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      • 변선환(邊鮮煥)의 “타종교와 신학” 소고

        안수강(Ahn, Su-Kang) 신학과 실천학회 2016 신학과 복음 Vol.2 No.-

        본 논문은 변선환의 “타종교와 신학”을 중심으로 개혁주의 신학관점에서 그의 종교다원주의를 고찰하려는 데 목적을 둔다. 특별히 그의 토착화신학과 종교간 대화에 초점을 맞추어 논증의 주된 관점들이 무엇인지를 밝힐 것이다. 변선환은 종교다원주의를 기반으로 하여 한국교회가 토착화와 종교간 대화를 실천해야 한다고 피력했다. 그 결과 그의 신학은 유일무이한 기독교복음의 권위를 상대화하고 성경의 칭의교리를 부정하는 결과를 초래했다. 변선환이 자신의 토착화신학과 종교다원주의 신학에서 보여준 중요한 논점들을 정리하면 다음과 같다. ①기독교와 다양한 타종교의 대화 ②한국기독교의 창의적 토착화 ③기독교와 타종교와의 동등성의 원리 ④타종교에 대한 배타성 극복 방안 ⑤우주적 그리스도에 대한 성찰 ⑥종교다원주의를 통한 휴머니티의 회복 ⑦기독교 선교의 새로운 패러다임 모색 This study intends to show Seon-Hwan Byeon’s religious pluralism through his “Other Religions and Theology” in perspective of reformed theology. Especially focussing on his indigenous theology and religious dialog, I will clarify what is the main viewpoints of his argument. On the basis of religious pluralism, he urged that Korean Church should practice indigenization and interreligious dialogue. As a consequence, his theology relativized the authority of the unique Christiam Gospel and denied the doctrine of biblical justification. The main points Byeon left behind use on the basis of his indigenous theology and religious pluralism could be summarized as follows: ①religious dialog between Christianity and other various religions ②creative indigenization of Korean Christianity ③principle of parity between Christianity and other religions ④ways to overcome exclusivity for other religions ⑤consideration on cosmic Christ ⑥restoration of humanity through religious pluralism ⑦research on new paradigm for Christian missions

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        황사영(黃嗣永)의 “백서”(帛書) 고찰

        안수강 ( Su Kang Ahn ) 한국복음주의역사신학회 2012 역사신학 논총 Vol.24 No.-

        The purpose of this paper is to investigate the main outline of Sa-Yeong Hwang`s personal ethics of Catholicism and energetic determination for mission to Choseon through his letter(“Silk Letter”, 帛書) to Bishop Alexandre de Gouvea(湯士選). The Catholic Church was known as an unethical religion of `mugunmubu`(`no-king and no-father`, 無君無父), thus, a great persecution against it was an inevitable consequence. In the Confucian cultural system, there were two absolute requirements to support the family and dynasty, namely devotional royalty to the king and filial piety to parents. But the Catholic Church was misunderstood as a barbarian religion of gainsaying these two fundamental principles. When the Sinyu Persecution(辛酉敎難) erupted in January 1801, the Choseon Catholic Church was facing the time of suffering. Sa-Yeong Hwang fled to Baeron in Jecheon, Chungcheong-do. Meanwhile, Sim Hwang(黃心) expounded to him on the events leading up to the beheading of Priest Wen-Mo Chou(周文謨) including the serious situation of the persecution. Consequently, more than 300 christians were martyred according to the official records. When he heard of the bad news, he decided write “Silk Letter”. He wrote this letter on a piece of fine silk with the intention to inform Alexandre de Gouvea in Beijing of the very tough context of the Choseon Catholic Church and many sincere martyrs who held to their faith and died triumphantly during the Sinyu Persecution. He expected the Pope to end the harsh persecution as soon as possible and Choseon Catholic Church would have precious freedom of belief. Sa-Yeong Hwang`s “Silk Letter” includes not only a main request that Chinese emperor warns Choseon to allow Catholic missionaries to enter Choseon but also the very serious future plans: appointing an agent king to rule Choseon and requesting several hundred warships, fifty to sixty thousand trained soldiers, a few wise scholars, strong weapons and cannons. He was convinced that the Pope would scare and threaten the Choseon government so that it would accept Catholicism without any opposition. In the negative, Sa-Yeong Hwang`s “Silk Letter” has many ethical arguments which are difficult to be accepted in the aspects of christian ethics because he developed his argument logically without the true christian ethics. The main negative viewpoints Sa-Yeong Hwang left behind us on the basis of his “Silk Letter” could be summarized as follows: ① teleological ethics and situation ethics ② humanism on the basis of free will ③ ultramontanism ④ distorted patriotism ⑤ triple relationship of `nation-patriotism-faith` ⑥ emphasis on mission by force of arms “Christians live in their own hometowns, but only as sojourners; they bear their share in all things as citizens, but endure all hardships as foreigners. Every foreign land is home to them, and every home is foreign. …… Their existence is on earth, but their citizenship is in heaven. …… They love all, and are persecuted by all.”(Epistle to Diognetus)

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        특집 : 신사참배 회개론의 유형별 연구

        안수강 ( Su Kang Ahn ) 한국개혁신학회 2014 한국개혁신학 Vol.42 No.-

        본 연구는 신사참배 회개 유형들을 연구하고 참배를 수행한 죄에 대한 고백 의 과정을 통시적(洞視的)으로 성찰하며 참 교회상을 회복하기 위한 방안을 모색하려는 데 목적을 둔다. 1930년대 일제식민 종교 정책의 핵심이었던 제국주의 이데올로기는 한국교회에 신사참배를 수행할 것을 강요했다. 한국교회는 일제가 내선일 체(內鮮一體)와 황국신민화(皇國植民化) 정책의 일환으로 신사참배를 강 요하자 어떻게 대응할 것인지에 대해 교단마다 상이한 견해들을 표방했다. 이 문제와 관련하여 교단 간의 갈등은 해방 이후에도 지속되었고 교회 재 건 사역에 큰 거침돌로 작용했다. 1945년 해방 이후 신사참배와 관련하여 내적 회개론, 상대주의, 그리고 공적 회개론 등 세 가지 유형의 회개론이 대두되었다. 첫째, 내적 회개론은 신전의식(神前意識)에 입각하여 하나님과의 직접 관계에서 사적인 회개를 시행할 것을 주장한 유형이다. 둘째, 상대주의는 역사적 해석법(historical interpretation)과 종교적 실용주의(religious pragmatism)를 표방하여 당시의 시대적 정황을 중시한 유형이며 모자이크 역사관을 통해 개인의 위치(직무), 특정 사역, 역할 수행을 정당화했다. 셋째, 공적 회개론은 내적 회개론과 상대주의와는 달리 하나님과 모 든 교인들 앞에서 공개적으로 죄를 회개하고 권징을 시행할 것을 촉구한 유 형이다. 현하 한국교회가 참 교회상을 회복하기 위해 수행해야 할 시급한 과 제는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 공적 회개를 통해 ‘하나의 교회’를 실현해야 한다. 교회의 영적 일치를 추구하기 위한 진정한 사도적 신앙과 전통은 성실하게 공적 회개를 시행함으로써 갈등과 분열을 치유하는 일이다. 둘째, 참 교회 표지로서의 권징을 회복해야 한다. 신사참배는 권징을 유명무실한 법으로 사문화(死文化)시켰다. 참 교회상을 회복하기 위한 진정한 사역은 그리스도께서 제정하신 법에 따라 목회현장에서 권징을 성 실하게 실천하는 일이다. 셋째, 회개와 용서를 통해 교회의 거룩성을 추구해야 한다. 교회의 불완전한 거룩성은 분열을 정당화하지 않으며 오히려 교회 안에서 회개와 용서를 실천함으로써 성화를 모색할 수 있는 기회를 제공한다. The object of this study is to investigate the outline of the various types of Shinto shrine worshipers, and to examine the process of the confession of shame and guilty conscience, and to find ways to recover true church. In 1930s, Japanese imperial ideology which was the main thought of the colonial religion policies forced Korean Churches to carry out Shinto shrine worship. Shintoism was obviously a religious matter because it was the violation of the first and second commandments among the Ten Commandments God commanded Moses at Mount Sinai. The pressure of Shinto shrine worship upon Korean Churches caused different perspectives among Korean Christians over how to respond to the Japanese arm-twisting policy. The confliction of Korean church denominations continued even after the liberation and put the brakes on the rebuilding the church. The result of Korean Church`s Shinto shrine worship caused the intractable problem, the matter of repentance after the liberation. Especially, the confliction of Korean church denominations about the matter of repentance emerged to be the most serious problem to solve in the Presbyterian denomination. Shinto shrine had brought out continuous tension and opposition and the Korean Presbyterian Church was gone into disorganization. As a result, three repentance types appeared after Korea was liberated from Japan in 1945: ‘inward repentance’, ‘relativism’, and ‘public repentance’. ① The type of ‘inward repentance’ aims individual private repentance before God compared with the public repentance. ② The type of ‘relativism’ emphasizes temporal situation and reflects the personal private position, specific action, and role performance on the basis of the theory of historical interpretation and religious pragmatism. ③ The type of ‘public repentance’ highlights the public repentance before God and all the Christians according to the canon law of the penitential discipline compared with inward repentance and relativism. Today, what should we do to recover the true church? ① Achieving one church through the public repentance: The foundation of unity is on the nature of the church itself. But Shinto shrine worship caused severe conflicts among the churches. Today, the absolute apostolic faith and tradition to achieve essential one church is to practice public repentance before God from the bottom of the broken heart. ② Recovering the penitential discipline as the mark of the true church: Shinto shrine worship caused a great crisis in the penitential discipline in Korean Church. The lost of the penitential discipline in the church debilitated the Christian piety, resulting in the spiritual incompetency of Korean Church. Today, the earnest work to recover the true church is to practice the penitential discipline in the field of ministry according to Christ`s institution. ③ Efforts to pursue the holiness and forgiveness of the church: The imperfect holiness of the church does not justify schism, but affords occasion for the exercise within it of the forgiveness of sins(J. Calvin). Today, Korean Church should try to pursue the sanctification and forgiveness of the church in order to overcome the aspects of the imperfect holiness.

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        최양업(崔良業)의 『서한(書翰)』 소고

        안수강 ( Su Kang Ahn ) 한국복음주의역사신학회 2014 역사신학 논총 Vol.27 No.-

        The early Choseon Catholic Christians had been suffered from severe persecution at the hands of the government in the years 1785(Eulsa), 1791(Sinhae), 1801(Sinyu), 1839(Gihae), 1846(Byeongo), 1860(Gyeongsin) and 1866(Byeongin). The Catholic Church was known as an unethical religion, thus, a great persecution against it was an inevitable consequence. When the Byeongo Persecution erupted in 1846, the government suppressed Catholicism, and the first priest(father) Dae-Geon Kim was executed for the crime of `no-king and no-father`. The object of this study is to show Yang-Eop Choi`s theology and patriotism in relation to his Christian faith in the context of the situation of Choseon Catholic Church through his 18 letters. His 18 letters introduce various histories about Choseon Catholic Christians from 1842 to 1860. Especially he emphasized contemporary Christian tradition of religious belief and showed new understanding on lives of Christians who practiced their faith in times of `the Byeongo and Gyeongsin persecution`. His 18 letters includes `theology of suffering` and `ardent patriotism`. His faith and patriotism are not two separate categories and these should go together. In other words, there is originally organic correlation between his faith and patriotism. His spirit of love of Choseon people is based on his sincere faith and confession toward Christ Jesus. I summarized and analyzed not only his theology and patriotism but also contemporary Christian faith, life and church organization through his 18 letters.

      • 문선명(文鮮明)의 종교적 배경과 『原理講論』에 나타난 그의 사상 분석

        안수강(Ahn, Su-Kang) 신학과 실천학회 2017 신학과 복음 Vol.3 No.-

        본 논문은 문선명의 종교적 배경과 『原理講論』(DivinePrinciple)에 나타난 그의 사상을 개혁주의 신학 관점에서 비판하려는 데 목적을 둔다. 문선명은 1920년에 평북 정주에서 출생하여 2012년까지 생존했으며, 통일교 창시자이자 전 생애에 걸쳐 『原理講論』의 정초를 놓은 이교 사상가로서의 삶을 살았다. 통일교의 가장 대변적인 사상은 『原理講論』에 기초하여 ‘새로운 메시야관’, ‘만물의 통일성’, ‘종교의 통합성’, ‘교주 안에서의 만유갱신(萬有更新)’ 등을 포괄한다. 문선명은 『原理講論』의 지침에 의해 지상에 자신의 가르침을 확립할 것을 천명했다. 지금까지 그의 생애와 사상에 관련된 신학논문들은 주로 종교관, 민족의식, 통일론, 평화론, 원리강론의 가르침, 선교사역, 통일교, 조직체계 등에 초점이 맞추어졌다. 본 논문에서는 그의 신앙과 사상을 통해 ‘신학적 배경과 의미’, ‘『原理講論』 분석과 비판’, ‘통일교의 주목할 만한 활동’ 등의 논지들로 대별하여 분석할 것이다. 특별히 이 논문에서는 『原理講論』를 통해 그의 신앙과 신학사상을 분석함으로써 그가 내세운 이단성에 관한 주요 논점들이 무엇인지를 밝히고자 한다. 이 연구가 향후 ‘종교혼합사상’, ‘역사관’, ‘종교관’,‘신정론’, ‘결혼관’ 등 다양한 연구 주제들로 확장될 수 있기를 기대한다. The object of this study is to criticize Seon-Myeong Moon’s religious background and his thought in Divine Principle(『原理講論』) from perspective of reformed theology. Moon was born in Jeongju in 1920 and passed away in 2012. He was ‘The Unification Church’(統一敎) originator and a heretical thinker who laid the foundation of Divine Principle for the whole of his life. The most typical thoughts of the Unification Church include ‘new viewpoint of Messianism’, ‘the unification of all things’, ‘the congruence of religions’, ‘beginning of the world in religious sect leader’ on the basis of Divine Principle. Moon proclaimed that his teachings should be built on the earth according to the guidance of Divine Principle. Until now many theological articles on Seon-Myeong Moon’s life and thoughts mainly have been demonstrated ‘religious thoughts’, ‘national consciousness’, ‘unification theory’, ‘peace theory’, ‘teaching of Divine Principle’, ‘mission works’, ‘The Unification Church’, ‘organizational system’, and so on. I will deal with the main aspects of his thoughts such as ‘theological background and meaning’, ‘critical analysis on Divine Principle’, ‘remarkable activities of the Unification Church’, and so on. Especially analyzing Moon’s faith and theological thoughts through Divine Principle, I will clarify what was his main perspectives on the heretical nature. I am looking forward to future extensions of this research into other various themes such as ‘religious syncretism’, ‘view of history’, ‘view of religion’, ‘theodicy of Unificationism’, ‘view of marriage’, and so forth.

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        안병무의 민중신학(民衆神學) 고찰

        안수강 ( Ahn Su Kang ) 한국복음주의역사신학회 2011 역사신학 논총 Vol.22 No.-

        Minjung theology emerged in the 1970s from the experience of Korean Christians in the struggle for the restoration of the rights of the minjung. It is firmly rooted in Korea`s socio-economic and political situation, and growing out of the struggles of Christians who treasure not only the universal message of emancipation of the Bible but also their own life. It espoused the repressed and exploited life of the people at the hand of the Yushin regime, and made an effort to listen to the lamentation of the oppressed people as if to the lamentation of God. It is therefore the contextual theology of Korea`s socio-economic and political situation during the 1970s. The purpose of this study is to investigate Byung-Mu Ahn`s minjung theology and to provide the basic outline of the main ideas. It begins with Byung-Mu Ahn who is considered the pioneer of minjung theology. He understood `minjung`(oχλο□,) in the communist sense of the poor and regarded them as the people who are scorned by the powerful dictatorship. He systematized this viewpoint in an academic sense. He therefore placed emphasis on the rights of `minjung`(oχλο□) and propagated emancipation and salvation of the people on the basis of his theological belief. In June 1975, when the president of Jeong-Hee Park`s regime(the Yushin dictatorship) became more tyrannical, he got booted from Hansin University for his socio-political tendencies. In March 1976, he was arrested for his participation in the political statement, `the March First Declaration`. He was put in jail for one year during which time he decided to devote the rest of his life to helping the poor. In addition, he provided the theological views and opinions for the progressive theology and for the democratization movement. Although he died without attaining the object of his theology, his progressive thoughts and spirit of freedom-loving are still alive among many non-Christians as well as many Christians. But in the negative, Byung-Mu Ahn`s minjung theology have many theological arguments which are difficult to be accepted in the aspects of conservative theology because he developed his argument logically without the true Christian gospel such as the atonement, the resurrection, the second advent, the last judgment, the eternal kingdom of God and so on. The true Christian gospel is the basis upon which all Christianity stands. As a result of his negative aspects in theology, many conservative church leaders strictly prohibited his ideas to be spread. And many theologians whose theological standard is so conservative could not tolerate his thoughts. The main messages Byung-Mu Ahn left behind us on the basis of his minjung theology could be summarized as follows: ① new ideas for ochlos(oχλο□) ② emphasis on theology of praxis ③ theology on the basis of life of ochlos(oχλο□) ④ encouragement of democratization movement ⑤ the purpose of the restoration of human rights ⑥ fight for socio-economic and political justice ⑦ attempt to improve indigenity of Korean theology ⑧ sensitive arguments between progressives and conservatives And Jesus was going about in all Galilee, teaching in their synagogues, and proclaiming the gospel of the kingdom, and healing every kind of disease and every kind of sickness among the people. And the news about Him went out into all Syria; and they brought to Him all who were ill, taken with various diseases and pains, demoniacs, epileptics; and Jerusalem and Judea and from beyond the Jordan.(Matthew 4:23-24)

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        일제강점기 기독면려회의 노선과 기독교윤리적 함의

        안수강(Ahn, Su-Kang),이장형(Lee, Jang-Hyung) 한국기독교사회윤리학회 2019 기독교사회윤리 Vol.44 No.-

        The purpose of this research is to analyze and reflect on the foundational ideology(idea) and line of ‘Christian Endeavor’ through the initial publication of The Chin Saing(True Life) published at Sept. 1925 and propose the implications of Christian ethics to contemporary days. First, this paper deals with the bibliographic information on the magazine. Second, the writings of Byeong-Seon Hong, Yun-Gyung Kim, Pil-Geun Chae, Dae-Seon Ahn, and Seong-Sik Jang are chosen and summarized Christian Endeavor. Each of these writing is distinctive, but common argument is as follows: the sudden-changed society is corrupt.; Christianity is embodied.; young Christian should be responsible for its crucial accountability and obligation.; and, to bring up these young people, Christian Endeavor should carry the ball. Lastly, this research proposes ethical implications to all Christians today: Christians should be very cautious of Mammonism caused by corruption and set up calling by God; Christians should settle our personality as a moral identity based on Christian world-view; and, Christian community should handle sincerely ethical accountability and single out young people continually to seek to transform society by training. 이 연구는 <眞生> 창간호(1925년 9월)를 분석하여 기독면려회의 창설 이념과 노선을 고찰하고 오늘날 기독청년들에게 기독교 윤리적 함의를 제시하려는 데 목적을 둔다. 제2장에서는 기관지 <眞生>에 대한 서지정보를 다루었으며 기독면려회와 직접적으로 연관되는 의미 있는 글들을 선별하여 소개함으로써 후속연구가 용이하도록 했다. 제3장에서는 홍병선, 김윤경, 채필근, 안대선, 장성식 등의 글을 선정하여 기독면려회에 관한 개요를 살펴보았다. 이 글들은 각기 특색이 있지만 공통적인 논점은 첫째, 급변하는 시대이자 사회가 부패했다는 점 둘째, 이러한 시대를 선도함으로써 기독교정신을 구현해야 한다는 점 셋째, 그 중추적인 책임과 의무가 기독청년들에게 주어져 있다는 점 넷째, 이러한 기독청년 일군들을 양성하기 위해 기독면려회가 적극 솔선해야 한다는 점 등이다. 제4장에서는 3장에서 다룬 내용을 중심으로 오늘날 기독교인들에게 주는 윤리적 함의를 제시했다. 첫째, 부패를 초래하는 맘몬이즘을 경계해야 하며 소명의식을 확립해야 한다. 둘째, 도덕적 주체자로서의 각 개인의 인격을 기독교세계관에 입각하여 정립해야 한다. 셋째, 기독교공동체에서 성실하게 윤리적 책무를 감당하고 꾸준히 청년들을 발탁하여 훈련시킴으로써 사회변화를 추구해나가야 한다.

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