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Purpose: Isoform 2 of tight junction protein claudin-18 (CLDN18.2) is a potential target for gastric cancer treatment. A treatment targeting CLDN18.2 has shown promising results in gastric cancer. We investigated the clinical significance of CLDN18.2 and other cell-adherens junction molecules (Rho GTPase-activating protein [RhoGAP] and E-cadherin) in metastatic diffuse-type gastric cancer (mDGC). Materials and Methods: We evaluated CLDN18.2, RhoGAP, and E-cadherin expression using two-plex immunofluorescence and quantitative data analysis of H-scores of 77 consecutive mDGC patients who received first-line platinum-based chemotherapy between March 2015 and February 2017. Results: CLDN18.2 and E-cadherin expression was significantly lower in patients with peritoneal metastasis (PM) than those without PM at the time of diagnosis (P=0.010 and 0.013, respectively), whereas it was significantly higher in patients who never developed PM from diagnosis to death than in those who did (P=0.001 and 0.003, respectively). Meanwhile, CLDN18.2 and E-cadherin expression levels were significantly higher in patients with bone metastasis than in those without bone metastasis (P=0.010 and 0.001, respectively). Moreover, we identified a positive correlation between the expression of CLDN18.2 and E-cadherin (P<0.001), RhoGAP and CLDN18.2 (P=0.004), and RhoGAP and E-cadherin (P=0.001). Conversely, CLDN18.2, RhoGAP, and E-cadherin expression was not associated with chemotherapy response and survival. Conclusions: CLDN18.2 expression was reduced in patients with PM but significantly intact in those with bone metastasis. Furthermore, CLDN18.2 expression was positively correlated with other adherens junction molecules, which is clinically associated with mDGC and PM pathogenesis.
Purpose - Media is a significant distributional channel in sport. In terms of determining the influencer in building sport media contents, recent sport media studies have employed agenda-setting theory, assuming media itself as the agenda provider. In a real-world situation, however, sports stars have been deemed key factor determining distribution contents in sport. The starting point of this study is the “tacit premise” of agenda-setting theory. Given the agenda-setting theory, the current study attempted to explore the function of sport stars as an agenda provider, which is a key determinant of sport distribution. Research design, data, and methodology – This study has reviewed articles of Yuna Kim, Sang-hwa Lee, and Hyun-jin Ryu from daily newspapers including as dong-a ilbo and joongang ilbo (2013 to 2017). The study collected data, portable document format (PDF), from the online archive of dong-a ilbo and joongang ilbo. We coded the length of the article, the frequency, the size of the picture, and the structural form of the article. Inter-coder reliability was compared with data previously investigated by the researcher. Inter-coder reliabilities for study 1 and 2 was .89 and .85. To examine hypotheses, descriptive analysis, correlations, and cross-tap analysis were performed. Results – The results partially supported the hypotheses proposing the significant role of sports stars as the agenda setters in distributing sport media contents. In specific, the study found that the number of articles about sports stars prevailed the number of articles about regular athletes. Besides, studies found that the use of photos was more frequent in articles of sports starts than that of regular athletes. In sports newspaper articles, featured story articles were used more than straight-articles for news relating to sports stars. Also, sports newspaper of sports stars contained more information associated within an event rather than outside of an event. Conclusions – In sports journalism, this study challenges the current theory that the media affects the composition and the content of sports coverages. As the principle of the agenda-setting of sports media, the influence of sports stars must be continuously studied along with a follow-up study.
Objective : Akebia species and Aristolochia species are some of the most medicinally important genera in the Oriental medicine. This study was performed to determine if Akebia species and Aristolochia species could be identified by genetic analysis and to verify Pyrosequencing analyses, which was used to assess genetic variation. Method : The DNAs of Akebia quinata Decaisne and Aristolochia manshuriensis Kom. were extracted, and we have investigated the typing of single-base variations of Akebia species and Aristolochia species in DNA by using Pyrosequencing. Result : Akebia quinata Decaisne showed different pattern compared with Aristolochia manshuriensis Kom.. The peak of Akebia quinata Decaisne was very week in the second A nucleotide base but The peak of Aristolochia manshuriensis Kom. was very high. From these results we verified that our Akebia species and Aristolochia species-specific sequencing primers were well designed. Conclusion : Pyrosequencing analysis might be able to provide the identification of the Akebia species and Aristolochia species.
( Sang Hoon Park ), ( Hoon Jai Chun ), ( Yong Dae Kwon ), ( Bo Ra Keum ), ( Yeon Seok Seo ), ( Yong Sik Kim ), ( Yoon Tae Jeen ), ( Soon Ho Um ), ( Chang Duck Kim ), ( Ho Sang Ryu ), ( Ji Hye Lee ), ( Yang Seok ) The Editorial Office of Gut and Liver 2008 Gut and Liver Vol.2 No.3
Background/Aims: Endoscopic mucosal resection can cure early gastric cancer. The risk of lymphatic metastasis is related to the depth of submucosal invasion by the mucosal malignancy, with a resection depth of 500 μm generally accepted as a safe cut-off. However, excessive thinning induced by stretching of the resected tissue sometimes preventing a precise diagnosis. We studied the effects of stretching on different layers and sites of gastric tissue. Methods: Porcine stomachs were cut into 2.0×2.0 cm pieces, and pieces from body were stretched to 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5 cm. Pieces from the cardia, body, and antrum were also stretched to 3.0 cm. The thickness of each layer was measured and analyzed statistically. Results: Whole gastric wall and submucosal layers showed gradual thinning, with stretching to 3.5 cm tearing the tissues and resulting in imperfect extension. The submucosa was thinner in body tissue than in cardia and antrum tissues. Stretching to 3.0 cm induced a consistent decrease in submucosal thickness (30-70%). The change in thickness varied widely between individual samples. Conclusions: A resection margin of 500μm might be insufficient for the complete removal of malignancy. Moreover, the thickness of the submucosal layer differs with the gastric site and between individuals. Future studies are needed to confirm the findings in human tissue. (Gut and Liver 2008;2:199-204)
McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) is a rare disorder that develops from an activating mutation in the Gs gene. It is characterized by an association with Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, and precocious puberty, Caf-au-lait pigmentation, and other endocrinopathies that result from the hyperactivity of a variety of endocrine glands. Recently we encountered a patient with MAS with fibrous dysplasia, skin pigmentation, acromegaly, hyperprolactinemia and a thyroid nodule. A 23-year-old male presented for an evaluation of a change in his facial structures. Fibrous dysplasia was diagnosed by a bone biopsy and radiographic studies. The GH level increased paradoxically after an oral glucose load. The plasma prolactin, IGF-1 and alkaline phosphatase were high. Thyroid ultrasonography revealed multiple nodules. The brain MRI demonstrated a mass in the left pituitary gland. Genetic analysis identified a change from Arg (CGT) at codon 201 to Cys (TGT).
Multi-Agent Robotic System (MARS) is a system that independent autonomous robots in the restricted environments infer their status from pre-assigned conditions and operate their jobs through the cooperation with each other. In the MARS, a robot contains sensor part to percept the situation around themselves, communication part to exchange information, and actuator part to do given work. Especially, in order to cooperate with other robots, communicating with other robots is one of the essential elements. Because Bluetooth has many advantages such as low power consumption, small size module package, and various standard protocols, Bluetooth is rated as one of the efficient communicating technologies which can apply to small-sized robot system. In this paper, we will develop Bluetooth communicating system for autonomous robots. For the purpose, the communication system must have several features ? separated module, flexible interface. We will discuss how to construct and what kind of procedure to develop the communicating system.