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Background : Coronary disease is highly prevalent in patient with end stage renal disease (ESRD) and account for much of their observed morbidity and mortality. Troponin-I consistently maintains a high sensitivity and specificity and is most sensitive marker for ischemic heart disease (IHD). Method : We examed 49 hernodialyzed patients (22 male, 27 female) without evidence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) for 6 months. Biochemical markers were measured in serial predialysis blood samples. For analysis, we used two cardio-specific assays for troponin-T (cTnT) as well as for troponin-I (cTnI) and compared the results with CK-MB (reference value ≤ 4.0 ng/mL) concentration. Results : Myocardial ischemia was observed in 47% (23/49) of patients. cTnT level above 0.1 ng/mL. and cTnI level above 0.5 ng/mL, were observed in 22% (11/49) and 20% (10/49) of patients respectively. cTnI revealed significantly higher positive rate in patients with myocardial ischemia than the patients without myocardial ischemia (43 % vs 30%) (p<0.05). cTnT and CK-MB revealed no difference in positive rate between the patients with and without myocardial ischemia (cTnT : 30% vs 15% and CK-MB : 30% vs 19%). The sensitivity and specificity of cTnI to myocardial ischemia were higher than those of cTnT and CK-MB (sensitivity 43% vs 30% and 30%. specificity 100% vs 85% and 81%). Conclusion: Both cTnT and cTnI are useful in ruling out myocardial injury in chronic renal failure patients. But. cTnI is a more sensitivity and excellent specificity of ischemic heart disease than cTnT and CK-MB in hemodialyzed patients. In patients with ischemic heart disease, the presences of DM and advanced age were higher than those in patients without ischemic heart disease (p<0.05). Among the baseline characteristics old age, elevated LDH and diabeties were significant more frequent in the patients with elevation of cardiac troponin-I (p>0.5 ng/mL) than those with cardiac troponin-I (p<0.5 ng/mL), p=0.038, p=0.049, and p=0.045, respectively. Our results suggest that these cTnI is the potential diagnostic marker for the prediction of IHD in ESRD patients.
This Paper presents a gm-C(Transconductance-Capacitor) which is operated with single power supply +5V, integrated in a 0.8μm CMOS double-poly double-metal N-well process. Applications of the gm-C in voltage-controlled amplifiers, filters, and impedances are presented. The input linearity of the gm is very important value and this linearity can decide the overall characteristics. This paper propose a new gm circuit with wide linear input stage. The designed total area of chip is 3.4mm×1.6mm.
This study was conducted to investigate cultural conditions for artificial fruiting body production of Cordyceps militaris CMO02. The artificial fruiting body showed redness in colour and the length was 89∼93mm, and the number was 150∼170 in a bottle. The length and number of fruiting body were longer and many in media of the hulled rice and naked barley than that of silkworm pupa. The culture medium of hulled rice and naked barley showed higher artificial fruiting body compared to that silkworm pupae. The formation period of an artificial fruiting body of Cordyceps militaris treated with hulled rice and naked barley were 45 and 46 days, respectively. The optimum illumination was 400 lux for the fruiting body formation. Pinheading and development of Cordyceps militaris was quickly decreased at passage of three subculture.
본 연구에서는 방송 송신소에 설치되는 원격제어시스템이 갖추어야 할 기술기준을 제시하였다. 기존의 서비스망을 이용하여 통신을 하는 경우에는 단말장치의 기술기준에 따라야 하고, 무선인 경우에는 전파관리에 관한 법규를 따라야 한다. 대부분의 원격제어시스템이 컴퓨터를 사용하고 있으므로 기능이 다양하고 확장이 용이하다. 원격제어시스템 설치에 대한 규제사항을 최소로 하고, 안전조건과 호환성을 갖기 위한 접속조건을 강조하였다. In this paper, we suggest technical standards for remote control systems to be installed in the broadcasting studios. The remote control systems should follow the technical standards for the terminal equipments when communicating with remote terminals through the dedicated lines or PSTN, and follow the law of radio wave management for radio wave communication. Most remote control systems using the computers have versatile functions and are easy to be expanded. Limitations for the remote control system installation are minimized, and both safety and compatibility are stressed in this work.
우리나라의 농업은 작업자의 고령화와 여성작업자의 증가 그리고 비정형화로 구성된 작업형태로 인해 근골격계질환의 위험성이 매우 높은 업종이다. 특히 과수업은 작업점이 작업자의 머리위에서 형성되어 지속적으로 이루어지고, 수확기에는 작업량이 집중되어 농업분야 중에서도 근골격계질환의 유병율이 가장 높게 나타난다. 본 연구에서는 고령농작업자에게 집중적으로 발생되는 근골격계질환을 예방하기 위해 수확기에 집중되는 대표작업 세 가지 운반 작업, 선별작업 그리고 포장작업을 선정하여 유해요인을 분석하고 공학적 개선책을 제시하고자 한다. 배농업의 수확기 작업에서 근골격계질환 유해요인으로 나타나는 중량물 운반 작업과 불필요한 작업 자세를 개선할 수 있는 자바라 컨베이어 벨트와 높이조절식 작업대의 도입을 통하여 고령 작업자뿐만 아니라 여성 작업자들이 효율적인 시스템에서 안전하게 작업할 수 있기를 기대하며 근골격계질환 발생으로 인한 사회․경제적 손실도 감소시킬 수 있을 것이다.
A chemical examination of the phenolic compounds in the leaves of Sapium japonicum (Euphorbiaceae) has led to the isolation of eleven phenolic compounds. containing five hydrolysable tannins and six flavonoids. On the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidences, the structures of these compounds were confirmed to be galic acid(1), 5-O-caffeoyl quinic acid(2), 1-O-galloyl-3, 6-(R)-HHDP-β-n-glucose(coriiagin)(3), 1-O-galloyl-2.4-(R)-DHHDP-βn-glucose (furosin)(4), 1-O-galloyl-2.4-(R)-DHHDP-3.6-(R)-HHDP-β-m-glucose(geraniin)(5), astragalin(6), trifolin(7), afzelin(8), quercetin(9), isoquercitrin(10) and rutin(11). Among them geraniin was the main component.
Objectives : To examine the cytotoxicity of streptomycin(STR) on cultured mouse fibroblasts, cytotoxocity-induced by STR was measured by MTT assay. Methods : Fibroblasts were cultured in the media containing various concentrations of STR for 72 hours. In addition, cytoprotective effect of Drynariase Rhizoma(DR) on STR-induced cytotoxicity in fibroblasts was examined when fibroblasts were preincubated with various concentrations of DR for 2 hours before treatment of 5 ㎍/ml STR for 72 hours. Results : STR decreased remarkably cell viability in a dependentmanner in these cultures, and also DR increased cell viability and amount of DNA synthesis damaged by STR. Conclusions : From the above results, it is suggested that STR has toxic effect in cultured mouse fibroblasts, and also DR was effective in the protection of STR-induced cytotoxicity in these cultures.
Background: Vitiligo is an acquired and progressive hypomelanotic disease that manifests as circumscribed depigmented patches on the skin. Although the precise mechanism remains to be elucidated, an imbalance of the oxidant/antioxidant system has been proposed as an important etiologic mechanism. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the oxidant/antioxidant status of vitiligo patients at the erythrocyte level. Methods: Fifty-three vitiligo patients and 65 phototype-, age-, and sex-matched healthy controls were included in this study. Blood samples were collected from all subjects, and all patients were instructed to answer a questionnaire. Results: Erythrocyte levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) were measured. All patients were told to answer a questionnaire regarding their habitual behavior, including frequency of smoking and type of diet. We observed significantly lower levels of GSH in vitiligo patients, but the levels of MDA did not differ between patients and controls. Vitiligo patients who smoked showed significantly lower GSH levels compared to non-smoking patients, but the levels of MDA were unchanged between the 2 groups. Conclusion: From our results, we conclude that reduced erythrocytic or systemic GSH levels constitute a distinctive feature in vitiligo patients regardless of disease activity. (Ann Dermatol 22(3) 279∼283, 2010)
Shin, Woo Jung,Seo, Ji‐,Hye,Choi, Hyun Woo,Hong, Yean Ju,Lee, Won Ji,Chae, Jung Il,Kim, Sung Joo,Lee, Jeong Woong,Hong, Kwonho,Song, Hyuk,Park, Chankyu,Do, Jeong Tae John WileySons, Inc. 2019 Journal of comparative neurology Vol.527 No.18
<P><B>Abstract</B></P><P>Human‐induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have facilitated studies on organ development and differentiation into specific lineages in in vitro systems. Although numerous studies have focused on cellular differentiation into neural lineage using hPSCs, most studies have initially evaluated embryoid body (EB) formation, eventually yielding terminally differentiated neurons with limited proliferation potential. This study aimed to establish human primitive neural stem cells (pNSCs) from exogene‐free hiPSCs without EB formation. To derive pNSCs, we optimized N2B27 neural differentiation medium through supplementation of two inhibitors, CHIR99021 (GSK‐3 inhibitor) and PD0325901 (MEK inhibitor), and growth factors including basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and human leukemia inhibitory factor (hLIF). Consequently, pNSCs were efficiently derived and cultured over a long term. pNSCs displayed differentiation potential into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. These early NSC types potentially promote the clinical application of hiPSCs to cure human neurological disorders.</P>