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Two track gauges coexist in Spain, the Iberian gauge (1668 mm) and the international gauge (1435 mm). Solutions applied on the track were considered to improve the interoperability in Spain. First solution proposed was tracks with two-gauge-ready sleepers. This solution allows changing the gauge from Iberian to International gauge or from International to Iberian gauge. The need of two gauges evolved this solution to the third rail system with two-simultaneous-gauge sleepers. In this paper, a new third-rail track solution is proposed. This solution is a novel system based on the introduction of special concrete blocks between the existing sleepers to fasten the third rail. Thus, the conventional railroad track becomes in a double-simultaneous-gauge lines without needing change existing sleepers and make long traffic interruptions of the track like in common third-rail systems. In the present study, threedimensional numerical models are generated using finite-element method. The analysis of the vertical displacements of the top head of the rails, vertical stresses transmitted to the substructure layers and vertical track stiffness, demonstrate the good vertical performance of the new system compared to the conventional lines with dual-gauge-ready sleepers and the common third rail tracks.
Rails are key elements in railway superstructure since these elements receive directly the train load transmitted by the wheels. Simultaneously, rails must provide effective stress transference to the rest of the track elements. This track element often deteriorates as a consequence of the vehicle passing or manufacturing imperfections that cause in rail several defects. Among these rail defects, transverse cracks highlights and are considered a severe pathology because they can suddenly trigger the rail failure. This study is focused on UIC-60 rails with transverse cracks. A 3-D FEM model is developed in ANSYS for the flawless rail in which conditions simulating the crack presence are implemented. To account for the inertialoss of the rail as a consequence of the cracking, a reduction of the bending stiffness of the rail is considered. The numerical models have been calibrated using the first four bending vibration modes in terms of frequencies. These vibration frequencies have been obtained using the Experimental Modal Analysis technique, studying the changes in the modal parameters of the rails induced by the crack and comparing the results obtained by the model with experimental results. Finally, the calibrated and validated models for the single rail have been implemented in a complete railway ballasted track FEM model in order to study thestatic influence of the cracks on the rail deflection caused by a load passing.
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. Der Kindergarten gilt als ein zentrales Sozialisationsfeld fr die Fhigkeit zum lebens begleitenden Lernen und leistet einen wichtigen Beitrag zur kognitiven, emotionalen und sozialen Bildung und wird als die erste Stufe der Bildungslaufbahn angesehen. Je hher der Bildungsstand der Bevlkerung, desto besser ist sie fr die Anfor derungen der modernen Lebens- und Arbeitswelt gerstet. Der Bildungsstand einer Bevlkerung ist eine hufig verwendete Kennzahl fr den Humankapital bestand eines Landes, d.h. fr alle in der Bevlkerung verfgbaren Kenntnisse und Fhig keiten. Der Bevlkerungsrckgang wirkt sich auf dem Arbeitsmarkt so lange nicht gravierend aus, als sich mehr junge Menschen fr qualifizierte Ausbildungs gnge entscheiden.
One of the key problems of the EMU consists in the regional distortions which, on the one hand, can lead to deflationary developments in some regions, first of all Germany, and in the long run also in the EMU as a whole. On the other hand, regions like Portugal, Italy or Spain are in danger of becoming regions of economic stagnation without the policy instruments available to come out of their unpleasant constellation. These regional distortions which developed in the EMU with enormous speed reflect the insufficient integration and the lack of EMU institutions. There are no EMU-wide unions and employers’ associations and EMU-wide wage negotiations can rarely be found. Wage negotiations and wage developments in Portugal or Spain, for example, seem to have no connection with wage negotiations and wage developments in Germany, the Netherlands or Austria. There have been attempts for a macroeconomic dialogue but they are too weak and not sufficiently supported by national governments, the European Commission and the European Central Bank. From its historical roots the EMU is a political project. Without a deeper political and institutional integration the EMU is economically fragile and likely to fall into deep regional problems with its entire social and political dimension. What is needed is institution building of a European state in whatever form. From the economic point of view a central state is needed to support the coherence of the EMU. Besides wages there is the problem of fiscal policy. It is highly questionable whether a monetary union without a strong central state can practice functional fiscal policy. So far the Stability and Growth Pact has been a failure.
Behcet`s disease (BD) is a chronic inflammatory condition involving several organs, such as skin, mucous membrane, eye, joint, intestine, lung and central nervous system. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a prototype of seronegative spondyloarthropathy, and a