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김세은 ( Se Eun Kim ), 임성철 ( Sung Chul Lim ), 정문진 ( Moon Jin Jeong ), 최백동 ( Baik Dong Choi ), 김승현 ( Seung Hyun Kim ), 고아라 ( A Ra Ko ), 서승용 ( Seung Yong Seo ), 강성수 ( Seong Soo Kang ), 문창종 ( Chang Jong Moon ), 김종춘 ) 한국임상수의학회 2011 한국임상수의학회지 Vol.28 No.4
A form of polycystic ovary (PCO) resembling some aspects of the human PCO syndrome (PCOS) can be induced in rats by a single injection of estradiol valerate (EV). An increase in sympathetic outflow to the ovary precedes, by several weeks, the appearance of cysts, suggesting the involvement of a neurogenic component in the pathology of this ovarian dysfunction. To test the hypotheses that the change in sympathetic tone is related to an augmented production of hippocampal and/or ovarian nerve growth factor (NGF), and that this abnormally elevated production of NGF contributes to the induction of PCOS induced by EV. The animals were sacrificed after PCOS induction and the ovaries and hippocampus were sectioned and compared to the normal control. The expression of NGF was measured by immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis in the ovaries and hippocampus. EVinduced PCOS showed significant increase of ovarian NGF expression. Immunohistochemical expression of NGF was confined to the follicular cells and interstitial cells. Hippocampal NGF expression was not significantly changed. In conclusion EV-induced PCOS was related to the ovarian sympathetic activation which was mediated by NGF.
Acute renal injury induced by ischemia is a major cause of high morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients and a common complication in hospitalized patients. Thus, the work with acute renal failure and renal ischemia has been studied for many years. Although serum creatinine concentration that is widely used as an index of renal function performs fairly well for estimating kidney function in patients with stable chronic kidney disease, it performs poorly in the setting of acute disease. Thus, an ideal biomarker for acute kidney injury would help clinicians and scientists diagnose the most common form of acute kidney injury in hospitalized patients, acute tubular necrosis, early and accurately, and may aid to risk-stratify patients with acute kidney injury by predicting the need for renal replacement therapy, the duration of acute kidney injury, the length of stay and mortality. In this study, renal ischemia and reperfusion were performed by clapming and un-clamping right renal artery in miniature pigs. Plasma blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine were examined at pre- clamping, after-clamping at 0, 1 and 3 hours. And we searched initial indicators in these samples. Also, renal tissue was collected and searched the initial indicator by PCR and western blotting. As a result, hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF1α), nuclear factor kappa-B (NFκB), IκB, erythropoietin (EPO), erythropoietin receptor (EPOR), angiopoietin-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were showed significant changes among the renal protein. HIF1α, EPO, and EPOR were showed significant changes among the renal gene. Thus, these markers will be used as initial diagnosis of acute renal failure.
Cytogenetic and hematological analysis was performed in peripheral blood from the Korean native goat bred in the nuclear power plant (Wolsong and Uljin) and control area. The frequency of micronuclei (MN) in peripheral blood lymphocytes from goat was used as a biomarker of radiobiological effects resulting from exposure to environmental radiation. An estimated dose of radiation was calculated by best fitting linear-quadratic model based on the radiation-induced MN data over the range from 0 to 4 Gy from the goat lymphocytes with in vitro irradiation. MN rates in goats from the Wolsong and Uljin nuclear power plant, and control area were 9.60/1000, 6.83/1000 and 9.88/1000, respectively. There were no significant differences in MN frequencies and hematological values in goats between nuclear power plant and control area. High level of platelet in the goat from Uljin nuclear power plant was observed, which seemed to be related to the goat management.
The growth of health expenditures for the Medicaid enrollees is very rapid in spite of reduced enrollees in the Medicaid program. Therefore, the cost containment strategies in the Medicaid program is under progress these days. It has been concerned about the evaluation of utilization volume and pattern of healthcare services for the Medicaid enrollees. The existing findings showed that the utilization volume is larger for the Medicaid enrollees compared to the Medical Insurance enrollees, in terms of the length of stay(LOS) and health expenditures. However, the existing studies did not consider the severity of diseases between two groups. Moreover no study has been conducted on the differences of healthcare utilization pattern between two groups. In these context, this study investigated whether the Medicaid and the Medical Insurance enrollees have different healthcare utilization pattern based on the Korean Adjacent Diagnosis Related Group(KADRG). When significant differences were noted, the influencing factors to those differences were examined by analyzing six months medical record data from 30 hospitals. 1. For the ten most frequent KADRGs, the LOS of Medicaid Type 1 inpatients is longer than that of the insured over all 10 disease groups, but the Medicaid Type 1 inpatients have the lowest cost per day. However, the LOS of Medicaid Type 2 inpatients is not different to that of the insured, and their cost per day is even higher. 2. The regression analyses by disease groups show that the LOS of both Medicaid Type 1 and 2 is longer than that of the insured. However, while the cost per day for Medicaid Type 1 inpatients is lower than that for the insured, that for Medicaid Type 2 inpatients is higher than that for the insured.
이 논문은 『고금소총』에 등장하는 주요 남녀 등장인물의 권력관계와 이에 내포된 서사적 함의와 남성 만족을 위해 여성이 철저히 배제된 사회적 시각을 고찰하기 위한 연구이다. 그래서 당대 집필자의 시각과 향유자의 입장이 아닌 여성 수용자의 입장에서 문제의식을 가지고 새로운 시각에서 성문화와 성의식을 고찰하고자 했다. 그동안 ‘해학'이나 ‘골계미'로 포장된 사회적 시각에 의문을 제기하면서 남성들의 웃음 속에 가려진 여성 소외와 타자화 문제를 전면적으로 분석하고자 했다. 여기에 등장하는 여성들이 이야기 속에서 겪는 일들이 가해자와 피해자의 관계가 아니라, 오히려 그동안 몰랐던 성에 눈을 뜨고 고맙게도 ‘기쁨을 알게' 해주는 시혜자와 수혜자의 관계로 역전된다. 남성양반들에 의해 타자화된 여성의 몸은 심지어 여성 스스로에게까지도 철저히 소외된다. 이는 이야기부와 논평부 사이에서 발생하는 서사방식의 불일치에서 기인하는데, 내용의 충돌만큼이나 이야기 속 주인공과 작자, 당대의 독자층과 현재의 독자층, 그것도 현재의 여성독자층의 판단의 괴리는 깊다. 현재의 독자들조차 선조들의 ‘해학과 풍자', ‘경직된 시대의 엄숙성에 대한 발랄한 경종' 정도로 평가하는 이 작품은, 그 층위 간의 간극이 단순히 시대의 물리적 차이에서 기인하는 것은 아니다. 지금의 연구자들 시선 또한 당대의 향유계층과 의식과 다르지 않다. 오락성과 교훈성을 모두 갖춘 작품으로 해석해내려 하고, 농담에서조차 근엄한 훈계를 하며 세련되게 포장하려는 식자층의 현학적인 태도에 다름 아니기 때문이다. The present dissertation goes a step further from the meaning dealt with in preceding studies, which simply assessed Go-geum-so-chong as humor or humoristic beauty, and deducts the narrative implications of the male and female power relation between the main characters, in an attempt to make a connection with the social perspective that objectifies and excludes women for the purpose of male satisfaction. The reason for ‘rereading' these works from the position of a female audience living now, not as a reader or writer of the time, is that the story of Go-geum-so-chong, in which molestation and violence are routinely perpetrated against lower hierarchy women by men with power, still displays a significant critical consciousness for the situation we live in today. The things these women experience in the story are not placed in a relationship between offender and victim but reversed into a relationship between a beneficiary and a benefactor, who open their eyes to an act of sex yet unfamiliar to them and thankfully allows them ‘to know its joy'. The bodies of women otherized by male Yangban are thoroughly alienated even by the women themselves. Ultimately, the candid gaze toward women by male nobles and the way in which they treat women are revealed without filter, and the women who are displayed through the stories are totally nonexistent or become completely silent entities. The subjects that may be disciplined with a dignified voice in the commentary section are those with a lowly social status. Ultimately, the male commentator is silent or, with laughter, sympathizes with the ridiculous and strange behavior of the male yangban who share the same social class, but the males with a lower status than themselves, they trample, criticizing them severely. What the male nobles do to lowly women is show appreciation and have fun, but what the lower class men do to the same women is impart depravity or wickedness. The expression of criticism is too exclusive and discriminating to view it as emphasizing ‘admonishment' as a customary or decorative expression.
For 63 soil series distributed in Jeju Island, natural uncultivated soils in each soil series were collected, and their physicochemical properties and their concentrations of 19 heavy metals including 8 heavy metals which are regulated by Korean Soil Environment Conservation Law, were analyzed. Moreover, the correlations between physicochemical properties and heavy metal concentrations, and between heavy metal concentrations were analyzed. The heavy metals distributed in the higher concentrations and the lower concentrations with arithmetric mean value, were Mn(730 mg/kg) and Ba(493 mg/kg), and Hg(0.146 mg/kg) and Tl(0.096 mg/kg), respectively. The correlations between pH(H2O) and heavy metals(Hg, Ni, Co, Se), between pH(NaF) and heavy metals(Hg, Ba, Se, Tl), and between organic matter content and heavy metals(Hg, Tl) were significant at the 0.01 level. From the correlations between heavy metal concentrations, there were 22 where there were significant at the 0.01 level and they showed positive correlation. Among those, the heavy metals showing the correlation higher than r=0.5, were Sb-V(0.878), Mo-Sn(0.867), Co-V(0.654), Co-Sb(0.648), Be-Sn(0.546), and Sn-Tl(0.528).