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Parkinson's disease is characterized by chronic progress of mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal death. The activity of mitochondrial complex I of the dopaminergic neuron is reduced in Parkinson's disease, and the reduction of mitochondrial complex I activity seems to play an improtant role in the degenerative process of the dopaminergic neuron. Methyl- 4- phenylpyridium ion (MPP) is taken up selectively into the dopaminergic neuron and causes reduction of mitochondrial complex I activity and dopaminergic neuronal death. Gastrodiae Rhizoma, the rhizoma of Gastrodia elata B_L, has been used for the effect of calming the liver in Tradicional Korean Medicine. This drug has especially used for the sign of tremr in Traditional Korean Medicine, which is one of the main simptom in Parkinson's disease. Gastrodiae Rhizoma has reportedly antioxidant, glutamate antagonistic and GABA agonistic effects. We hypothesized that Gastrodiae Rhizoma has the neuroprotective effect on the dopaminergic cell death induced by MPP^+ treatment as a model of Parkinsonism. In our experiments, MPP^+ caused cytotoxicity mainly in the dopaminergic neuron of S.D. rat fetal mesencephalon in a dose- dependent manner. More than 0.5% MPP^+ showed reduction of the number of dopaminergic neuron. We investigated the neuroprotective effect of Gastrodiae Rhizoma after treatment with 0.5% MPP^+ and checked the dopamine and DOPAC level, dopamine uptake and TH cell number. At the dose of G. elata 20㎎/㎖, there is no significant protective effects in the sample group induced by 0.5% MPP^+ treatment. We conclude that G. elata has no neuroprotective effect on the cytotoxicity induced by MPP^+ in dopaminergic cell culture.
We had experiment with five herb in order to find cure and prevention effects on the obesity. We fed control group rats high fat diet(Harlan, USA) and administered normal saline during 8 weeks, and experimental group rats high fat diet(Harlan, USA) and administered five herbal extract during 8 weeks. The results were as follows; 1. The body weight of all experimental group decreased than control group. 2. The average size of the epididymal fat cells in all experimental group decreased than control group but only Zeae Stigma and Crataegi Fructus group showed statistically significant difference with control group. 3. The fat drops area of hepatic lobule in all experimental group decreased than control group but Plantaginis Semen, Zeae Stigma and Crataegi Fructus group showed statistically significant difference with control group. 4. The area % of the insulin granules in Langerhans islet of all experimental group showed no difference with control group.
Objectives : Yongdamgosam-hwan(YGH) has been used as a traditional medicine from old times for antiinflammatory effects. Streptococcus mutans(S. mutans) is known as a prime bacteria responsible for causing caries by forming a biofilm referred to as dental plaque on the tooth surface. But antimicrobial activity of YGH with dental disease is not sufficiently understood. This study was designed to investigate the effects of YGH ethanol extract on antimicrobial effect against Streptococcus mutans. Methods : The antimicrobial effect of YGH ethanol extract was assessed by the paper disk diffusion method and optical density method to determine minimum inhibition concentration(MIC), also observed by fractional inhibitory concentration index(FICI) and time-kill assay to figure out the synergic effect on the combination of YGH ethanol extract with antibiotics. Results : The YGH ethanol extract 500 μg was 7.5-8.5 mm diameter of clear zone of inhibition against Streptococcus mutans in a concentration-dependent manner and MIC was 250 μg/mL. The administration of the ethanol extract in combination with gentamicin and streptomycin induced a reduction of ≥4-8-fold in all tested bacteria. Furthermore, time-kill study was found that a combination of YGH ethanol extract with oxacillin and streptomycin produced a more rapid decrease in the concentration of bacteria CFU/mL than the YGH ethanol extract or antibiotics alone. Conclusions : As a result, the YGH ethanol extract has good antimicrobial effects. And the results suggest that YGH could be employed as a natural antibacterial agent in dental care products.
Objectives : In this study, we investigated Hyangyak in 「Single-medicine prescription treatment of domestic herbs」 of 『Kwangjebikeup』 and then conducted further studies focusing on ginseng as it is written in 「Single-medicine prescription treatment of domestic herbs」. Methods : Through a study of classical literature on Hyangyak and ginseng, information regarding the two was gathered and analyzed, with respect to both time and region. Results : All of the herbs in 「Single-medicine prescription treatment of domestic herbs」, the 4th volume of 『Kwangjebikeup』, are domestic herbs. Ginseng was a part of the flora of the Korean Peninsula from long ago and ginseng was cultivated from most of the peninsula. We confirmed cultivation of ginseng in Sungcheon, Pyungan-do and most areas of Hamgyeong-do through geography books such as 『Geography Monograph of King Sejong』. Because the natural environmental condition of the Korean Peninsula was conducive to growing wild ginseng, it was possible to cultivate ginseng. In the late Chosun period, cultivated ginseng was so prevalent that people would have been able to collect and use ginseng without great difficulty. In 『Kwangjebikeup』, ginseng shows superior efficacy in terms of first-aid. 『Kwangjebikeup』 contains practical herbal medicines that were based on obtainable ingredients. Conclusions : The purpose of publication of this book was to make medical knowledge available to general public in an easy-to-understand form. And through added clinical experiences of the author, we know that 『Kwangjebikeup』 played a role in settlement and spreading of foreign knowledge to civilians.
Objectives:In Korean medicine, Curculiginis Rhizoma was treated for arthritis in remedy. But efficacy of Curculiginis Rhizoma on collagen induced arthritis was not revealed. Methods:Anti inflammatory effect of Curculiginis Rhizoma was researched in vitro with RAW264.7 cell and cell toxicity, levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-12) and PGE2 were analyzed by ELISA assay. Inflammatory protein were analyzed by western blotting assay (JNK, ERK, COX-2, TNF-α and IL-1β). In vivo, collagen induced arthritis mice model was used to evaluate anti-inflammation effect through arthritis index, immune cell number and cytokine levels (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) in serum. Results:ECR(Extract of Curculiginis Rhizoma) has not shown cell toxicity in 200 ㎍/㎖ on RAW264.7 cell. ECR suppressed releases of NO, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12 and PGE2 on RAW264.7 cell treated with lipopolysacharide (1 ㎍/㎖). And ECR inhibited regulation of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA, reduced protein release of JNK, ERK, iNOS, COX-2, IL-1β and TNF-α. AI of group treated with ECR 200 ㎎/㎏ and 100 ㎎/㎏ were significantly decreased compared to vihicle arthritis mice, the number of immune cell in foot joint was increased on control mice but those of group treated with ECR 200 ㎎/㎏ and 100 ㎎/㎏ were significantly reduced. This results correspond with contens of cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) in serum. Conclusions:Curculiginis Rhizoma has anti-inflammation effect on RAW264.7 cell in vitro and collagen induced arthritis in vivo . So it is necessary to research more mechanism for cascade imfact.
Objectives : This study was aimed to analyze the correlation between the Herbology and contemporary research results, KCD and terms of Alismatis Rhizoma. The study will present information that can be used to find the direction of further researches and be applied to the education of Herbology. Methods : Papers were searched in Riss4U and PubMed, and categorized. Medicine or pharmacy articles about Alismatis Rhizoma were matched with the Herbology treatment and KCD. KCD-codes and terms were arranged by the Herbology treatment. The Degree of Herbology research (HDR) was calculated by numbers of papers, study method, citation rates. Results : There were 392 articles about Alismatis Rhizoma. Among these there were 141 medicine and pharmacy articles about Alismatis Rhizoma, and 51 articles were matched to the Herbology treatment. Studies about Phlegm-Fluid Retention and Dizziness, Edema and Distention and Fullness was more active than others. Analysis of other articles showed that studies about anti-cancer, anti-biotic effect, anti-diabetes mellitus, anti-oxidant effect, anti-inflammation, hepatoprotective effect were active, too. In HDR, Phlegm-Fluid Retention and Dizziness was scored by 181, Edema- Distention and Fullness by 173, Hyperlipidemia by 83, Dysuria 64, Heat strangury pain by 18, Diarrhea and decreased urine volum by 0. Conclusions : 141 articles about Alismatis Rhizoma were analyzed and 51 articles were matched to the Herbology treatment. Studies about Phlegm-Fluid Retention and Dizziness, Edema and Distention and Fullness were more active than others. And studies about anti-cancer, anti-biotic effect, anti-oxidant effect, anti-inflammation, Osteoporosis should be more studied and be more discussed among Herbology researchers.
Objective : The objective of this study was to access the safety of Artemisia iwaymogi Kitamura extracts that have been used as oriental medicine to the liver disease on the fertility and early embryonic development of male and female Wistar rats when administered by oral gavage with their potential hepatotoxicity. Method : Males were administerd 4 weeks before pairing and 2 weeks after mating including the mating periods up to termination after necropsy of the majority of the females. Females were dosed 2 weeks before pairing, and from Day 0 to Day 7 of gestation. It was conducted in accordance with the recommendations of the KFDA Guideline for Detection of Toxicity to Reproduction for Medicinal Products. Result : No Artemisia iwoyomogi Kitanura extracts treatment-related changes of clinical signs, mortalities, estrous cycle, pre-coital intervals, mating index, conception rate, fertility index, gross findings, histopathological observation, corpora lutea number, implantation site number, live fetus number, number of resorption embryo and gre- and post-implantation loss were demonstrated in all dosed levels in this study. Although the body weight gains, food consumption and absolute organ weights of epididymis, prostate, seminal vesicle, testis, ovary and liver were significantly increased in Mxxlmg/kg -dosing groups, and the relative organ weights were not changed. So it was concluded that this increase was natural according to the growth. And no changes of serum AST, ALT, LDH and ALP levels were demonstrated in all dosed levels in this study. Condustions : it is considered that the NOAEL(No Observed Adverse Effect Level) for fertility and early embryonic development toxicity of Artemisia iwaymogi Kitamura extracts was up to 2000㎎/kg/day because there no changes of other fertility and early embryonic developmental index were demonstrated.
Objectives : The aim of this study was to investigate the memory enhancing properties of extract of Hoelen Cum Radix (HCR) and its possible mechanism in mice of normal condition. Methods : We evaluated the effects of HCR on cognitive function and memory enhancement in normal mice. Male ICR mice were orally administrated with HCR 100 mg/kg for 7 days and equal volume of saline was administrated to the control group in the same condition. We conducted two behavioral tests which measure the spatial working memory (Y-maze test) and cognitive fear memory (passive avoidance test). We also investigated whether HCR affects the hippocampal neurogenesis in the brain. To assess the effects of HCR on neural progenitor cell differentiation and neurite outgrowth in the early stage of hippocampal neurogenesis, we performed doublecortin (DCX), a direct neurogenesis marker, immunohistochemical analysis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the mouse hippocampus. Results : HCR significantly enhanced memory and cognitive function as determined by the Y-maze test ( p<0.05) and passive avoidance test ( p<0.001). Moreover, HCR increased DCX positive cells ( p<0.01) and neurite length ( p<0.01) compared to the control group. These results indicated that HCR stimulates differentiation of neural progenitor cells and promotes neurite outgrowth in hippocampal DG of the mice. Conclusion : We concluded that HCR shows memory enhancing effects through the stimulation of hippocampal neurogenesis as a consequence of accelerated neuronal differentiation and neurite outgrowth in the DG of the hippocampus after HCR treatment.
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease, which is one of chronic gastrointestinal disorders. Orostachys japonicus (OJ) has been used as a traditional medicine for various diseases including gastric cancer, gastric ulcers and intoxication. However, the regulatory effect of OJ on intestinal inflammation has not been fully understood, yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of OJ on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice.Methods : To ascertain the pharmacological effects of OJ, the colitis mice were induced by drinking water containing 5% DSS for 7 days. Mice were randomized into groups receiving OJ (100 mg/kg), sulfasalazine (150 mg/kg) as a positive control, or water as a negative control. We evaluated the effects of OJ on DSS-induced the clinical signs, measuring weight loss and colon length. In addition, the inhibitory effect of OJ on the tumor necrosis factor.α (TNF-α) level was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in colitis tissue. Results : The results indicated that mice treated with DSS showed remarkable clinical signs, including weight loss, and reduced colon length. However, treatment with OJ significantly improved the weight loss and DAI as clinical symptoms. Moreover, OJ reduced the TNF-α levels in DSS-treated colon tissues. Conclusions : Collectively, the findings of this study provide us with novel insights into the pharmacological actions of OJ as a potential medicine for use in the treatment of ulcerative colitis.