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This dissertation deals with Kim Woo-jin's 「Wild Boar」. Kim Woo-jin became indulged in his art during his University education. What's more, he tried to express the theatre art through a sharp insight of the times and created an optimistic atmosphere for Koreans under Japanese rule. His father, Kim Sung-kyu, was a president of the 'Mokpo Literary Association' and enjoyed writing poems. He also had such a special affection for literature that he contributed lots of money to support the 'Mokpo Literary Association'. And the world of death in Kim Woo-jin's works does not mean a real death. The world suggests the death of Korea traditional and conservative customs and reflects the difficult reality to break the traditional customs. His leaving home to lead a spiritual life carried on the very important meaning. 〈Noon〉 deals with the consciousness of class and nation, and 〈Lee Young-yeo〉 criticizes the defect of masculine centered society through Lee Yong-yeo. According to 「The Disgust of Poet Dooduckee」 and 「Shipwreck」 represent Kim Woo-jin's self conscious drama and the words of disgust and wreck symbolizes Kim Woo-jin's self desire for a new world. 「Wild Boar」 represents the free society for all people and the social awareness for reform. Kim Woo-jin includes the 'Dong Hak movement' in his drama and suggests a uncompromising willingness of social revolution established by young intellectuals and himself who showed only conscious conflict within the predestined yoke of the individual. In the play he changed his dramatic techniques which brought him closer to his readers and audiences but he emphasized intellectuals' awakening in much of his work. In other way, Kim Woo-jin developed a new contemporary drama movement in Korea for the nation which might have expressed real life under Japanese colonial rule. Kim Woo-jin was the representative of Korean drama in the 1920's who lived as a poet and critic as well as a experimental playwriter. Kim Woo-jin was one of the most excellent dramatists and the forerunner of Korean modern literature who led the new theatre movement, developed Korean drama from the early literature stages of the 1920's, and established himself as a leader in Korea literature.
<P>An all‐solution‐processed flexible piezoelectric nanogenerator, composed of polycrystalline ZnO thin film and functional polymer layers such as P3HT/PCBM and PEDOT:PSS, generates energy through a mechanical rolling and muscle stretching system. On page 6022, Youn Sang Kim, Sang‐Woo Kim, and co‐workers show that this all‐solution‐processed nanogenerator is feasible as a piezoelectric patchable device and is promising for use in future energy harvesters such as wearable human patches and mobile electronics. </P>
( Jeong Sook Kim ),( In Ok Lee ),( Kyung Jin Eoh ),( Young Shin Chung ),( Inha Lee ),( Jung-yun Lee ),( Eun Ji Nam ),( Sunghoon Kim ),( Young Tae Kim ),( Sang Wun Kim ) 대한산부인과학회 2017 Obstetrics & Gynecology Science Vol.60 No.2
Objective This study aimed to introduce a method to remove huge ovarian tumors (≥15 cm) intact with single-port laparoscopic surgery (SPLS) using SW Kim`s technique and to compare the surgical outcomes with those of laparotomy. Methods Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for patients who underwent either SPLS (n=21) with SW Kim`s technique using a specially designed 30×30-cm2-sized 3XL LapBag or laparotomy (n=22) for a huge ovarian tumor from December 2008 to May 2016. Perioperative surgical outcomes were compared. Results In 19/21 (90.5%) patients, SPLS was successfully performed without any tumor spillage or conversion to multi-port laparoscopy or laparotomy. There was no significant difference in patient characteristics, including tumor diameter and total operation time, between both groups. The postoperative hospital stay was significantly shorter for the SPLS group than for the laparotomy group (median, 2 [1 to 5] vs. 4 [3 to 17] days; P<0.001). The number of postoperative general diet build-up days was also significantly shorter for the SPLS group (median, 1 [1 to 4] vs. 3 [2 to 16] days; P<0.001). Immediate post-operative pain score was lower in the SPLS group (median, 2.0 [0 to 8] vs. 4.0 [0 to 8]; P=0.045). Patient-controlled anesthesia was used less in the SPLS group (61.9% vs. 100%). Conclusion SPLS was successful in removing most large ovarian tumors without rupture and showed quicker recovery and less immediate post-operative pain in comparison to laparotomy. SPLS using SW Kim`s technique could be a feasible solution to removing huge ovarian tumors.
본 연구는 치수조직, 치은, 치주인대로부터 배양된 조직을 SP (Substance P)로 4시간, SP, CGRP (Calcitonin Gene-related Peptide), Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)로 8시간 자극 후 RNase Protection Assay를 시행하고, IL-8의 분비량을 측정해 다음 결과를 얻었다. 1. IL-8 mRNA는 모든세포에서 발현됐다. 2. IL-8 mRNA 발현은 SP (10^(-5)M)와 SP (10^(-8)M)로 4시간 자극 시 증가되지 않았다. 3. IL-8 mRNA 발현은 SP (10^(-4)M)와 CGRP (10^(-6)M)로 8시간 자극 시 증가되지 않았다. 4. TNF-α (2 ng/㎖) 자극 시, IL-8 mRNA 발현이 증가됐다. 5. 치은 세포를 CGRP (10^(-6)M)로 8시간 자극 시, IL-8 분비량이 증가했다 (p < 0.05). 6. 치주인대 세포를 SP (10^(-4)M)로 8시간 자극 시 IL-8 분비량이 증가했다 (p < 0.05). We investigated the secretion of Interleukin-8 (IL-8) from ginviva and periodontal ligament stimulated with Substance P (SP) and Calcitonin Gene-related Peptide (CGRP). Gingiva (GF), periodontal ligament (PDLF) and pulp (PF) tissues were collected from extracted instact 3rd molars. Cultured cells were stimulated with different concentrations of SP for 4 hrs, and stimulated with SP, CGRP and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) for 8 hrs. Then RNase Protection Assay was carried out. ELISA was performed using supernatants of stimulated cells for quantitative analysis of IL-8. Results were assessed using supernatants of stimulated cells for quantitative analysis of IL-8. Results were assessed using student t-test with significance of P < 0.05. According to this study, the results were as follows: 1. IL-8 mRNA was detected in all type of cells studied (PF, GF and PDLF). 2. IL-8 mRNA expression was not increased after stimulating 4 hrs with SP (10^(-5)M) and SP (10^(-8)M) compared with Mock stimulation in all type of cells studied. 3. IL-8 mRNA expression was not increased after stimulating 8 hrs with SP (10^(-4)M) and CGRP (10^(-6)M) compared with Mock stimulation in all type of cells studied. 4. TNF-α (2 ng/㎖) increased the expression of IL-8 mRNA in all kind of cells studied. 5. The secretion of IL-8 from GF was increased 8 hrs after the stimulation with CGRP (10^(-6)M) (p < 0.05). 6. The secretion of IL-8 from PDLF was increased 8 hrs after the stimulation with SP (10^(-4)M) (p < 0.05). Calcitonin Gene-related Peptide (CGRP) increased Interleukin-8 (IL-8) which plays an important role in chemotaxis of neutrophil in Calcitonin Gene-related Peptide (CGRP) gingival tissue, whereas Substance P increased the secretion of IL-8 from periodontal ligament.
Purpose: Estrogen is known to act as both a growth factor and a survival factor for breast cancer. The responsible molecular mechanisms remain, however, to be fully elucidated. We hypothesize that the effect of estrogen relates to its ability to induce the cellular antioxidant defense enzymes. Methods: In the presence study, we examined the ability of 17β-estradiol (E2) to regulate the level of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (GPX4) protein, which is an anti-oxidative enzyme that can directly reduce both phospholipids and cholesterol-hydroperoxides located in the cell membranes and lipoproteins. Results: E2 elicited a dose- and time-dependent increase in the GPX4 expression in the MCF-7 breast cancer cells, and this up-regulation was blocked by the free radical scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Additionally, we confirmed that E2 triggered a rapid and transient increase in the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and this E2-induced increase in the ROS levels was inhibited by pretreatment with NAC. Moreover, such ROS inducers as TGF-β, TNF-αand insulin induced an increase in the level of GPX4 protein. However, estrogen receptor (ER)αknockdown by transfection with ERα-siRNA did not significantly change the GPX4 protein level that was induced by E2. Furthermore, pre-incubation with the ER antagonist ICI 182,780 did not inhibit E2-mediated GPX4 induction. Conversely, pretreatment of cells with LY294002, a pharmacological inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, suppressed the E2-augmented GPX4 expression. Conclusion: Collectively, our data show that E2 may partly provide a survival advantage through the regulation of cellular oxidative homeostasis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
( Jin Yeong Yu ),( Su Young Chi ),( Hee Jung Ban ),( Yong Soo Kwon ),( In Jae Oh ),( Kyu Sik Kim ),( Yu Il Kim1 ),( Sung Chul Lim ),( Song Choi ),( Yun Hyeon Kim ),( Young Chul Kim ) 대한내과학회 2011 대한내과학회 추계학술대회 Vol.2011 No.-
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The retail business of drugstore was introduced to Korea for the first time 10 years ago. Since Olive Young introduced a retail store in the name of drugstore in 1999 for the first time in Korea, new distribution channel combining drugstore, cosmetic products and dairy products, etc has been made. At initial stage, the new distribution channel grew up slowly because of low specialty and economic stagnation. However, the three big distribution channels, that is to say, Olive Young (CJ), Watsons (GS) and W Store (Kolon Well Care), etc, were established to produce new distribution system following large-scaled discount stores as well as convenience stores. The purpose of the study is to investigate ways making Korean style drugstore be new retail business in addition to traditional markets, department stores, E-Mart and other general super markets and to examine problems preventing the drugstore from being promoted and to find out solutions. The speciality retailers that is called a category killer attacking department stores as well as marts is expanding market quickly. New consumption trend that gives priority to wellbeing is being expanded in accordance with high level of standards of living life: The drugstore is thought to be new alternative of distribution because it keeps special products. Young ladies who are main customers of drugstores respond to the trend sensitively to have more buying power that is thought to be promising. And, consumers' desire has become concrete and special. This is because consumers want not only convenient shopping but also special shopping system that is current trend. These days, so called Multi-shop and Total shop and other special shops have been recently opened. Special multi-shop has been concentrated on fashion product and miscellaneous goods so far: Health total wellbeing shop shall be popular in accordance with wellbeing trends. Drugstores can play an important role. Drugstores were opened for the first time ten years ago. In
Kim Taehoon, Park Sang Jin. 2011. A Study on Stabilization of Korean New Words which is used from 1920s to 1930s. Korean Semantics 36. This paper aims to discuss the characteristics of Korean new words which is stabilized. I listed 1640 new words from 26 popular magazines which is published from 1920s to 1930s. If a new word is registered in Korean dictionary, it is treated as stabilized word. But another word is not registered in Korean dictionary, it is not treated as archaic word. I use Standard Korean Dictionary of The National Institute of the Korean language. The following additional standards can support to delimit stabilized new words. 1. New words is being used more and more. 2. New words make another new words. 3. New words suffer semantic change.
Kim, Si-Hyung,Choi, In-Sun,Cho, Jin-Hwa,Park, Eun-Ju,Jang, Il-Sung,Choi, Byung-Ju,Kim, Hyun-Jung,Kim, Young-Jin,Nam, Soon-Hyeun The Korean Academy of Oral Biology 2006 International Journal of Oral Biology Vol.31 No.2
Dysplasia-associated seizure disorders are markedly resistant to pharmacological intervention. Relatively little research has been conducted studying the effects of antiepileptic drugs(AEDs) on seizure activity in a rat model of dysplasia. We have used rats exposed to methylazoxymethanol acetate(MAM) in utero, an animal model featuring nodular heterotopia, to investigate the effects of AEDs in the dysplastic brain. Pilocarpine was used to induce acute seizure in MAM-exposed and age-matched vehicle-injucted control animals. Field potential recordings were used to monitor amplitude and numbers population spikes, and paired pulse inhibition in response to stimulation of commissural pathway. Two commonly used AEDs were tested: diazepam 5, 2.5mg/kg;phenytoin 40, 60mg/kg. Diazepam(DZP) and phenytoin(PHT) reduced the amplitude of population spike in control and MAM-exposed rats. However, the amplitude of population spike was nearly eliminated in control rats as compared to the MAM-exposed rats. Pharmaco-resistance was tested by measuring seizure latencies in awake rats after pilocarpine administration(320mg/kg, i.p.) with and without pretreatment with AEDs. Pre-treatment with PHT 60 mg prolonged seizure latency in control rats, but not in MAM-exposed animals. The main findings of this study are that acute seizures initiated in MAM-exposed rats are relatively resistant to standard AEDs assessed in vivo. These data suggest that animal model with cortical dysplasia can be used to screen the effects of potential AEDs.
Background p19arf, primarily known as a tumor suppressor, has also been reported to play an essential role in normal development of mouse eyes. Consistently, lack of p19arf has been associated with ocular defects, but the mixed background of the knockout (KO) mouse strain used raised a concern on the accuracy of the phenotypes observed in association with the targeted gene due to genetic heterogeneity. Object We carried out a study to investigate into the efect of genetic background on the manifestation of p19arf KO associated phenotypes. Methods We characterized the phenotypes of novel p19arf KO mouse lines generated in FVB/N and C57BL/6J using a transcription activator-like efector nuclease (TALEN) system in comparison to the reported phenotypes of three other p19arf-defcient mouse lines generated using homologous recombination. Results Ninety-fve percent of FVB/N-p19arf KO mice showed ocular opacity from week 4 after birth which worsened rapidly until week 6, while such abnormality was absent in C57BL/6J-p19arf KO mice up to the age of 26 weeks. Histopathological analysis revealed retrolental masses and dysplasia in the retinal layer in FVB/N-p19arf KO mice from week 4. Besides these, both strains developed normally from birth to week 26 without increased tumorigenesis except for a subcutaneous tumor found in a C57BL/6J-p19arf KO mouse. Conclusion Our fndings demonstrated surprisingly variable manifestation of p19arf-linked phenotypes between FVB/N and C57BL/6J mice, and furthermore between our mouse lines and the established lines, indicating a critical impact of genetic background on functional study of genes using gene targeting strategies in mice.