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This study was performed to investigate the effects of Aloe vera administration(500mg/kg. B.W., s.i.d., P.O.) on hematology, blood chemical values and histopathological changes of spleen in cobalt-60 gamma Irradiated mice. 1. Total leucocyte counts of aloe administered groups were less decreased and more rapidly returned to normal level than those of control group. 2. Lymphocyte counts were rapidly decreased on the 1st day after irradiation in all experimental groups, but the counts were less decreased in aloe administered groups than those of control group. 3. Erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin values and hematocrit values of aloe administered groups were maintained within normal level, but these values showed lower values on the 14th day after irradiation in control group then returned to normal level on the 21th day after irradiation. 4. There were no differences between aloe administered groups and control group In LDH, SGOT and glucose values. 5. Histopathological changes of spleen in aloe administered groups showed less lymphocytic necrosis and depletion than those of control group.
The brachiocephalic trunk (Bct) branches from the aortic arch (Aa) and consists, in ruminants, of the common trunk of the left subclavian artery (LSb), the bicarotid artery (Bc) or left and right common carotid artery (LCc and RCc), and the right subclavian artery (RSb). This pattern differs from the primitive mammalian Aa pattern due to the fact that the analogs of the LCc and LSb migrate cranially and merge with the common trunk of the RCc and RSb in the embryonic stage. A Bct having a septal remnant that consisted of the tunica media was observed in a female Korean water deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus), which was deemed to have resulted from an incomplete merging of the vessel walls between a carnivoran-type Bct and an incomplete LSb. This is the first report of an abnormal Bct in a Korean water deer.
A 3-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat was presented with a chief complaint of sudden onsetof intermittent seizures occurring five times a day. Physical examination revealed the copper colored iris and loss ofmenace response at both eyes. Abnormalities of blood works and serum chemistry revealed mild erythrocytosis, severemicrocytosis, and threefold increase in ALT activity. Additional liver function tests results were increased bile acidand NH3 concentration. Radiographic study revealed multifocal nodules of the liver and an extrahepatic shunt was notedby ultraonography, which was confirmed by computed tomography as multiple extrahepatic shunts. The cat wasscheduled for surgery applying an ameloid ring to occlude the shunt gradually. Diazepam and lactulose were institutedto the patient. However, clinical signs worsened despite medical management with shortened interval of seizures andthe patient died due to cardiac arrest.
The primary goal of this study was to compute sample sizes required to achieve the each aim of a variety of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) surveillance programs, using a statistically valid technique that takes the following factors into account: sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of diagnostic test system, desired minimum detectable prevalence,precision, population size, and desired power of the survey. In addition, sample sizes to detect FMD if the disease is present and also as proof of freedom were computed. The current FMD active surveillance programs consist of clinical, virological, and serological surveillance. For the 2012 serological surveillance, annual sample sizes (n =265,065) are planned at four separate levels: statistical (n = 60,884) and targeted (n = 115,232) at breeding pig farms and slaughter house, in together with the detection of structural proteins (SP) antibodies against FMD (n = 88,949). Overall, the sample size was not designed taking the specific aims of each surveillance stream into account. The sample sizes for statistical surveillance, assuming stratified two-stage sampling technique, was based to detect at least one FMD-infected case in the general population. The resulting sample size can be used to obtain evidence of freedom from FMD infection, not for detecting animals that have antibodies against FMD virus non-structural proteins (NSP). Additionally, sample sizes for targeted surveillance were not aimed for the population at risk, and also without consideration of statistical point of view. To at least the author’s knowledge, sampling plan for targeted, breeding pig farms and slaughter house is not necessary and need to be included in the part of statistical surveillance. Assuming design prevalence of 10% in an infinite population, a total of 29 animals are required to detect at least one positive with probability of 95%, using perfect diagnostic test system (Se = Sp = 100%). A total of 57,211 animals needed to be sampled to give 95% confidence of estimating SP prevalence of 80% at the individual animal-level with a precision of ± 5%, assuming 800 herds with an average 200 heads per farm, within-farm variance of 0.2, between-farm variance of 0.05, cost ratio of 100:1 of farm against animals. Furthermore, 779,736 animals were required to demonstrate FMD freedom, and the sample size can further be reduced depending on the parameters assumed.
We reported an outbreak of clinical strangles in thoroughbred horses due to capnophilic Streptococcus equi subsp equi in South Korea. On three different farms, we isolated 17 S equi subsp equi isolates from 29 horses with or without abscesses in their lymph nodes. Of the 17 isolates, two isolates from clinical cases grew well in aerobic conditions, whereas 7/7 isolates from clinical cases and 8/22 isolates from the nasal discharges of horses did not. The latter 15 isolates were capnophilic, oxygen-sensitive, and CO2-requiring S equi subsp equi, which could not grow in aerobic conditions, but which grew well in a CO2 incubator with 5% CO2, in anaerobic conditions using a GasPak, and with reduced oxygen tension in a candle jar. This study is the first report of a strangles outbreak caused by capnophilic S equi subsp equi in South Korea.
Retroperitoneal teratoma was described in a 20-month-old intact female ferret (Mustela putorius furo). Retroperitoneal mass about 8 × 5 cm in size was surgically removed and histopathologic examination was performed. Grossly, on cross section of the mass, the consistency was soft to firm and contained several cystic structures whichare filled with dried keratinous material. Histologically, the retroperitoneal mass consisted of embryologicallyheterogeneous tissues that include skin, bone and cartilage, adipose tissue, respiratory epithelium, and exocrine pancreatictissue. Based on the characteristic histologic features of the mass, a diagnosis of retroperitoneal teratoma was made. Adrenal gland or ovary was suspected as the origin of the tumor.
In clinical settings, researchers often want to assess agreement between two measurements (or tests) of the same continuous variable. For example, when new point-of-care analyzer for testing blood glucose level were introduced clinicians need to compare results from standard or established laboratory method of measurement to those of new or point-of-care analyzer. The question in a method-comparison study would either of two different methods be used to measure the same variable equivalently. In this paper common misuse of statistical methodologies seen in the medical literatures such as correlation coefficient and paired t-test are discussed. The Bland-Altman technique has been widely used for this purpose and provides a graphic in presentation of the findings from a method-comparison study, with a mean value of measurement, this bias and the limits of agreement. For ease of application and interpretation of this technique we discussed the analysis procedure and illustrated with two worked examples. Finally, a number of alternative ways in which data can be analysed and reported in such studies were reviewed.
The present study evaluated that responses of peripheral and bone marrow depends on the frequency ofrecombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) administration in dogs. The rhG-CSF has beenrevealed that have a beneficial effect for dogs with myelosuppression secondary to chemotherapy or radiation but therewere no studies about the frequency of administration in dogs. In this research, rhG-CSF was administrated 5 μg/kg subcutaneously for each two-dogs group as follows: (1) every day for trial, (2) every other day for trial, (3) everythird day for trial. The peripheral blood analysis including direct microscopic differential counts of one hundred cellswas performed every day. Bone marrow aspiration was performed before administration of rh G-CSF, on the day of0, 3, 9 and when the WBC counts were decreased within the normal range (day 12 or 13). Rh G-CSF was welltoleratedand showed no side effects in all dogs. According to the present study, 5 μg/kg administration of rhG-CSFhave cell-specific, frequency-related effect on bone marrow and peripheral blood. Furthermore, the effects of rhG-CSFadministration on bone marrow sustained during the study and prolonged at least 3 days after discontinuing of rhGCSF treatment. The present study evaluated that responses of peripheral and bone marrow depends on the frequency ofrecombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) administration in dogs. The rhG-CSF has beenrevealed that have a beneficial effect for dogs with myelosuppression secondary to chemotherapy or radiation but therewere no studies about the frequency of administration in dogs. In this research, rhG-CSF was administrated 5 μg/kg subcutaneously for each two-dogs group as follows: (1) every day for trial, (2) every other day for trial, (3) everythird day for trial. The peripheral blood analysis including direct microscopic differential counts of one hundred cellswas performed every day. Bone marrow aspiration was performed before administration of rh G-CSF, on the day of0, 3, 9 and when the WBC counts were decreased within the normal range (day 12 or 13). Rh G-CSF was welltoleratedand showed no side effects in all dogs. According to the present study, 5 μg/kg administration of rhG-CSFhave cell-specific, frequency-related effect on bone marrow and peripheral blood. Furthermore, the effects of rhG-CSFadministration on bone marrow sustained during the study and prolonged at least 3 days after discontinuing of rhGCSFtreatment.
Two dogs were presented with a history of anorexia, respiratory distress, or epistaxis. On physicalexamination, the dogs showed difficulty breathing and open-mouth breathing and large masses were found on the hardpalate and soft palate. Cardiac arrest happened in case 2 and the dog was stabilized with cardiopulmonary resuscitationand oxygen therapy. Computed tomography demonstrated that the mass occupied the oropharynx, intrapharyngealostium, and laryngopharynx including the hard palate and soft palate in case 1. Palliative surgery was decided to improveswallowing and breathing with owner’s consent in two dogs. Buccal mucosal flaps were performed for reconstructionof defects using rotational and single-pedicle advancement flaps and bilateral 90 degree transposition flaps in cases1 and 2, respectively. Histopathology results described the oral masses as amelanotic melanoma in two dogs. Theowners reported that there was normal swallowing and breathing at 7 days postoperatively in two dogs. In case 1,recurrent tumor was identified caudal to the hard palate 4 weeks after surgery. The owner did not allow further treatmentand the dog became lost to follow-up at 2 months postoperatively. In case 2, there was no clinical or radiographicevidence of a local recurrence or distant metastasis at 3 weeks after surgery. The owner informed that the dog diedsuddenly with no signs of anything particularly wrong at 7 weeks after surgery.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic unpredictable stress on the reproductivefunction and ovarian luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) expression. 9-week-old C57BL/6 female mice were randomlydivided into two groups: control group and stressed group. Mice have been stressed twice a day for 35 days with12 different stressors which were randomly selected. The results demonstrate that there is significant increase in theanxiety-related behaviors (P < 0.05), decrease body weight gain rate (P < 0.01) and decrease in the average of littersize in stressed mice compared with control group (P < 0.01). Furthermore, the rate of primary, secondary and earlyantral follicles in stressed mice significantly decreased (P < 0.05), whereas that of atretic follicles significantly increasedcompared with control mice (P < 0.01). The immunohistochemical analysis revealed that reduced LHR expression ingranulosa cells of follicle and luteal cells of corpus luteum in response to chronic unpredictable stress. The westernblot analysis revealed significantly decrease in LHR expression in the stressed mice ovaries compared with the control(P < 0.05). These results suggest that ovarian LHR expression affected by chronic unpredictable stress and the modulatedovarian LHR is responsible for ovarian follicular maldevelopment and reproductive dysfunction.