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Recent reports have proposed that Ephedrae Herba may modulate the immune response on allergy or asthma. Chemokines are important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of infection, which is essential in host defense. The thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) is a CC chemokine which potentially plays a role via a paracrine mechanism in the development of allergic respiratory diseases. Objectives : The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of Ephedrae Herba on the secretion of TARC of human bronchial epithelial cell Methods : Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was performed to detect the secretion of TARC . The cytotoxicity was measured by MTT assay. Results : Ephedrae Herba significantly inhibited the secretion of TARC with a dose-dependant manner. The effective dosage did not have the cytotoxicity on human bronchial epithelial cell. Conclusion : Results of our study show that Ephedrae Herba would play an important role in modulation of TARC in Human bronchial epithelial cells.
이현순 ( Hyeon Sun Lee ), 공현주 ( Hyun Joo Kong ), 이언희 ( Eon Hee Lee ), 황수정 ( Su Jung Hwang ), 정현아 ( Hyeon A Jung ), 김미림 ( Mi Lim Kim ), 최은미 ( Eun Mi Choi ), 장정현 ( Joung Hyeon Jang ), 양경미 ( Kyung Mi Yang ) 대한본초학회 2014 大韓本草學會誌 Vol.29 No.3
Objectives : The purpose of this study was to evaluate boiled rice made from unpolished rice, Job`s Tears, and extract from medicinal herbs mixture (HGMCJE) for hypoglycemic effect on STZ-induced diabetic rats. Methods : In the response of glucose tolerance, control and diabetic rats groups was intubated with glucose and HGMCJE. Furthermore, boiled 100% polished rice (P rice), boiled unpolished rice mixed with white rice and Job`s tears (polished rice:unpolished rice:Job`s tears=60:25:15, UPJ-rice), and UPJ rice made from HGMCJE (HUPJ-rice) were intubated to control and diabetic rats groups, respectively. Then, blood glucose concentration, incremental blood glucose, and area under the curve (ΔAUC) were analyzed in every experimental groups, and these data were used to evaluate glycemic response. Results : When glucose and p rice were intubated in control and diabetic rats, blood glucose concentration, incremental blood glucose, and incremental response ΔAUC of diabetic groups were significantly increase than control groups. But administraion of a single dose of extract from medicinal herbs mixture and HUPJ-rice in control and diabetic rats inhibited the remarkable increase the level of postprandial blood and ΔAUC at 60, 90, and 120 min Conclusions : These results indicate that when intubation of glucose and P rice were out of control on postprandial glycemic response in diabetic rats. But postprandial glycemic response was well-modulated by administrating a single oral dose of HGMCJE and HUPJ-rice. Therefore, HGMCJE can be developed as an effective hypoglycemic agent.
Objectives : Zizyphus jujube (ZJ) has been used as a traditional medicine for various diseases. However, the inhibitory effect of ZJ on intestinal inflammation has not been fully understood, yet. The aim of this study is to investigate anti-colitis activity of ZJ in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model. Methods : To investigate the protective effects of ZJ,the colitis mice were induced by drinking water containing 5% DSS for 7 days. Mice were randomized into groups receiving ZJ (500 mg/kg), sulfasalazine (SFZ) (150 mg/kg) as a positive control, or water as a negative control. We assayed the effects of ZJ on DSS-induced the clinical signs, measuring weight loss, colon length and disease activity index (DAI). Additionally, to find a possible explanation for the anti-inflammatory effects of ZJ, we evaluated the effects of ZJ on the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in colitis tissue. Results : The results showed that mice treated with DSS showed considerable clinical signs, including weight loss, and reduced colon length. However, administration of ZJ significantly reduced the weight loss, shortens colon length, and improved DAI as clinical symptoms. Moreover, ZJ inhibited the PGE2 production and COX-2 expression levels in DSS-treated colon tissues. Conclusions : Collectively, the findings of this study provide us with novel insights into the pharmacological actions of ZJ as a potential molecule for use in the treatment of intestinal inflammation including ulcerative colitis.
Objectives : Inflammation is mediated by cellular components, such as leukocytes and microglia, and molecular components, including cytokines, extracellular proteases, and reactive oxygen species. Cnidium Rhizoma effects the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, suppression of the microglia activation and protection of the nerve cell injury. For this reason, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of water extracts of Cnidium Rhizoma on intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Method : ICH was induced by the stereotaxic intracerebral injection of bacterial collagenase type IV (0.23 U/㎕, 0.1 ㎕/min) in Sprague-Dawley rats. We orally administrated once 3 hours after ICH, then 2 times at 24 hour intervals the water extracts of Cnidium Rhizoma (500 ㎎/㎏), myeloperoxidase (MPO) was observed by using immunofluorescense and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and microglia were observed by using immunohistochemistry. Results : Infiltration of MPO expressing neutrophil, expression of iNOS and TNF-α and activated microglia were significantly reduced in peri-hematoma of the rats fed with water extracts of Cnidium Rhizoma. Conclusion : These results demonstrated that water extracts of Cnidium Rhizoma suppressed an inflammatory reaction through inhibition of MPO, iNOS and TNF-α positive cell and activated microglia number in peri-hematoma of ICH-induced rats.
Objectives: Indongdeungjikolpi-tang(IJT) is used as a traditional treatment of diabetes in oriental clinincs. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-diabetic effect of Indongdeungjikolpi-tang(IJT) in streptozotocin(STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin(STZ; 60 mg/kg BW) to Sprague-Dawley male rats. Experimental animals(six per group), were treated by oral administration of IJT (100 and 500 mg/kg BW) and glibenclimide(3 mg/kg), a known antidiabetic drug for comparison, during 4 weeks. We measured the levels of glucose, insuline, triglyceride, creatinine and urea in sera of each group. An oral glucose tolerance test(OGTT) was also performed in all groups. Results: IJT (100 and 500 mg/kg) significantly reduced blood glucose levels and increased plasma insulin levels in STZ-induced diabetic rats. IJT also significantly reduced the plasma levels of tryglyceride, creatinine and urea in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The OGTT results showed a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in IJT-administrated rats. Conclusions: These data indicate that IJT may improve glocose homeostasis in STZ-induced diabetes, which could be associated with stimulation of insulin secretion.
이경진 ( Kyung Jin Lee ), 김광우 ( Kwang Woo Kim ), 허희승 ( Hee Seung Heo ), 함인혜 ( In Hye Ham ), 이미화 ( Mi Hwa Lee ), 김범정 ( Bum Jung Kim ), 부영민 ( Young Min Bu ), 김호철 ( Ho Cheol Kim ), 최호영 ( Ho Young Choi ) 대한본초학회 2013 大韓本草學會誌 Vol.28 No.4
Objectives : The purpose of present study was to investigate the vasorelaxant activities and mechanisms of action of the ethanol extract of P. yedoensis leaf (PYL) on isolated rat aortic rings. Methods : Dried P. yedoensis leaves were extracted 3 times with 100% ethanol for 3 h in a reflux apparatus. Isolated rat aortic rings were suspended in organ chambers containing 10 ml Krebs-Henseleit (K-H) solution. The rings were maintained at 37℃ and aerated with a mixture of 95% O2 and 5% CO2. Changes in their tension were recorded via isometric transducers connected to a data acquisition system. Results : PYL relaxed the contraction of aortic rings induced by phenylephrine (PE, 1 μM) or KCl (60 mM) in a concentration dependent manner. However, the vasorelaxant effects of PYL on endothelium-denuded aortic rings were lower than endothelium-intact aortic rings. And the vasorelaxant effects of PYL on endothelium-intact aortic rings were reduced by pre-treatment with Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (10 μM), methylene blue (10 μM), 1-H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazolo-[4,3-α]-quinoxalin-1-one (10 μM), tetraethylammonium (5 mM). In addition, PYL inhibited the contraction induced by extracellular Ca2+ in endothelium-denuded aortic rings pre-contracted by PE or KCl in Ca2+-free K-H solution. Conclusions : These results suggest that PYL exerts its vasorelaxant effects via the activation of Nitric Oxide (NO) formation by means of L-arginine and NO-cGMP pathways and via the blockage of receptor operated calcium channels, voltage dependent calcium channels and calcium-activated potassium channels.
Objectives : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of Hovenia dulcis extract on acute and chronic liver injuries induced by alcohol and CCl4 in mice and rats. Methods : In acute alcohol-induced liver injury, mice were administered Hovenia dulcis extracts (60 and 200 mg/kg) orally before and after alcohol administration. In chronic alcohol-induced liver injury, mice were administered alcohol containing liquid diet for 4 weeks. The mice were administered H. dulcis extracts (60 and 200 mg/kg) mixed with the liquid diet. In acute CCl4-induced liver injury, rats received a single dose of CCl4 (2 mL/kg in olive oil, intraperitoneally). Rats were administered H. dulcis extracts (30, 100 and 300 mg/kg) before and after CCl4 administrations. After the ends of the administrations, the serum levels of AST and ALT were measured using chemical analyzer, and γ-GTP levels were measured using spectrophotometer. Results : In acute alcohol-induced liver injury, H. dulcis extracts treated group showed significant reduction in ALT levels compared to those of control group. In chronic alcohol-induced liver injury, it inhibited weight-loss compared to normal group and showed significant reduction in AST, ALT and γ-GTP levels compared to control group. In acute CCl4-induced liver injury, it also showed significant reduction in AST, ALT levels compared to control group. Conclusions : The results show that H. dulcis extract has hepatoprotective effect in acute and chronic alcohol-induced liver injury and acute CCl4-induced liver injury. These findings suggest that H. dulcis could be a potent hepatoprotective agent.
Objectives: To investigate the hepatoprotective effect of Gardeniae Fructus (Ga) and Glycine semen preparatum (Gl) aqueous extract against D-galactosamine (D-GalN, 300㎎/㎏ body weight) was administered to the male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Materials and Methods : The study was carried out on male SD rats (age matched, weight 250±10 g). Experimental groups (Exp) divided four : Normal group (Nor) was administered saline, Control (Con) group was only received D-GalN (300 ㎎/㎏) intraperitoneally. Exp was orally administered Ga (200 mg/kg; Ga group), Gl (700 mg/kg; Gl group), and Chizadochi-Tang (200 mg/kg+700 mg/kg, GG group) after D-GalN treatment during 14 days (n=6). Results: D-GalN administration induced hepatotoxicity in rats which was manifested by increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) but decreased total cholesterol (HDL C) and triglyceride (TG). The serum TG concentrations were significantly increased (#p<0.05) in the Ga group compared with Con. AST and ALP activities were significantly decreased (#p<0.05) in the all experimental groups compared with Con. ALT activities were significantly decreased (#p<0.05) in the Ga group compared with Con. LDH activities were significantly decreased (#p<0.05) in the GG group compared with Con. On the light microscopic study, a number of vacuole were observed in the Con, but decreased in experimental groups. Conclusion: Ga aqueous extract and Chizadochi-Tang extract possesses hepatoprotective potential, thus validating its use in alleviating toxic effects of D-GalN.
Objectives : In this study, we attempted to evaluate the effects of Careswell on human mast cell-mediated allergy inflammation in vitro and pruritogen-induced scratching behavior in vivo. Method : The Careswell was extract by distilled water. The anti-itching effects of Careswell were investigated on the compound 48/80 (50 μg/kg) or histamine (100 μg/kg) induced scratching behavior male ICR mice for 30 min by an observer blind. Terfenadine (10 mg/kg) was used as a positive control drug. The cell toxicity of Careswell was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The regulatory effect of Careswell on interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) -α levels was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI) stimulated human mast cells (HMC-1). Also, we evaluated the effect of Careswell on PMACI induced the activation of Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) into nucleus by Western blot analysis. Result : The results revealed that the oral administration of Careswell (200 mg/kg, p.o.) attenuated the compound 48/80 or histamine-induced scratching behavior in mice. We showed that Careswell significantly reduced the PMACI-induced the production of IL-6 (0.5-1 mg/ml) and TNF-α (0.1-1 mg/ml). Additionally, Careswell significantly inhibited the activation of NF-κB in PMACI-stimulated HMC-1. Conclusion : Collectively, the findings of this study provide us with a novel insight into the pharmacological actions of Careswell as a potential molecule for use in the treatment of allergic inflammation diseases.
Objectives : Investigation of the antidepressant effect of Glycyrrhizae Radix (GR) through the anti-inflammatory effect. Methods : Depression in rats was induced by LPS (i,p.3days). The rats were treated with GR100 mg/kg (GR 100) or GR400 mg/kg (GR 400). The depressive immobility was examined with Tail Suspension Test(TST) and Forced Swimming Test(FST). The expression of nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB), IκB was measured with western blotting. The concentration of corticosterone, cytokine in plasma was measured with ELISA. The expression of c-Fos in the paraventricular nucleus(PVN) and tyrosine hydroxylase(TH) in the locus coeluleus(LC) were measured with immunostaining method. Results : In the TST, GR400 group significantly decreased immobility time compared with the LPS group. In the FST, GR100, GR400 group significantly decreased immobility time comparing with the LPS group. c-Fos expression in GR100 and GR400 group was decreased comparing with the lipoplysaccharide(LPS) group. The IκB expression of GR100 and GR400 group was increased comparing with the LPS group. The level of corticosterone of GR100 group was decreased comparing with the LPS group. The concentration of cytokine of GR100 and GR400 group was decreased comparing with the LPS group. TH expression in the LC was increased in LPS group, but in GR100 and GR400 group was not shown significant decrease. Conclusion : According to this results obtained, GR has antidepressant effects by the anti inflammatory action through the suppression of HPA axis activity, not through the aciton against the catecholaminergic system.