http://chineseinput.net/에서 pinyin(병음)방식으로 중국어를 변환할 수 있습니다.
변환된 중국어를 복사하여 사용하시면 됩니다.
개별검색 DB통합검색이 안되는 DB는 DB아이콘을 클릭하여 이용하실 수 있습니다.
통계정보 및 조사
예술 / 패션
<해외전자자료 이용권한 안내>
- 이용 대상 : RISS의 모든 해외전자자료는 교수, 강사, 대학(원)생, 연구원, 대학직원에 한하여(로그인 필수) 이용 가능
- 구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색 및 등록된 대학IP 대역 내에서 24시간 무료 이용
- 미구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색을 통한 오후 4시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용
※ 단, EBSCO ASC/BSC(오후 5시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용)
본고는 羅联添이 1992년에 발표한 <論韓愈古文幾個問題>의 제4장 “韓愈와 柳宗元이 고문으로 서로 경쟁함(韓柳爲文相角)” 부분을 번역한 것이다. 한유와 유종원의 글이 유사하다거나 경쟁적이라는 견해는 예전부터 있어왔다. 이런 주장은 송대의 羅大經, 명대의 孫礦, 청대의 林云銘, 근대의 錢基博이 제기한 바 있다. 필자는 한유와 유종원의 작문 경쟁에 대한 이전의 정황을 검토하고, 이전에 언급되지 않았던 다른 작품들을 예로 들어 한유와 유종원의 글쓰기에 확실히 경쟁심리가 있었음을 증명하였다. 즉 한유와 유종원의 작품 가운데 서로의 작품을 의식하면서 경쟁적으로 쓴 29조의 작품을 예로 들며, 창작 연대와 주요 내용을 설명하고 그 증거를 제시하였다. 경쟁했던 작품을 종합해 보니 두 사람의 작품 중 시기를 확정할 수 있는 작품 가운데 한유가 유종원 보다 앞서 지은 작품이 월등히 많았다. 이로써 유종원이 고문 창작에 있어 한유와 경쟁하려는 의도가 많았고, 한유가 유종원과 경쟁하려 한 것은 적었음을 알 수 있다. 이 점은 또한 한유가 고문 창작에서 주도적인 지위를 차지하고 있었음을 분명히 보여준다. 후인들이 한유를 당송고문운동의 으뜸으로 추앙하는 데에는 그만한 까닭이 있는 것이다. This paper is a translation of Han-Yu and Liu Zong-yuan's writing competition in Chapter 4 of Luo Lian-tian's <論韓愈古文的幾個問題>. The view that Han-Yu and Liu Zong-yuan's writings are similar or competitive has been around for a long time. These claims were made by Luo Da-jing of Song Dynasty, Sun-Kuang of Ming Dynasty, Lin Yun-ming of Qing Dynasty, and Qian Ji-bo of modern times. I reviewed the previous context of Han-Yu and Liu Zong-yuan's writing competition and proved that there was a clear competition in their writings by taking other works not mentioned before. I took examples the twenty - nine articles which compete with each other while conscious of their works among the works of Han-Yu and Liu Zong-yuan, in a chronological order Among the works that we can confirm the timing of the works of two people, Han-Yu had much more works than Liu Zong-yuan. This shows that Liu Zong-yuan intends to compete with Han-Yu for the Composition of the ancient writing, and that Han-Yu did not try to compete with Liu Zong-yuan. This also clearly shows that Han-Yu was in a leading position in the Composition of the ancient writing. There is a clear reason why the posterity pay reverence to Han-Yu as the forerunner of the Composition of the ancient writing movement.
Luo,,Guo-Xuan,Cai,,Jun,Lin,,Jing-Zhi,Luo,,Wei-Shi,Luo,,Heng-Shan,Jiang,,Yu-Yang,Zhang,,Yong Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 2012 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.13 No.12
Objective: To investigate the effects of gambogic acid (GA) on the growth of human malignant glioma cells. Methods: U251MG and U87MG human glioma cell lines were treated with GA and growth and proliferation were investigated by MTT and colony formation assays. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by annexin V FITC/PI flow cytometry, mitochondrial membrane potential assays and DAPI nuclear staining. Monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining and GFP-LC3 localisation were used to detect autophagy. Western blotting was used to investigate the molecular changes that occurred in the course of GA treatment. Results: GA treatment significantly suppressed cell proliferation and colony formation, induced apoptosis in U251 and U87MG glioblastoma cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. GA treatment also lead to the accumulation of monodansylcadaverine (MDC) in autophagic vacuoles, upregulated expressions of Atg5, Beclin 1 and LC3-II, and the increase of punctate fluorescent signals in glioblastoma cells pre-transfected with GFP-tagged LC3 plasmid. After the combination treatment of autophagy inhitors and GA, GA mediated growth inhibition and apoptotic cell death was further potentiated. Conclusion: Our results suggested that autophagic responses play roles as a self-protective mechanism in GA-treated glioblastoma cells, and autophagy inhibition could be a novel adjunctive strategy for enhancing chemotherapeutic effect of GA as an anti-malignant glioma agent.
Ga/Al doped ZnO (GAZO) thin films were prepared on non-alkali glass substrate by co-sputtering system using two DC cathodes equipped with AZO (Al2O3:2.0 wt%) target and GZO (Ga₂O₃:6.65 wt%) target. This study examined the influence of Al/Ga concentration and substrate temperature on the electrical, structural and optical properties of GAZO films. The lowest resistivity 1.95×10<SUP>−3</SUP> Ω㎝ was obtained at room temperature. With increasing substrate temperature, resistivity of GAZO film decreased to a minimum value of 7.47×10<SUP>−4</SUP>Ω㎝ at below 300℃. Futhermore, when 0.05% H₂ gas was introduced, resistivity of GAZO film decreased to 6.69×10<SUP>−4</SUP>Ω㎝. All the films had a preferred orientation along the (002) direction, indicating that the deposited films have hexagonal wurtzite structure formed by the textured growth along the c-axis. The average transmittance of the films was more than 85% in the visible light range.
Purpose: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is characterized by the excessive production of mucus. However, the molecular mechanism underlying mucin overproduction in CRS with or without nasal polyps (CRSwNP and CRSsNP, respectively) is poorly understood. This study was conducted to assess the importance of the transcription factor FoxA2 in mucin production and to investigate the targeting of FoxA2 as a potential therapeutic strategy for mucus hypersecretion in CRS patients. Methods: We enrolled 15 CRSwNP patients, 15 CRSsNP patients, and 10 normal controls in this study. The expression levels of FoxA2, MUC5AC, and MUC5B in inflamed and healthy nasal tissues were examined via immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and the levels of several proinflammatory cytokines in nasal secretions were measured via FlowCytomix analysis. In addition, the expression of MUC5AC and FoxA2 was determined in polyp-derived epithelial cells and NCI-H292 cells after in vitro stimulation. Results: FoxA2 was significantly down-regulated, and MUC5AC and MUC5B were significantly up-regulated in both the CRSwNP and CRSsNP patients compared to the controls (P<0.05), and the protein level of FoxA2 was negatively associated with the IL-6 level in the CRS patients (P<0.05). IL-6 significantly increased MUC5AC expression but inhibited FoxA2 expression in vitro (P<0.05). Transfection with a FoxA2 expression plasmid significantly decreased MUC5AC promoter activity (P<0.05) and inhibited IL-6-induced MUC5AC production (P<0.05). In addition, clarithromycin significantly alleviated IL-6-induced FoxA2 suppression and decreased MUC5AC expression in vitro (P<0.05). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that FoxA2 may be considered a therapeutic target for the modulation of mucus hypersecretion in CRS patients.
Sufficient conditions for oscillation of all solutions of a class of second-order quasilinear delay differential equations with fixed moments of impulse effect are found.
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) sheets were made into samples with precast defects for uniaxial tensile test. The tests are carried out under room temperature with conditions of same displacement rate but different defect sizes or of same defect but different displacement rates. The local nonuniform temperature field on whole deformation area of specimen is recorded with a thermal infrared imager and the whole coupling magnetic field with thermal changes in experiments is detected and measured by a self-developed sensors system. The experimental results show that, in a complete tensile test process of PVC samples, the temperature reduction phenomenon emerges firstly in its elastic deformation stage (areas) that temperature of specimen is cooler than room temperature. And then in viscoplastic deformation period (areas), the temperature increases sharply to be obviously higher than room temperature due to the thermo-mechanical coupling effection of tensile load and viscoplastic deformation heat. These thermal variations lead a coupling pyromagnetic effect occur and the effect intensity is dependent strongly on the strain rate and/or the size of defects. The temperature prejudgment conditions for materials yield are preliminary discussed based on this effect.
A 6.5 V/50 kA high-frequency switching power supply (HSPS) system composed of 10 power modules is developed to meet the requirements of copper-foil electrolysis. The power module is composed of a two-leg pulse width modulation (PWM) rectifier and a DC/DC converter. The DC/DC converter adopts two full-wave rectifiers in parallel to enhance the output. For the two-leg PWM rectifier, the ripple of the DC-link voltage is derived. A composite control method with a ripple filter is then proposed to effectively improve the performance of the rectifier. To meet the process demand of copper-foil electrolysis, the virtual impedance-based current-sharing control method with load current full feedforward is proposed for n-parallel DC/DC converters. The roles of load current feedforward and virtual impedance are analyzed, and the current-sharing control model of the HSPS system is derived. Virtual impedance is used to adjust the current-sharing impedance without changing the equivalent output impedance, which can effectively reduce current-sharing errors. Finally, simulation and experimental results verify the structure and control method.
Luo,,Jingshan,Im,,Jeong-Hyeok,Mayer,,Matthew,T.,Schreier,,Marcel,Nazeeruddin,,Mohammad,Khaja,Park,,Nam-Gyu,Tilley,,S.,David,Fan,,Hong,Jin,Grä,tzel,,Michael American Association for the Advancement of Scienc 2014 Science Vol.345 No.6204
<P><B>The power of a pair of perovskites</B></P><P>In the past several years, perovskite solar cells have emerged as a low-cost experimental alternative to more traditional silicon devices. Luo <I>et al.</I> now show that a pair of perovskite cells connected in series can power the electrochemical breakdown of water into hydrogen and oxygen efficiently (see the Perspective by Hamann). Hydrogen generation from water is being actively studied as a supplement in solar power generation to smooth out the fluctuations due to variations in sunlight.</P><P><I>Science</I>, this issue p. 1593; see also p. 1566</P><P>Although sunlight-driven water splitting is a promising route to sustainable hydrogen fuel production, widespread implementation is hampered by the expense of the necessary photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical apparatus. Here, we describe a highly efficient and low-cost water-splitting cell combining a state-of-the-art solution-processed perovskite tandem solar cell and a bifunctional Earth-abundant catalyst. The catalyst electrode, a NiFe layered double hydroxide, exhibits high activity toward both the oxygen and hydrogen evolution reactions in alkaline electrolyte. The combination of the two yields a water-splitting photocurrent density of around 10 milliamperes per square centimeter, corresponding to a solar-to-hydrogen efficiency of 12.3%. Currently, the perovskite instability limits the cell lifetime.</P>
To prevent structured peer to peer (P2P) overlay networksfrom being attacked by malicious nodes, a symmetric lookup-based routing algorithm referred to as Symmetric-Chord is proposed in this paper. The proposed algorithm determines the precision of routing lookup by constructing multiple paths to the destination. The selective routing algorithm is used to acquire information on the neighbors of the root. Authenticity of the root is validated via consistency shown between the information ascertained from the neighbors and information from the yet-to-be-verified root, resulting in greater efficiency of resource lookup. Simulation results demonstrate that Symmetric-Chordhas the capability of detecting malicious nodes both accurately and efficiently, so as to identify which root holds the correct key, and provides an effective approach to the routing security for the P2P overlay network.
<P>A wavelength switchable all-fiber comb filter with flat-top spectral response based on a double-loop Mach-Zehnder (M-Z) interferometer is proposed and demonstrated. The proposed flat-top filter consists of a rotatable polarizer and a double-loop M-Z interferometer composed of two fiber couplers with a polarization controller (PC) in the first loop. In the theoretical analysis, when the second coupler of the M-Z interferometer is a non-3dB one, with proper settings of the polarization state of the input light and the PC, the wavelength switchable comb filter with flat-top passband can be obtained. Theoretical prediction was verified by experimental demonstration. The measured 1 dB bandwidth was 0.51 nm with a channel spacing of 0.98 nm, indicating that the flat-top passband of 1 dB bandwidth extends to about 50% of the comb spacing.</P>