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Background and Objectives: Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play a key role in the maintenance of endothelial homeosta-sis and promote vascular repair. A reduced number of EPCs and the functional activity have been associated with several cardiovascular risk factors. However, the relationship between the number of EPCs and circadian rhythm of the blood pressure (BP) remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the circadian rhythm of the BP and EPCs in patients with essential hypertension. Subjects and Methods: A total of 45 patients with essential hypertension who were newly identified by outpatient BP measurements,underwent 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring. Among the 45 patients with essential hypertension, 20 were classified as dippers (12 men and 8 women; mean age 48±14 years) and 25 as non-dippers (14 men and 11 women; mean age 52±18 years). The EPC count was isolated from the peripheral bloodstream and quantified by flow cytometry. Results: The baseline clinical characteristics were similar between the dipper and non-dipper hypertensive patients. The circulating EPCs were statistically reduced in the non-dipper patients as compared to the dippers (104±60 vs. 66±47 EPCs per 106 mononuclear cells,p=0.027). The circulating EPC level correlated positively with the circadian changes in the systolic and diastolic BP (r=0.435, p=0.003, and r=0.310, p=0.038, respectively). Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that the EPC count was reduced in the peripheral bloodstream in non-dipper hypertensive patients.
Virtual colonoscopy is favored over conventional colonoscopy because its non-invasive procedure can avoid complications that may happen in a conventional approach and because it can cleanse colon electronically instead of uncomfortable conventional colon cleansing. Electronic Colon Cleansing(ECC) has to deal with not only removing tagged fecal material but also recovering Partial Volume Effect(PVE) due to tagging material. This paper proposes an ECC method restoring inherent natural PVE while previous approaches focused only on reducing PVE due to tagged fecal material. The proposed method reduces PVE using 3-dimensional adaptive density correction and then replaces tagged fecal material into air. Next, it generates natural PVE for the replaced air adjacent to soft tissue and finally makes smooth transition of gray values for soft tissue adjacent to the replaced air. The proposed method applied to eleven patient data, and showed promising results.
This paper suggests a low cost finger joint torque sensor which can be easily attached to each joint of a finger. Initial finger torque sensors are generally installed at the finger tip and intermediate link torque cannot be measured. We design a new finger joint torque sensor that can be fully integrated with a motor in order to measure a torque exerting a any location of a robot finger. The design of sensor body is optimized through the structural body analysis. We can control robot finger using developed joint torque sensor.