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Ahn Hoi-nam born in South Korea, was engaged in the Left Wing(右翼) before he crossed over into North Korea. However, His consciousness right after the Liberation did not deviated much from that of the Right Wing(右翼) writers including the Centrist(中間派). This paper analyzes Ahn's novels right after the Liberation to show that his consciousness was not different much from that before the Liberation. In particular, it pays attention to the ways in which he thought of farmers. Though he brought 'farmers' as the representation of the nation, the writer's consciousness with which he thought of them did not show great difference from his earlier (before the Liberation) consciousness. Ahn's thought about farmers were revealed in the following three ways. First, and 'goodness and simplicity' can be designated. Ahn identified the qualities and fates of farmers with those of 'cows' in his works. While farmers' passive folk consciousness showed the characteristics of the ruled, who did not face or resist against the power, the goodness and simplicity stood for by 'cows' represented the nature of simple and naive farmers, who did not understand but emotionally coped with the natures of problems at hand. Second, the 'succession of the history and lineage of the past' can be indicated. In April, 1947, Ahn presented The History of the Strom, which emphasized the struggling spirit of farmers. in this work, he called 'farmers' 'people', and understood the October Resistance in 1946 in line with the 3 · 1 Movement in 1919. However, in this work, which was roughly created without revealing the partisan spirit, the discourse of the lineage succession between father and son derived the nationalist ideology that emphasized the significance of people as successors of the identical lineage rather than of the past history. Third, the 'passive folk consciousness' can be pointed out. The farmers in Ahn's novels had the complying disposition that folks in a dynasty could have. As cultivating settlers, they possessed the naive instinct to survive, with which they complied with nature and the ruling power. At the sam time, as Ahn placed farmers in the position of the spokesmen for and successors to the tradition, their passiveness, hidden in the shade of the tradition they missed, made them lose the function of criticism. We can find out the following, from Ahn's ways of thinking of farmers in his novels right after the Liberation. First, Ahn's Hoi-nam crystallized the national tradition through the figuration of farmers as the national representation, and well showed the significance of farmers as successors of the tradition. Second, he was not able to read out the shift of history and to be certain about novel ideologies, but did only ruthlessly reveal antipathy against Japan as well as the Right Wing(右翼) pro-Japan bureaucrats. As a result, the code of farmers from his novels right after the Liberation suggests the nature of his crossing over into North Korea as well as his consciousness as a writer after the Liberation. After the Liberation, Ahn did not internalize his ideology but did try to explore an active life different from the one in the past as a writer.
Minjung theology emerged in the 1970s from the experience of Korean Christians in the struggle for the restoration of the rights of the minjung. It is firmly rooted in Korea`s socio-economic and political situation, and growing out of the struggles of Christians who treasure not only the universal message of emancipation of the Bible but also their own life. It espoused the repressed and exploited life of the people at the hand of the Yushin regime, and made an effort to listen to the lamentation of the oppressed people as if to the lamentation of God. It is therefore the contextual theology of Korea`s socio-economic and political situation during the 1970s. The purpose of this study is to investigate Byung-Mu Ahn`s minjung theology and to provide the basic outline of the main ideas. It begins with Byung-Mu Ahn who is considered the pioneer of minjung theology. He understood `minjung`(oχλο□,) in the communist sense of the poor and regarded them as the people who are scorned by the powerful dictatorship. He systematized this viewpoint in an academic sense. He therefore placed emphasis on the rights of `minjung`(oχλο□) and propagated emancipation and salvation of the people on the basis of his theological belief. In June 1975, when the president of Jeong-Hee Park`s regime(the Yushin dictatorship) became more tyrannical, he got booted from Hansin University for his socio-political tendencies. In March 1976, he was arrested for his participation in the political statement, `the March First Declaration`. He was put in jail for one year during which time he decided to devote the rest of his life to helping the poor. In addition, he provided the theological views and opinions for the progressive theology and for the democratization movement. Although he died without attaining the object of his theology, his progressive thoughts and spirit of freedom-loving are still alive among many non-Christians as well as many Christians. But in the negative, Byung-Mu Ahn`s minjung theology have many theological arguments which are difficult to be accepted in the aspects of conservative theology because he developed his argument logically without the true Christian gospel such as the atonement, the resurrection, the second advent, the last judgment, the eternal kingdom of God and so on. The true Christian gospel is the basis upon which all Christianity stands. As a result of his negative aspects in theology, many conservative church leaders strictly prohibited his ideas to be spread. And many theologians whose theological standard is so conservative could not tolerate his thoughts. The main messages Byung-Mu Ahn left behind us on the basis of his minjung theology could be summarized as follows: ① new ideas for ochlos(oχλο□) ② emphasis on theology of praxis ③ theology on the basis of life of ochlos(oχλο□) ④ encouragement of democratization movement ⑤ the purpose of the restoration of human rights ⑥ fight for socio-economic and political justice ⑦ attempt to improve indigenity of Korean theology ⑧ sensitive arguments between progressives and conservatives And Jesus was going about in all Galilee, teaching in their synagogues, and proclaiming the gospel of the kingdom, and healing every kind of disease and every kind of sickness among the people. And the news about Him went out into all Syria; and they brought to Him all who were ill, taken with various diseases and pains, demoniacs, epileptics; and Jerusalem and Judea and from beyond the Jordan.(Matthew 4:23-24)
지난 20년 동안 해양구조물과 선박 등에 예상치 못한 피해를 주는 freak waves에 대한 연구자들의 관심이 증가하고 있다. 다양한 연구결과에도 불구하고 아직 freak waves의 발생원인, 발생 메커니즘, 발생확률 등에 대한 상반된 결과로 인해 합의된 결과가 도출되지 못하고 있다. 본 논문에서는 동해항 전면 해상에서 측정된 파랑자료를 분석하여 freak waves에 대한 발생확률을 추정하였다. 유의파고 2.5 m 보다 크고 Hm/Hs≥2인 freak waves 3개를 발견하였다. Freak waves의 발생확률은 극치파고분포함수를 사용하여 추정하기 적절하며, Mori, Rayleigh, 그리고 Ahn의 극치파고분포함수는 freak wave의 발생확률을 각각 약 O(10<SUP>-1</SUP>), O(10<SUP>-2</SUP>), 그리고 O(10<SUP>-3</SUP><SUP></SUP>) 정도로 추정하였다. 본 논문에서 분석된 파랑자료의 freak waves의 발생확률은 O(10<SUP>-2</SUP>)와 O(10<SUP>-3</SUP>) 사이에 위치하였다. 즉, Rayleigh와 Ahn의 극치파고분포함수에 의해 예측된 발생확률의 중간에 위치하였다. 현재 Rayleigh와 Ahn의 극치파고분포함수 중에 어떤 분포함수가 정확한지에 대한 판단은 좀 더 다양한 해역에서의 freak waves의 발생확률에 대한 분석이 필요하다고 판단된다. Over the last 20 years, freak waves have attracted many researchers because of their unexpected behaviors and damages on offshore structures and vessels in the ocean and coastal waters. Despite many researches on the causes, mechanisms and occurrence of freak waves, we have not reached consensus on the results of the researches. This paper presents the occurrence probability of freak waves based on the analysis of wave records measured at coastal waters of Donghae harbor in the East Sea. Three freak waves were found which satisfied conditions of Hs≥2.5m and Hm/Hs≥2. The occurrence probabilities of freak waves were estimated from extreme distributions by Mori, Rayleigh and Ahn, and found to be on the orders of O(10<SUP>-1</SUP>), O(10<SUP>-2</SUP>), and O(10<SUP>-3</SUP>), respectively. The occurrence probabilities of freak waves measured from waves records were estimated between O(10<SUP>-2</SUP>) and O(10<SUP>-3</SUP>), which were located between predictions by Rayleigh and Ahn’s extreme probability distributions. However, we need more analysis of wave records obtained from diverse field conditions in order to verify the accuracy of the estimation of occurrence probability of freak waves.
While the direct measurement of body surface area (BSA) is impractical, there is an urgent need for the accurate BSA estimation in neonates considering increasing of high-risk infants. Particularly, it would be feasible to have a BSA equation using only weight of neonate, considering the body posture and inconvenience of measuring height of neonates. A research was conducted to develop BSA equation using weight of 5014 neonates including very-low-birth weight infants. BSA of subjects was calculated using existing BSA equations, from which Mean-BSA was arithmetically derived as a true BSA. Multiple-regression was performed to generate the equation for Mean-BSA with the best goodness-of-fitness of weight and height using Excel and SPSS 16.0. Then the final BSA equation with weight of neonates (Ahn-BSA) was formulated using the relationship between weight and height. Ahn-BSA equation was as follows: Ahn-BSA = 10.8 ×W<SUP>0.6539</SUP>. The validity of Neo-BSA was examined using 3-D scanning of neonate-simulator and paired t-test between Mean-BSA and Ahn-BSA. Ahn-BSA, using only body weight, could provide an accurate measurement of BSA in neonates from very low birth weight to normal weight. It would accelerate understanding the body of knowledge and serve as a base for accurate application of various interventions in BSA practice for neonates.
The general description concerning the multi-line systems with the switching rules have been presented by Ahn. In this paper we derive some steady state probabilities for three mainly different kinds of systems. We assume that all of the systems are to have poisson input with the finite mean $1/\lambda$ and two servers with the negative exponentional service distribution where each has its own mean $1/u_i$. The notations follow the paper (Ahn, 1979).
Vulvodynia is a chronic pain syndrome in female genitalia in the absence of visible infectious, inflammatory, or neoplastic findings or a clinically identifiable neurological disorder. We report a case of vulvodynia successfully treated with dry needling using a specially designed round needle (Ahn’s needle). A 50-year-old woman was seen with 20-year-history of left-sided vulvar pain in the absence of infectious, inflammatory, neoplastic, or neurological disorder. We diagnosed her condition as vulvodynia and conducted dry needling using an Ahn’s needle. Dry needling was performed along left upper and middle labiocrural fold. She reported 50% improvement of vulvodynia after the first treatment and 100% improvement after the second treatment. She remained symptom free 9 months after treatment. Our report suggests that dry needling using an Ahn’s needle have clinical significance in managing vulvodynia.
The ecological characteristics of Dolbae trees, a valuable genetic resource for native Pyrus fruit trees, were investigated at four naturally inhabited areas on Mount Kaya, Gyeongsangnam-Do. Most Dolbae trees were found on the southwest side of an old hiking path to a mountain valley at altitudes of 610~670 m. The surrounding flora consisted of 46 families, 69 genera, 75 species, and 10 varieties. The natural habitat of the Dolbae trees was basically a deciduous broad-leaved forest with a predominance of Quercus serrata and ligneous plants(xylophytes) from the Fagaceae and Betulaceae families. The habitat was also found to be in a second transition resulting from forest disturbance and exhibited a degree of diversity of 2.901-5.065, based on Shannon-Weiner's index. Examination of the Dolbae trees found in Mount Kaya revealed diameter breast heights(DBHs) ranging from 10 to 60 cm, including six old and large Dolbae trees with a DBH of 50~60 cm, which will be particularly valuable as a genetic resource. Accordingly, the current results suggest that the study areas are a secondary forest in a typical mid-temperate zone resulting from forest damage about 10 years earlier.
This paper aims to show that CP deletion in English and Korean is not possible. We suggest that the absence of CP ellipsis results from the premise that lexical categories such as V don't bear an E feature, hence cannot license the deletion of their CP complements. We claim that apparent CP ellipsis is equivalent to DP deletion, which is subsequently subsumed to the occurrence of Pro.
This paper is an empirical examination of the reputation, business-stealing and income effects that pervade co-purchasing product networks. Co-purchasing between a pair of products refers to a situation where the two products are frequently purchased together (but not necessarily at the same time). Online retailers frequently use co-purchasing relationships as a basis for recommending products to their customers. (For example, Amazon has the section“Customers Who Bought This Item Also Bought” for its products.) How effective is this strategy? What features of co-purchasing product networks can be used to promote the sales of a given product? These are the empirical questions of our study. To this end, we use the data collected fromAmazon.com, which has threemajor components: (1) sales ranks (as ameasure of relative sales), (2) online reviews by customers (as a proxy for product quality), and (3) co-purchasing product networks (from “Customers Who Bought This Item Also Bought”). We construct two sets of features for co-purchasing networks: One contains the number, the average product rating, and the average sales rank, of co-purchased products, and the other contains the same variables for co-purchased products with a two degrees of separation (co-purchased products of co-purchased products).We hypothesize that there can be various effects of co-purchased products: Theymay enhance the reputation of a given product by association if they are well received by consumers (Reputation effect). They also compete with the given product by being substitutes (Business-stealing effect). Finally, these products pursue the same, limited consumer budgets (Income effect). Our results showthat the reputation effect might be much smaller than the business-stealing effect of co-purchased products for co-purchased products with a two degrees of separation (co-purchased products of co-purchased products) than for co-purchased products with one degree of separation. Our results shed light on howto use co-purchasing information to design an effective product recommendation strategy.