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일반적인 선박 내 통신은 재질의 특성상 기존 RF기반 무선통신 기술을 적용하는 데 제약이 따른다. 가시광통신 기술은 가시광을 통신수단으로 하기 때문에 전파제약이나 간섭 같은 기존 무선통신 기술의 문제점을 해결할 수 있으며, LED조명을 활용한 통신과의 융합으로 추가적인 설비 요구가 상대적으로 낮고, 가시광을 이용함에 따라 인체에도 무해하다는 장점이 있다. 본 논문에서는 256Kbps급, 5m 전송 거리 급의 가시광통신 기술을 선박 내 통신에 적용함으로써 일반적인 RF통신기기 적용이 어려운 여건에서의 응급호출 시스템 솔루션을 제안하고, 제안 시스템의 실제구현과 시험을 통하여 그 타당성을 검증한 결과를 제시하였다. Due to metallicity of materials, a vessel has a limitation to adopt RF-based wireless communication technologies for the inner communication means. Visible Light Communication(VLC) can be a sound alternative to dissolve such a limitation. Using a visual light as a transmission medium, VLC is free from radio interferences and restriction of radio usages which are typically related to RF-based wireless communications. In addition, VLC can not only require the facility cost relatively low because of being possibly converged with existing LED illumination, but also be harmless to the human body. This paper proposes an indoor location-based emergency call service system solution for ships using the VLC technology that supports 256Kbps data rate and 5m transmission distance. This paper presents real implementation and testing results of the solution which verifies the propriety of the proposal.
In this paper, we states the verification and validation methodology for the modular system of A-SMGCS which defined in the ICAO Manual on Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control Systems. Such systems aim to maintain the declared surface movement rate under all weather conditions while maintaining the required level of safety. With the complete concept of an A-SMGCS, air traffic controllers, vehicle drivers, flight crews, and are assisted with surface operations in terms of surveillance, control, routing/planning and guidance tasks. A-SMGCS verification and validation for the development of Real Time Simulation, shadow mode trials, operational trials are conducted through three methods. In this study, the characteristics and the need for such a verification method was examined.
Strains of the Aspergillus flavus/oryzae complex are frequently isolated from meju, a fermented soybean product, that is used as the starting material for ganjang (soy sauce) and doenjang (soybean paste) production. In this study, we examined the aflatoxin producing capacity of A. flavus/oryzae strains isolated from meju. 192 strains of A. flavus/oryzae were isolated from more than 100 meju samples collected from diverse regions of Korea from 2008 to 2011, and the norB-cypA,omtA, and aflR genes in the aflatoxin biosynthesis gene cluster were analyzed. We found that 178 strains (92.7%)belonged to non-aflatoxigenic group (Type I of norB-cypA,IB-L-B-, IC-AO, or IA-L-B- of omtA, and AO type of aflR),and 14 strains (7.3%) belonged to aflatoxin-producible group (Type II of norB-cypA, IC-L-B+/B- or IC-L-B+ of omtA, and AF type of aflR). Only 7 strains (3.6%) in the aflatoxin-producible group produced aflatoxins on Czapek yeast-extract medium. The aflatoxin-producing capability of A. flavus/oryzae strains from other sources in Korea were also investigated,and 92.9% (52/56) strains from air, 93.9% (31/33)strains from rice straw, 91.7% (11/12) strains from soybean,81.3% (13/16) strains from corn, 82% (41/50) strains from peanut, and 73.2% (41/56) strains from arable soil were included in the non-aflatoxigenic group. The proportion of non-aflatoxigenicity of meju strains was similar to that of strains from soybean, air and rice straw, all of which have an effect on the fermentation of meju. The data suggest that meju does not have a preference for non-aflatoxigenic or aflatoxin-producible strains of A. flavus/oryzae from the environment of meju. The non-aflatoxigenic meju strains are proposed to be named A. oryzae, while the meju strains that can produce aflatoxins should be referred to A. flavus in this study.
Aspergillus cibarius sp. nov. isolated from meju, a brick of dried fermented soybeans in Korea, is described. The species was also found from black bean, bread and salami in the Netherlands. It is characterized by abundant yellow to reddish brown ascomata and small lenticular ascospores (4.5–5.5 μm)with a wide furrow, low equatorial crests and tuberculate or reticulate convex surface. The species was resolved as phylogenetically distinct from the other reported Aspergillus species with an Eurotium teleomorph based on multilocus sequence typing using partial fragments of the β-tubulin,calmodulin, ITS and RNA polymerase II genes.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup dataprovide valuable information for inferring patterns of variationand population structure of maternal lineages. In thisstudy, we analyzed the distribution of mtDNA haplogroupvariation using a 20-plex SNaPshot assay for determinationof the major East Asian haplogroups to evaluate the possiblegenetic structure and differentiation from 708 unrelatedindividuals residing in six major provinces in Korea. The most common mtDNA haplogroups were found to beD4 and B4, followed by A, D4a, and M7, which are prevalentin East Asian populations. All provinces exhibitedhigh haplogroup diversities, ranging from 0.8957 in JejuIsland to 0.9284 in Gyeongsang. Pair-wise FST distancesand AMOVA of the studied Korean provinces reflected nomaternal subpopulation heterogeneity present within thepopulation group, except for Jeju Island, showing small,but statistically significant differences between the populations(p\0.01). This result indicates that the Jeju Islandmay point to the need for creating a local mtDNA database,to avoid bias in forensic parameters estimates caused bygenetic heterogeneity of the population. However, sincethere is no geographic pattern to suggest this result representsany population heterogeneity on a peninsular level inKorea, the present data could be useful in serving as a basisfor comprehensive Korean population and forensic mtDNAdatabase.
Black Aspergillus is important fungus for oriental fermentation industry. Black Aspergillus was frequently isolated from Korean traditional Meju, a fermented soybean starting material for soy sauce and soybean paste. Thirty three strains were isolated from 98 finished Meju collected in various regions of Korea from 2008 to 2011, and 21 strains were isolated from in-process Meju at various farms from 2010 to 2011. The isolated black Aspergillus were identified using DNA sequences of partial β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. Of 54 black Aspergillus strains, 14 strains were identified as A. luchuensis and the others were composed of A. niger (n = 21), A. tubingensis (n = 10), and A. welwitschiae (n = 9).
The effects of an alkaline treatment on the ferroelectric properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] copolymer films are investigated. The alkaline treatment resulted in a small change in the surface roughness but no significant change in the grain shape or size of P(VDF-TrFE) copolymer films, as evidenced by both scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images. However, xray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that the alkaline etchant of a KOH solution reacted with P(VDF-TrFE) films to decrease the number of C-F bonds while creating new carbon conjugated double bonds, which decreased the remanent polarization of the P(VDF-TrFE) films. These results can improve our understanding of the degradation mechanism of an alkaline treatment.