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본연구(本硏究)는 원색(原色) 한국산(韓國産) 버섯도감발간사업(圖鑑發刊事業)을 위하여 1981년(年) 7월(月) 1일(日)부터 1982년(年) 6월(月) 30일(日)까지 1년간(間) 경기도(京畿道) 광육임업시험장(光陸林業試驗場)을 주(主)로 하고, 경기도(京畿道), 용문산(龍門山), 강원도(江原道) 치악산(雉岳山), 충청북도(忠淸北道) 용이산(俗離山), 경상남도(慶尙南道) 지이산(智異山), 전라남도(全羅南道) 무등산(無等山), 제주도(濟州道) 한라산(漢拏山) 등지(等地)에서 신선(新鮮)한 자낭균류(子囊菌類)를 채집(採集) 촬영(撮影)하여 원색(原色)슬라이드와 건조표본(乾燥標本)을 작성(作成)하고 분류학적(分類學的) 연구(硏究)를 완성(完成)하였다. 조사(調査)된 결과(結果)에 의하면 우리나라에서 밝혀진 총고등균류수(總高等菌類數)인 620여종중(餘種中) 흔히 볼 수 있는 균류(菌類)와 한국미기록(韓國未記錄) 자낭균류(子囊菌類) 101종(種)의 원색(原色) 슬라이드와 분류상(分類上)의 검색표(檢索表)를 완성(完成)하였다. 이들은 10목(目) 19과(科) 50속(屬) 101종(種)에 속(屬)하고, 또 이들의 세계적(世界的) 분포(分布)가 밝혀졌다. 그들 중 Peziza vesiculosa 큰 주발버섯, Rhizina inflata 땅해파리, Gelasinospora longispora, Sordaria fimicola, Cantharomyces exiguus, Dichomyces biformis, D. furcifer, D. homalotae, D. hybridus, D. vulgatus, Dioicomyces anthici, Enathromyces indicus, Laboulbenia borealis, L. brachconychi, L. cristata, L. exigua, L. fusciculata, K. filifera, L. flagellata, L. rougetii, L. tachys, L. vulgaris, L. yoshidai, Rickia ancylopi, R. papuana 그리고 R. peyerimhoffii의 26종(種)은 한국산(韓國産) 미기록종(未記錄種)이며, 그 보통명(普通名)과 기재(記載)를 하였다. 본론문(本論文)에서는 예정(豫定)대로 101종(種)의 자낭균류중(子囊菌類中) 원색도판(原色圖版) 1면(面)만을 게재(揭載)하였다. This study has been carried out for the publication of colored illustrations of Korean fungi. The fresh fungi of Ascomycetes were collected and photographed, for the most part, at Gwangneung, Kyonggi Province, Mt. Yongmun in Kyonggi Province, Mt. Sokri in Chungcheong Province, Mt. Jiyee in Kyeongsang Province, Mt. Mudeug in Jeonra Province, and Mt. Hanra in Jeuju Island from July 1, 1981 to June 31, 1982. These higher fungi were made into colored slides and dried specimens, then classified. According to the investigated result, colored slides and classification for the common and new to Korea 101 species were completed among 620 spp. which were known all of the fungi in Korea. They were included 10 oders, 19 families, 51 genera and 101 species. Their world distributions were investigated. Twenty six species of them, that is, Peziza vesiculosa, Rhizina inflata, Gelasinospora longispora, Sordaria fimicola, Cantharcmyces exiguus, Dichomyces biformis, D. furcifer, D. homalotae, D. hybridus, D. vulgatus, Dioicomyces anthici, Enathromyces indicus, Laboulbenia borealis, L. brachconychi, L. cristata, L. exigua, L. fusciculata, L. filifera, L. flagellata, L. rougetii, L. tachys, L. vulgaris, L. yoshidai, Rickia ancylopi, R. papuana and R. peyerimhoffii were found to be new in Korea. In addition their common names and descriptions prepared. According to study plan, this paper pressed only one page in colored plate among 101 species.
한국에서 가지 흰가루병균으로 Erysiphe cichoracearum, Leveillula taurica, Sphaerotheca fusca 모두 3종이 기록되어 있다. E. cichoracearum은 1969년에 기록된 이후 한국에서 발생하는 가지 흰가루병균으로 여긴다. 1998년에는 L. taurica가 가지 뒷면흰가루병균으로 기록 되었으나, 이후에 추가적인 발생기록은 없었다. 2002년에는 S. fusca가 가지 흰가루병균으로 보고되었다. 필자들은 총 22점의 가지 흰가루병균 시료를 채집하여 현미경 관찰 및 염기서열 분석을 실시하였으며, 그 결과 모두 Podosphaera xanthii로 동정하였다. 따라서 한국에서 가지 흰가루병균은 P. xanthii로 표기하는 것이 옳으며, 시설재배에서 드물게 발견되는 L. taurica는 뒷면흰가루병균으로 구별하는 것이 맞다. 반면에, E. cichoracearum (= Golovinomyces cichoracearum)은 가지 흰가루병균으로 표본이 보존되지 않았으며 이후에 채집되지도 않았다. 더구나 가지에서 기록한 E. cichoracearum의 기재는 일반적인 형태적 변이의 폭을 크게 벗어난다. 따라서 E. cichoracearum 흰가루병균의 존재에 대한 과거의 기록은 오류로 생각 된다. 결국 P. xanthii가 한국의 가지에서 발병하는 흰가루병의 주요 병원균으로 판단되며, L. taurica는 드물게 발생되었던 것으로 판단된다. 이 총설에서는 가지 흰가루병균의 역사와 최신 분류체계에 대하여 자세히 기록하였다. Three species of powdery mildew (Erysiphales) on eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) have been listed in Korea, namely Erysiphe cichoracearum (now genus Golovinomyces), Leveillula taurica, and Sphaerotheca fusca (now genus Podosphaera; syn. Podosphaera xanthii). Since E. cichoracearum was recorded on eggplant for the first time in Korea in 1969, it has been regarded as a major powdery mildew agent on that plant. In 1998, the causal agent of powdery mildew on eggplant was recorded as L. taurica, then as S. fusca in 2002. During our extensive field surveys in Korea, we collected 22 samples of eggplant powdery mildews. Our microscopic observations and molecular sequence analyses showed that all of our samples belonged to the genus Podosphaera, in the absence of either E. cichoracearum or L. taurica, suggesting that P. xanthii is the dominant agent of powdery mildew disease on eggplants in Korea. As there have been no additional findings on L. taurica after the first report on the species, it seems to be a minor species that is rarely found in greenhouses. The presence of E. cichoracearum (syn. Golovinomyces cichoracearum s. lat.) on eggplants is questionable, as the morphological characteristics of E. cichoracearum in the original description of the Korean collection deviate from the morphological variations of this species. In addition, no herbarium material of E. cichoracearum remains. Consequently, it seems that P. xanthii is the main species of powdery mildew on eggplants, whereas L. taurica occurs rarely on eggplants, in Korea. This review provides the historical and recent taxonomy of eggplant powdery mildews in detail.
To investigate the antitumor components of Korean higher fungi, the carpophores of Ramaria formosa (Fr.) Que´l were collected in Gang Won Province and extracted with hot water. The extracts were concentrated and precipitated by four volumes of enthanol. The precipitates were centrifugated and purified lay dialyzing through visking tube and polysaccharide fractions were obtained. The antitumor activity of the fraction was tested against Sarcoma 180 implanted in mice. The tumor inhibition ratio of the polysaccharide fraction against the tumor was 66% in the dose of 50㎎/㎏/day for the period of tert days. The tumor in two of the ten mice was completely regressed. The components of these aqueous extracts were found to be polysaccharide and protein by color reactions including Anthrone and Lowry-Folin tests. The chemical analysis of the polysaccharide fraction was also undertaken.
Attempts were made to investigate sterol components of Calvatia saccatum (Vahl.) Fr. which grows wildly in Korea. Its carpophores were collected in Gyeong Gi Province and extracted with chloroform and methanol. Two compounds were isolated from the extract and one of these compounds was identified as ergosterol by TLC, GLC and chemical tests.
For the purpose of finding out the stronger antitumor compounds with the lower toxicity from the natural resources, the antitumor activity test of the water extract of the carpophores of Trametes sanguinea (L. ex Fr.) Lloyd, was undertaken. The carpophores of T. sanguinea, a high fungi, were collected in Gyeong Gi Province and extracted with hot water. The extract was purified by dialyzing through Visking tube and a polysaccharide fraction was obtained. The antitumor activity of the fraction was tested against sarcoma 180 implanted in mice. The tumor inhibition ratio of the polysaccharide fraction against the tumor was 72.4% in the doses of 10㎎/㎏/day for the period of ten days. The tumor in two of the 8 mice was completely regressed. The components of this aqueous extract were found to be a polysaccharide and a protein by color reactions including Anthrone and Lowry-Folin tests. The chemical analysis of the polysaccharide fraction was also undertaken.
2018년 7월에 한국의 수원에 있는 온실 재배 토마토의 과실에서 검은곰팡이병이 빈번하게 관찰되어 발생률을 조사한 결과, 일반토마토에서 5.0-25.0%(평균 12.3%), 방울토마토에서 2.0-7.0%(평균 3.7%)였다. 병든 과실의 병반에서 16개의 Alternaria균을 단포자 분리하여 형태적 특성을 조사하고, 이 중에서 8균주를 공시하여 염기서열 분석을 실시하였다. 분리 균주들에 대한 형태적 및 분자생물학적 특성을 조사한 결과, 모두 Alternaria alternata로 동정되었다. 4균주의A. alternata를 공시하여 각각 3품종의 일반토마토와 방울토마토 과실에 대한 병원성 검정을 실시한 결과, 접종 균주 모두 온실에서 관찰된 것과 같은 검은곰팡이병 증상을 유발하였다. 또한 병원성 검정 결과, 공시 토마토 품종들의 과실은 접종 균주들에 대한 감수성에 있어서 차이가 있는 것으로 나타났다. 본 연구 결과, 한국 내A. alternata에 의한 토마토 과실의 검은곰팡이병 발생을 처음으로 보고한다. Black mold was frequently observed on tomatoes grown in a greenhouse in Suwon, Korea in July 2018. The incidence of the disease was 5.0-25.0% (average 12.3%) and 2.0-7.0% (average 3.7%) in the context of tomato and cherry tomato fruits, respectively. Sixteen single-spore isolates of Alternaria sp. were obtained from the diseased fruits and investigated for their morphological characteristics. Among the isolates, eight were used for sequencing analysis. All of the isolates were identified as Alternaria alternata based on their morphological and molecular characteristics. The pathogenicity of four isolates of A. alternata was investigated using three varieties each of tomato and cherry tomato via artificial inoculation. All of the isolates induced black mold symptoms on the inoculated tomato fruits. Notably, the symptoms were similar to those observed in the greenhouse. However, the pathogenicity tests revealed that different tomato varieties presented distinct patterns of susceptibility to the isolates. This is the first report of A. alternata causing black mold on tomato fruits in Korea.
Sclerotinia rot symptoms were frequently found on the stems of Aster yomena in the Gurye region of Korea in April 2016. The symptom, watery soft rot, mainly appeared on the stems, and severely infected plants blighted. White mycelia spread over the stems of the infected plants and the soil surface. Small black sclerotia formed on the plant lesions and inside the diseased stems. Incidence of the disease was as high as 20~80% in the A. yomena fields. Based on the morphological and molecular characteristics of the isolates, the fungi were identified as Sclerotinia minor. This is the first report of Sclerotinia rot caused by Sclerotinia minor on A. yomena in Korea.
Twenty three specimens of Discomycetes were collected at Gwangneung, Mt. chiri, Mt. Halla and Mt. Odae from June, 1986 to October, 1987. These Discomycetes were identified and classified into 2 orders, 5 families, 10 genera and 10 species. Among them, Pachyella clypeata(Schw.) Le Gal, Microatoma floccosa(Schw.) Raitviir and Microglossum viride(Pers. ex Fr.) Gill. were newly recorded in Korea. These species were described and their Korean names were designated.
Three species of Laboulbeniales were collected from the insects in Kwangju City and Pogil Island, Korea, and described : Corethromyces shazawae Majewski et Sugiyama were observed on Oichthephilum densipenne (Sharp) (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae), Herpomyces periplanetae Thaxter on Blatta orientalis(L.) (Blattaria, Blattidae), and Rhachomyces philonthinus Thaxter on Philonthus micanticollis Sharp (Coleoptera. Staphylinidae). Also, the morphological features of these three species were described in the detailed.
Eighty two soil samples were nation widely collected from nine places in Korea. Each soils were used as the inocula for the pot culture of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The twenty two species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were successfully cultured by using the small pots under the conditions of green house and identified under light microscopes. Out of them, the five species were first isolated and described in Korea ; Acaulospora morrowiae, A. rugosa. A. longula, Glomus fecundisporum, GL deserticolar. Three species of genus Glomus were not identified and Glomus clarum reporeted by Eom and Lee (1989) was redescribed.