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The purpose of this research is to examine the utilization of oyster shells for the removal of high concentrated heavy metals in an acidic·alkali system wastewater. because oyster shells have been known to be very porous, to have high specific surface area and to have alkaline minerals such as calcium and mangnesium. It could be showed that most of heavy metals intended to increase removal rate with pH increase, but maintained equilibrium and heavy metals were removed high. In 7g and 9g, desorptions were caused by the weak physical coherence of heavy metals. Solubilites of heavy metals increased with Fe>Cu>Cr and Fe removal rate was higher than other heavy metals, because removal rate was influenced by- competitive reaction in same pH rather than solubility. In point of Ocean waste recyling, if oyster shells will use wastewater treatment of acidic and high concentrated heavy metals, they could look forward to an expected economical effect.
고농도의 질소를 함유하는 축산폐수에 대한 문헌고찰 및 실제 운전사례를 통해 다음과 같은 결론을 얻었다. 1. 전국의 축산농가에서 하루 발생하는 축산폐수발생량은 약 197천㎥로서 이중 법적규제대상 미만 축산폐수가 50%를 차지하고 인근하천으로 직방류시 부영양화의 원인이 되고 있다. 2. 축산폐수의 특성중 가축의 분과 뇨에 따라 유기물 및 질소·인의 농도차가 크기 때문에 축산폐수처리시는 반드시 분과 뇨의 분리가 이루어져야하고 또한 축산폐수공공처리시설의 계획에 있어서 처리대상 축산폐수의 정확한 오염농도의 산정이 필요하다. 3. 기존 처리장에 화학적처리공정인 응집반응조와 질소제거를 위한 혐기 호기조를 설치하여 운영한 K시의 실제 운전사례 결과 유입수의 총질소 농도가 1,500∼3,000㎎/ℓ인 것을 120㎎/ℓ 이하로 방류하므로써 92∼96%의 제거효율을 나타내었고 유입수의 총인농도가 131∼156㎎/ℓ인 것을 0.15∼1.00㎎/ℓ로 처리하므로써 99%이상의 제거효율을 나타내었다. 4. 혐기조에서 탈질 미생물의 원활한 대사활동을 위해서는 지속적인 유기탄소원 공급과 pH의 영향이 중요하데 조사기간동안 혐기조의 pH는 평균 9.0정도를 유지하였다. 5. 질소·인제거 공법들의 현장적용을 위해서는 적절한 적응성 및 처리성 실험 그리고 각 공정의 올바른 운전과 유지관리의 기술이 확립되어야 한다. 6. 정부에서는 축산폐수의 적정처리 및 관리대책 방안으로 법규 및 수질기준강화, 개별 축산농가에 대한 지원, 지도·점검 및 홍보강화와 기술지원 등 장차의 엄격한 방류수수질기준을 안정적으로 유지할 수 있는 기술보급과 이의 적정 관리방안에 대한 적극적 검토가 요구된다. The amount of swine wastewater reaches about 197,000㎥ per day at live-stock houses in the whole country. A half of the swine wastewater resources are too small to be restricted legally. This untreated wastewater causes the eutrophication in the water bodies. In case of swine wastewater treatment, the solid-liquid separation must be performed because feces(solid phase) and urine(liquid phase) have large differences in nitrogen and phosphorus concentration. It is necessary to assess exactly the concentration of the pollutants in swine wastewater for planning the wastewater treatment facilities. A full-scale operation was carried out in K city and the plant is consists of conventional plant, the supplementary flocculation basin of chemical treatment process and anaerobic·aerobic basin for nitrogen removal. The improved full-scale swine wastewater treatment plant removed the 1,500∼3,000㎎/ℓ of total-nitrogen(T-N) to 120㎎/ℓ of T-N and 131∼156㎎/ℓ of total-phosphorus(T-P) to 0.15∼1.00㎎/ℓ of T-N. Accordingly, as a results of operational improvement, the removal efficiencies of T-N and T-P were over 92∼96%, 99%, respectively. The continuous supply of organic carbon sources and the state of pH played important roles for the harmonious metabolism in anaerobic basin and the pH value of anaerobic basin maintained at about 9.0 for the period of the study.
The objective of this research is to investigate the proper coagulation conditions such as types and doses of coagulants (Alum and PAC), mixing conditions (velocity gradients and mixing periods) and pH by Jar-tests for reclamation of sewage secondary effluent as a pretreatment of membrane process. Turbidity and suspended solids (SS) in sewage secondary effluent at the first K-STP (Kang-byeon sewage treatment plant) are 3.6 NTU and 7.3 mg/L respectively, and turbidity and SS at the second stage K-STP are 14.2 NTU and 10.4 mg/L respectively. The optimal coagulations, both aluminum sulfate (Alum) and poly aluminum chloride (PAC), which are commonly used in the drinking water and sewage treatment plant were observed in this research. The results indicate that an optimal coagulation dose and pH for both Alum and PAC are 80 ppm and pH of 7 respectively, but coagulation efficiency for both Alum and PAC was lower at strong acid or base conditions.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
The purpose of this research is to examine the utilization of oyster shells for neutralization and removal of heavy metal ions in plating wastewater, because oyster shells have been known to be very porous, to have high specific surface area and to have alkaline minerals such as calcium and magnesium. The results obtianed from this research showed that oyster shells had a buffer capacity to neutralize an acidic.alkali system in plating wastewater. Generally, it could be showed that the removal efficiencies of heavy metal ions were very influenced by reaction times and oyster shell dosages. In point of ocean waste, if oyster shells substituted for a valuable adsorbent such as actviated carbon, they could look forward to an expected economical effect.
Sewage sludge and livestock wastewater with food waste were mixed and digested. The results are as follows. In case of mixing digested sewage sludge with food waste, the pH vaule was lowed by the organic acid of a large quantity at the beginning of the inspection so that NaOH was poured into reactor. But in case of mixing digested livestock wastewater with food waste, during experimental the pH value was set neutral because of high alkalinity of livestock wastewater. In the case of VS removal ratio the result showed the higher removal value about 5.3% in R2(1:1), R₃(1:2) mixing sewage sludge and food waste than sewage sludge digestion alone, and reactor R-5 in which livestock wastewater and food waste were mixed with rate of 1:1 showed the highest removal value about 6.3% than livestock wastewater digestion alone. Though food waste with initial CI^- concentration of 3,000㎎/L showed about 4,700㎎/L at the highest point in the reactor R₃(1:2), there had no effect on VS removal and the production of CH₄. In the case of sewage sludge digestion alone and livestock wastewater digestion alone, the production rates of CH₄ gas per gVS removal were 125mL and 51mL. In the production rates of CH₄ gas per gVS removal, reactor R₂ and R₃ in which sewage sludge and food waste were conbined with mixing ratio of 1:1, 1:2 showed 68mL and 71mL which were more than sewage sludge digestion alone. But R-5 and R-6 in which livestock wastewater and food waste were conbined with mixing ratio of 1:1, 1:2 showed 18mL and 8mL. Therefore, it is concluded that sewage sludge and livestock wastewater mixing with food waste is more possible than sewage sludge and livestock wastewater digestion alone.
The effect of ozone on the formation and the removal of disinfection byproducts(DBPs) of chlorination process was studied to elucidate the performance of water treatment process. The samples of raw water, prechlorination process, and preozonation process were analyzed quantitatively according to the Standard Methods for the Examination of drinking water. As a result, most of total trihalomethanes(THMs) which were formed in prechlorine treatment process was not removed in the preozonation process. Most of haloacetic acids(HAAs), haloacetonitriles(HANs), and chloral hydrate(CH) was removed in sedimentation and biological activated carbon(BAC) filtration processes. However, DBPs were increased more or less by postchlorine step. In particular, the formation of THMs and HAAs depends on ozone more than chlorine, but, the formation of HANs and CH depends on chlorine more than ozone. The seasonal variation of DBPs concentration for the year needs to be investigated to study the temperature effect because DBPs strongly depend on temperature among various efficient factors.
In this study, we can be obtained the following conclusions about the characteristics of leachate with waste compositions and landfill methods. pH shows a tendency to increase in E. landfill, because NH₃ is created by anaerobic degradation and dissolved in leachate. The concentrations of BOD and COD become different, In case of E. landfill, food of combustible is H. & S. landfill and then SS is high in concentration. According to passed time, T-N is high in concentration, but T-P shows a similar tendency. Heavy metals of leachate is lower than threshold concentrations. If leachate is treated biologically, microbes are not inibitory.
본 연구에서는 축산농가에서 환경오염의 저감방안을 강구하기 위하여 축산폐수의 혐기성 처리수와 생활잡배수를 혼합하여 합병정화조와 3단 soil filter를 연계하여 처리한 결과, 다음과 같은 결론을 얻었다. 합병정화조에서 처리함에 있어서 합병정화조내 충전된 여상과 체류시간의 증가로 인한 미생물의 축적에 의하여 NRT 4∼12일에서 CODcr 제거효율은 63.4∼84.0%이며 NH4+-N와 PO43--P는 각각 3.9∼5.4%와 18.3∼29.0%로써 HRT가 증가함에 따라 높은 효율을 나타내었다. 3단 soil filter에 의하여 재처리함에 있어서 표면적 부하율의 점진적인 증가에도 불구하고 여과, 흡착, 이온교환 및 토양 미생물의 작용으로 인하여 표면적 부하율이 증가함에 따라 CODcr, NH4+-N 및 PO43--P의 제거효율은 90% 이상을 나타내었다. 이상의 결과를 미루어볼 때, 오염부하량 감소 및 농업용수로의 재이용 측면에서 축산폐수의 합병정화조와 Soil filter에 의한 연계처리를 할 경우에 '96년부터 적용된 축산폐수의 방류수 수질기준에 적합한 것으로 나타났다. This study was conducted in order to investigate removal rate of organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus to reduce environmental polluation with treatment to attach combined septic tank to 3 stage soil filter after mixing anaerobic treated water of livestock wastewater and low concentrated wastewater generated in farm house. Because anaerobic filter bed was packed in combined septic tank and a microorganism was accumulated in combined septic tank with increasing hydraulic retention time(HRT), if HRT 4∼12day, CODcr was removed 63.4∼84.0%. Also, NH₄^+-N and PO₄^(3-)-P were removed 3.9∼5.4% and 18.3∼29.0%, respectively. In being re-treated by 3 stage soil filter, although hydraulic loading rate was gradually increased, CODcr, NH₄^+-N and PO₄^(3-)-P were removed above 90% due to filtration, adsorption, ion exchange, and action of soil microorganism. Generally, the attached treatment of combined septic tank and 3 stage soil filter did suitably treat livestock wastewater to water standard of discharge applied from '96 year, in view of decreasing pollution loading amount and recycling of agricultural water.