was a threat to burn his sister to death by reason of her pre-marriage pregnancy without permission of his or his parents. But such a threat was a shrewd trick. Anyway Kim Yu-shin was about to fulfill the ritual of burning his sister in the open air at that time Sunduk, Princess and a successor to the throne was going on a picnic out of her palace. Kim Yu-shin's trick was brilliantly successful by Sunduk's command to Kim Chunchu to go quickly and save ‘your wife' fron the fire. Then where are the trick of the burning of a woman concieved by Kim Yu-shin at the stake from? This was my second aim in the these. I proved it resulted from the ritual of Pokmu(暴巫), which literally means forcing a shaman out to the blazing sun especially in midsummer. Such a Pokmu was often fulfilled to pray for rain to Heaven in pre-modern Eastern Asia. Eastern Asian people believed that Heaven drops rain on pity of the suffering shaman. Kim Yu-shin extraordinarilly filled his purpose by advantage of the ritural of Pokmu.
The Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange scheme can produce a common session key between the two communicators, but its problem is that it makes a man-in-the middle attack possible. To solve problems like these, several protocols have been put forward, and the Simple Authenticated Key Agreement (SAKA) Protocol is among them. Seo-Sweeney suggested a SAKA protocol initially and the protocol has weakness that a malicious 3rd party can masquerade a valid user. Tseng suggested another protocol that advances this problem but this protocol can still be attacked when the messages in key verification phase are identical. Ku-Wang suggested a new protocol that advances this problem. Kim-Kim-Hwang also suggested a new SAKA protocol and confirmed that their protocol has same safeness and better performance compared to the other SAKA protocols. In this paper, we reanalyze the safeness of SAKA protocols and find out that Kim-Kim-Hwang protocol has not only better performance but also better safeness. Diffie-Hellman의 키 인증 기법에 대한 제 3자 공격 (man-in-the middle attack)에 강한 간단한 인증키 동의 프로토콜인 SAKA (Simple Authenticated Key Agreement Protocol)가 제안된 바 있다. SAKA는 초기에 Seo-Sweeney에 의해 제안되었으며 이 방법은 침입자가 중간에 메시지를 가로채서 정당한 사용자임을 가장할 수 있는 단점이 있다. Tseng은 이 단점을 개선한 방안을 제안하였는데 이것도 키 확인 메시지 두 개의 값이 같을 경우 공격을 받을 수 있음이 밝혀졌다. Ku-Wang은 Tseng 방법의 문제점을 개선한 알고리즘을 제안하였다 그리고 Kim-Kim-Hwang은 새로운 SAKA 알고리즘을 제안하고 이것이 기존 SAKA 프로토콜들과 안전성은 동일하면서도 성능이 개선된 것임을 밝힌바 있다. 본 논문에서는 안전성 분석의 재고찰을 통하여, Kim-Kim-Hwang의 방법이 기존 SAKA 프로토콜들보다 성능면에서뿐만 아니라, 안전성 면에서도 우수함을 밝힌다.
Kim Su-yeon (1405-1455), who is from Naju, South Jeolla Province, made a contribution of Northern settlement during the reign of King Sejong. Kim Tak, a great-grandfather of Kim Su-yeon, retired to the countryside, in Naju due to the establishment of the new Joseon dynasty. There he began the Sijungtakpa branch of the Gimhae Kim clan. While Kim Su-yeon worked as a military officer in the early part of the reign of King Sejong, he took the alseongsi examination in military science in September 1434 (16th year of the Sejong era). He excelled in military arts and in the classics, finishing in first place, showing his dual capacity in literature and war. The scarlet certification, or hongpae (issued by royal edict to such qualifiers at the time), is still maintained by his descendants today. This material is extremely rare and carries immense significance. It also works as an aid in understanding the Gyeongguk Daejeon (Great Book of State Service), the tasks of old bureaucrats and royal seals and so forth. Immediately after passing, Kim was selected to be Choi Yun-deok's official of the army. In January of 1435 (17th year of Sejong's reign), 2,700 Jurchen cavalry soldiers invaded Yeoyeon fortress. Kim successfully defended the castle, subsequently led a squad of crack troops and successfully pursuing enemy forces without being caught in any ambushes. In 1438, while working under Kim Jong-seo in the 6 jin (outposts) area, Kim Su-yeon ruled over the Gyeong-heung area. In 1443, High General Kim Su-yeon won acclaim for meritorious deeds in the Battle of Bocheong Riverbanks (Bocheong-po) at Jongseong. In August 1455 (first year of Sejo), while in charge of frontier areas as a commanding general, Kim met his fate. As an adept student and capable officer, Kim Su-yeon readily passed the national examinations, going on to work in the North and Northeast, at the Sagun-Yukjin area(literally, “four counties, six outposts”). Kim, working with Choi Yun-deok and Kim Jong-seo, was instrumental in implementing King Sejong's plan for the settlement of the North. Further studies of their work and that of other officers and generals bureaucrats are hoped to yield yet more concrete details on the implementation of the Northern Settlement Campaign.
갑신정변에 실패한 김옥균 등이 일본으로 망명한 이후, 조선정부는 이들을 역적으로 간주하고 김옥균의 본국 송환을 위해 노력해 나갔다. 이러한 조선정부와 달리, 일본정부는 국사범을 보호해 일본의 인도적 행동을 드러내고 조선과의 협상카드로 김옥균을 이용하고자 했다. 따라서 번번이 일본국내법과 만국공법, 그리고 조일간 범죄인인도조약의 부재를 이유로 조선정부의 김옥균 송환 요구를 거절했다. 그렇지만 일본정부의 김옥균 비호 방침은 오사카사건 관련자들의 김옥균에 대한 회유 모색이 발각되고 조선정부가 장은규와 지운영을 파견해 김옥균을 암살하려 하면서 변화되었다. 이로 인해 김옥균의 일본체류가 일본국내 치안을 불안하게 만들고 외교 분쟁의 빌미를 제공한다는 사실이 표면화 되었기 때문이었다. 그러자 일본정부는 김옥균문제를 해결할 방안을 강구했는데, 공교롭게도 이때 스스로를 지키고자 한 김옥균의 행동이 일본정부를 더욱 자극했다. 일본정부는 1885년까지 망명 국사범의 보호라는 명분과 대조선 정책에서의 활용이라는 실리를 모두 얻고자 김옥균의 일본체류를 묵인했다. 그렇지만 점차 조?청 양국의 반복적인 송환 요구와 일본내 반정부세력과의 연계, 암살자들의 도일 등으로 김옥균을 내치외교의 걸림돌로 판단하게 되었다. 결국 일본정부는 김옥균의 공식적인 신변보호 요청을 계기로 추방을 결정해 오가사라와에 유폐시켰다고 하겠다. The Korean government had constantly promoted the repatriation of political asylum in Japan like Kim Ok-kyun(金玉均) who led a failed coup and fled to Japan. At that time, the Korean government recognized Kim was a threat to the regime and made the feelings of the people disturb. However, the Japanese government opposed the Korean government for they permitted Kim's residence in Japan. By the way, the Japanese government's policy had changed because of the discovery of the Osaka plot(大阪事件) with Kim Ok-kyun and an assassin dispatched by the Korean government. The Japanese government had to prevent a coup by the opposition with Kim Ok-kyun or the assassins would kill Kim in Japan. Therefore, the Japanese government had decided on Kim's deportation from Japan because of the obstacles in diplomacy and sedition. Then Kim had consulted his personal problems with an Englishman belonging to the judiciary of Japan and moved to a hostel of France concession in Yokohama, leaving Tokyo. Kim then sued Ji un-yeong(池運永) in court. In addition, Kim asked for personal protection and asylum in Russia from the Speyer of Russian consul in Japan. However, Kim Ok-kyun's formal request for personal protection antagonized the Japanese government and made his expulsion one of force. As a result, Kim Ok-kyun was confined to Ogasawara(小笠原) Island.
This article attempts to explore some autobiographical elements in the three novels written by Richard E. Kim: The Martyred (1964), The Innocent (1968), and Lost Names (1970). A diaspora writer, Kim finds his subject matter in the major historical events of Korea. In his first internationally acclaimed novel, Kim draws much on some incidents in his own personal and family history; its protagonist the Reverend Shin, for example, is modelled on his maternal grandfather, the Reverend Hak Bong Lee, who were not only persecuted but also executed by the North Korean Communists. Kim's active involvement with the Korean Army as a liaison officer during the Korean War, as well as the military coup detat led by General Park in 1961, provide material for his second novel. In the third novel, Kim borrows the characters, incidents and settings not only from his family history but Korean history as well. His own childhood experiences under the Japanese colonial occupation and the strong nationalist sentiments of his father, play a pivotal role in the third and last novel. At his best, however, Kim explores universal themes that are far beyond geographical as well as temporal limitations.
Der koreanische Dichter Hyon-seung Kim bekennt sich zu einem erheblichen Einfluß Rilkes auf seine Weltanschauung, insbesondere wegen Rilkes ernsthafter Haltung gegenu¨ber Leben und Kunst. In diesem Zusammenhang steht Kim unter dem starken Einfluß von Rilkes fru¨hen Werken wie Das Stunden-Buch und Das Buch der Bilder. Diese Werke behandeln wichtige Themen, die auch bei Kim ihren Niederschlag finden, das heißt Gott, Einsamkeit und Dichtung. Die Haltung des lyrischen Ichs bei Kim ist der Geba¨rde des lyrischen Ichs in Das Stunden-Buch sehr a¨hnlich. Der russische Mo¨nch in Rilkes Werk spricht aufs Knie fallend vor Gott Gebete, malt Ikonen und schreibt daru¨ber hinaus Verse. Diese fromme Haltung pra¨gt auch die des lyrischen Ich bei Kim. Ferner besteht große A¨hnlichkeit zwischen beiden Dichtern darin, dass die beiden in ihrer fru¨hen Zeit durch Gebet, also aus der Sehnsucht nach Gott, Verse schaffen. Man kann niemals bei Kim von der Einsamkeit im Herbst als literarischer Kulisse sprechen, ohne sich as Rilkes 「Herbsttag」zu erinnem. Trotzdem konnte Kim abda¨mmend gegen Rilkes Einfluß seine eigene Welt dadurch bewahren, dass er an der ihm eigentu¨mlichen Einsamkeit festha¨lt. Sein literarischer Verdienst findet sich dort, wo er mit Hilfe der Dinge und Ausdru¨cke solider Art seine existentielle Einsamkeit zu einem reinen poetischen Thema hat reifen lassen. Kims fester Glaube an die reine Einsamkeit entsprang seit Mitte der 1960er Jahre aus dem Mißtrauen gegen die christliche Gottheit und die fro¨mmelnden Christen. Unter diesen Umsta¨nden hatte er keinen anderen Weg, als nur auf das selbsta¨ndige Ich angewiesen zu sein. Zugleich hat er, wie seine Gedichte 「Absolute Einsamkeit」 und 「Solide Einsamkeit」zeigen, seine Einsamkeit positiv verarbeitet und ihr so einen Sin gegebenletzten Endes zu einer Ewigkeit, anders als Rilke, der auf jeden Fall seine Einsamkeit nur als Vorraussetzung fu¨r das Dichten betrachtet hat. Gerade hier hebt sich die originelle Seite der Einsamkeit von Kim gegen Rilke ab. In Hinsicht der sprachlichen Behandlung grenzen Kims Gedichte der absoluten Einsamkeit an Rilkes Dinggedichte in Neue Gedichte . Dieses Resultat ergibt sich daher, dass Kim seine dichterische Sprache wie ein Steinmetz meißelt, so dass er seine bloße Idee mit den soliden Ausdru¨cken bekleidet. Und dass Kim auf der Suche nach poetisch solider Gestaltung immer wieder auf sprachliche Pra¨chtigkeit und gefu¨hlvolles Pathos verzichtet hat, also dass er nach der "Poetischen Nu¨chternheit" gestrebt hat, bringt ihn noch mehr in die Na¨ch von Rilkes Dinggedichten. Aber Kim kehrte endgu¨ltig zu dem christlichen zuru¨ck, nachdem er Bluthochdruck erlitten hatte. Nach diesem Zwischenfall bereute er, dass er bisher - Gott aus dem Blick verlierend - zu dichterisch geneigt war. Natu¨rlich kann man auch in der literarischen Phase, wo er nur die absolute Einsamkeit verfolgt hatte, eine grundlegende Haltung mit Pra¨gung durch das christliche Ethos finden, Dies bedeutet, dass zu ihm die Einsamkeit eine Art Religion war. Also war seine Einsamkeit ein Prozess des christlichen Selbsterwachens. Wenn man die Tatsache in Betracht zieht, dass fu¨r ihn der Prozess der Einsamkeit eine Forsetzung des Dichtens war, so scheint seine Einamkeit ihr eigenes literarisches Dasein gefu¨hrt, moderne menschliche Bedingungen untersucht, und dadurch fu¨hlten sie sich menschlich gesteigert.
Kyun Jin Kim is one of very important modem theologians in Korea. He was president of Korean society of systematic theology and is now president of Korean society for Karl Barth's theology. He has served more than 30 years as professor of systematic theology at Yonsei university. He has made a big impact on Korean theology. I. Kyun Jin Kim' theological characteristics 1. Kyun Jin Kim's theology is a theology of the kingdom of God. Although soul salvation plays a big role in Kim' theology, the kingdom of God is the core of his theology. He has written his doctrine of systematic theology in the light of the kingdom of God. It is the purpose of his theology to establish the kingdom of God on the earth. 2. Kyun Jin Kim' theology is a messianic theology. According to Kim, it is important to know that Christ was the messiah. Kim denies that the concept messiah is interpreted only spiritually. He can be a political messiah, although he doesn't want to rule the world with coercive power. He is the messiah who saves not only our souls, but also the world and the earth. 3. Kyun Jin Kim's theology is a holistic theology. He is not interested in a biased theology. He loves holistic theological view. According to Kim, Korean Min Jung theology lacks this holistic view, although it shows us very important field to establish the kingdom of God. Ⅱ. Kyun Jin Kim's theological contributions 1. Kyun Jin Kim's first theological contribution to Korean theology is his five books of systematic theology. He accomplished his doctrine of systematic theology. His five books of systematic theology can be valued in Korean like Church Dogmatics of Karl Barth. 2. Kyun Jin Kim's theology is very academic. His theology is a very high level theology which can compete with european theologies. It is important to know that european theologians should learn from his theology. 3. Kyun Jin Kim's third theological contribution is his translation of many books of J. Moltmann. He translated into Korean the crucified God, Trinity and Kingdom of God, the Way of Jesus Christ, Sprit of life, the coming God etc. 4. Kyun Jin Kim's forth theological contribution is his contribution to the theology of life. He develops a very high level theology of life in Korea.
본 논문은 소설가 김광주의 회고를 통해 1930년대의 상해 한인사회에 대해 살펴보았다. 김광주는 1929년 상해로 이주한 이래 중일전쟁이 일어난 1937년 피신까지 약 10년 동안 상해 한인사회의 다양한 인물들을 만나고 항일운동과 함께 문화 활동을 펼쳤다. 이를 통해 1930년대 상해에서의 김광주는 영화계의 젊은 신진 감독을 비롯해 연극계의 다양한 문화예술가들과 교유하였음을 알 수 있다. ``일제의 지배가 싫은 젊은 세대``인 자유로운 문화예술가들과의 교류와 ``보헤미안극사`` 활동을 통해 그는 시, 꽁트, 연극, 영화 등에서 다양한 체험을 하게 되었다. 물론 그 바탕에는 1930년대 상해 한인 민족운동을 이끌고 있던 김구·안창호·김두봉 등 지도자들 후원이 컸다. 더욱이 남화연맹에서 활동한 아나키스트들과의 교류는 그의 항일 민족정서와 함께 자유정신을 키우는데 큰 영향을 끼쳤다. 특히 해방이후 상해체험을 회상하는 그의 작품의 대부분이 나라를 위해 싸우다 죽거나 방랑생활을 하다 귀국하지 못한 동지들에 대한 그리움이 한 축을 이루고 있다는 점에서, 상해체험이 그의 작품 활동에 미친 영향은 매우 컸다. This paper discussed the Korean community in China Shanghai in the 1930s by the novelist Kim Gwang-ju`s recalls. Kim Gwang-ju is a refuge for about 10 years until the 1937 war took place while since moved to Shanghai in 1929 to meet the various figures of the Korean community in Shanghai unfolded cultural activities with the anti-Japanese movement. Even though his shanghai settlement and time of refuge records are seem to inaccurate, but it is a relatively considered as a objective and analytic memoir of his experience. Through this we can know that Kim Gwang-ju associated with the young director of movies, including the various cultural artists of theatrical world in 1930s Shanghai. Through the interchange with "the young generation of unconstrained cultural artists who do not want the Japanese domination" and the activity of "Bohemian Theater Company", he had various experience in poem, conte, play and movie. Of course, theses are based on the great support of leaders such as Kim-Gu, Ahn-Changho and Kim Du-bong who led the Korean Independent Movement in Shanghai. Furthermore, the interchange with anarchists who were active in the ``Namhwa-Federation`` has had a big impact to raise his nationalistic emotion and the spirit of freedom. From the perspective of the Korean modern national movement, the research of Kim Gwang-ju`s life first, additional research materials for his family, especially elder brother Kim Dong-joo is very necessary. Kim Dong-joo is a secret help sponsor of activities of the Anti-Japanese independence fighters in Manchuria, as well as a important person who connected with an agents of a Provisional Government. His life was believed to be the future of course, also we need to study in depth the role and position of the personal hospital. Secondly, it is necessary to examine the local shelter, etc. Activity of Kim Gwang-ju activities in Shanghai. In other words, while Kim Gwang-ju live a long time is needed for local excavations and historical research, such as the Activity where many literary works written by the school and toughness. This is expected to find signs of shanghai, including Kim Gwang-ju Korean culture, artists in the 1930s who exchanges with him.
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It is becoming significant for individuals to find their own individual identities, as the today's ongoing globalization has become much more complicated. A similar situation occurred when the British Empire influenced the world politically, economically, and culturally in the nineteenth century. In order to grasp human intrinsic identities, my thesis aims to use postcolonial theories to examine characters' identities in a nineteenth-century British novel, Kipling's Kim (1901). In Kipling's Kim, I examine Kim, an Irish boy who experiences racial identity confusion by living in British India. Kim's identity is ambiguous as his background is complicated: his parents are Irish, Kim was born in India, he was educated in a British school, and he participated in the Great Game. It would prove inadequate to try to see Kim's identity based on binary oppositions, as Kim's identity is neither British nor native Indian. Aside from simply being a person named Kim, Kim's identity consists of being someone who has cultural hybridity. Through the main character of Kim, Kipling suggests that a Brit who understands the local Indian culture and society, as Kim does, would govern India with ease. Overall, Kipling's Kim elaborates on why or how India should be governed by Britain and also seems to justify the British rule of India. In Kim, Kipling creates the main character of Kim, who has cultural hybridity and whose process of personal growth throughout the novel depicts Kipling's ideas on how to govern India easily. In order to justify British rule in India, Kipling also depicts how British-Indian society was developed by Britain, also through the character of Kim. Looking into characters' identities throughout nineteenth-century British novels helps modern readers who live in this complicated world to grasp human intrinsic identities.
In North Korea, the cinema is method to teach the masses. Especially, Kim Il-Sung and Kim Jong-Il thought that the cinema was produced in a breeze. Because the cinema moved the majority of the masses to sympathize with the emotions. In 1970s, the Kim administration was stabilized therefore Kim Jong-Il made many concrete policies about the cinema. That is to say, the North Korean cinema was formalized by Kim Jong-Il`s instruction during that time. In 1973, Kim Jong-Il published 『On the Art of Cinema』, The book was a 332-page treatise on how to act, film, direct, edit and score a movie. Aimed at North Koreans, the book had its share of stupefying ideas but also some legitimate tenets and some beliefs that might be shared by a film critic. By constitution, North korea`s all movies was influenced by the book hence understanding the book was important. It made comprehending North Korean cinema possible. In 1970s, the juche ideology was organized well and constitutional law was made public at least. So Kim Jong-Il started effort for acquiring a position of successor earnestly. He developed the concept of the `Revolutionary View of the Leader` into a more theoretical and systemized form by presenting the `Theory of the Immortal(Socio)-Political Body`. It says the Suryong. Moreover he completed Kim Il Sungism. According to the book, Kim Jong-Il claimed that all movies in North Korea was produced by juche ideology inclusive of Suryong-non and Kim Il Sungism. Then the movies on the basis of the book had a few keynotes. There were the same subjects repeatedly, standardization, narration, excessive expressions. These problems brought on deterioration in quality of North Korean cinema.