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Keratosis follicularis squamosa (Dohi) is a keratinizing disorder which is a separate clinical entity from keratosis follicularis (Darier`s disease). It occurs predominantly in Japanese and appears clinically as scaly patches of 3∼10 mm in diameter with brownish follicular plugs in the center, which are symmetrically scattered on the trunks and thighs. Scales on the margin, slightly detached from the underlying epidermis, look like ``lotus leaves on the water``. The efficacy of minocycline has already been confirmed in many cases. In this report, we describe a case of using 1% of pimecrolimus cream for keratosis follicularis squamosa (Dohi) instead of minocycline. (Korean J Dermatol 2013;51(7):556∼559)
The purpose of this study have two as follows; One is to examine the theoretical backgrounds and some effects of cooperative learning and the other is to prove the usefulness of cooperative learning in moral teaching and to provide an effective model of moral teaching in order to develop three aspects of morality. Cooperative learning is the instructional use of small groups so that students work together to maximize their own and each other's learning. Within cooperative activities individuals seek outcomes that are beneficial to themselves and beneficial to all other group members. Cooperative efforts result in participants striving for mutual benefit so that all group members gain from each other's efforts, recognizing that all group members share a common fate, knowing that one's performance is mutually caused for achievement. It is founded that cooperative learning is one of effective instructional processes to develop student's character. It gives students regular practice in developing important social and moral competencies, such as the ability to take perspective, work as a part of a tem, and appreciate others, at the same time that they are learning academic materials. Cooperative learning also contributes to the development of cohesive and caring classroom community by breaking down inter-personal distrust and over-competition and integrating every student into the small social structure of the cooperative group. We proposed the integrated model of moral teaching that could be helpful to build moral knowing, moral feeling, moral acting of students.
Green nail syndrome (chromonychia) is a nail disorder characterized by onycholysis and green-black discoloration of the nail bed. This condition is often associated with chronic paronychia. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most commonly identified organism in cultures from the affected area. Despite the various treatment options available, removal of the nail is still necessary in many cases. A 35-year-old man presented with dark-greenish discoloration of the nail plate and onycholysis on the left thumbnail. He had been treated with oral antifungal and antibiotic agents for several months; however, the lesion showed no improvement. The diagnosis of green nail syndrome was established after a positive bacterial culture, and on the basis of the antibiotic sensitivity test result, tobramycin eye drop (Tobrexⓡ) was then prescribed. Three weeks later, the nail discoloration almost vanished but the onycholysis remained. Herein, we recommend the application of tobramycin eye drop as an easy and safe treatment option for green nail syndrome. (Ann Dermatol 26(4) 514∼516, 2014)
Problems of composite tissue transfer commonly arise when a single indispensable recipient vessel receives the graft vssel, and the graft vessel must be sutured in end-to-side fashion so as not todisturb the vascularity of the recipient vessel. The triangular flap in the recipient vessel wall gives an intact endothelial surface when the flow of blood stream is presented and may reduce the chance of anastomosis. We selected mature Wistar rats weighing over 450 grams to compare the conventional longitudinal slit from the triangular flap in the recipient carotid artery over bloood pressure and blood flow when the donor carotid artery was anastomosed in end-to-side fashion. In 30 minutes after anastomosis, maximum blood pressure measured in the donor carotid arterial side when the recipient arterial wall was fasioned with the longitudinal slit was recorded 114 mmHg and with the triangular flap 100mmHg. Minimum blood pressure with the longitudinal slit was 98mmHg and with the triangular flap 88mmHg. The amount of blood collected for 30 seconds in the conventional longitudinal slit was 1.18mg and in the triangular flap 0.78mg. Histology study in 30 minutes, the conventional longitudinal slit demonstrated the more hemorrhagic features around the suture material compared to that of the triangular. flap and, in the 7th day, the conventional longitudinal slit demonstrated the more prominent granulomatous reactions and vascular proliferations around the suture material compared to that of the triangular flap.
Free tissue transplantation is commonly performed with the brilliant achievement in microsurgery and anticoagulants and antithrombotic agents have been prescribed in the procedures. However, there is no clean-cut indication as to which agents would be more effective in every steps and final consequences. Low molecular weight heparins inhibiting coagulation in plateletrich plasma and acting on the vascular endothelium have antithrombotic and fibrinolysis action. The experiment with rat groin free flap transplantation after 6-hour ischemia and injection of the low molecular weight heparin was performed and the results between the injection and non-injection group were analysed as follows, 1. Both of the 24-hour groups, vessel patency was not proportional to color change of the groin flap. 2. On the second day after anastomois, heparin-injection group showed intact intima, patent lumen without thrombus, and mild granulomatous inflammation around the suture material and control group with doubtful patency revealed intimal loss and thrombus formation. 3. On the 5th, 7th, and 9th postoperative day, heparin group was patent in anastomosis and showed acute inflammatory cells. 4. The 7th-week period, heparin-injection group showed intact flap color, patent lumen with intact intima and persistent foreign body granuloma.
Background: Diabetes is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, which can increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The formation of ROS induces oxidative stress and activates oxidative damage-inducing genes in cells. No research has been published on oxidative damage-related extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) protein levels in human diabetic skin. We investigated the expression of EC-SOD in diabetic skin compared with normal skin tissue in vivo. Objectives: To compare the expression of EC-SOD in normal skin versus diabetic skin. Methods: The expression of EC-SOD protein was evaluated by western blotting in 6 diabetic skin tissue samples and 6 normal skin samples. Immunohistochemical staining was also carried out to confirm the EC-SOD expression level in the 6 diabetic skin tissue samples. Results: The western blotting showed significantly lower EC-SOD protein expression in the diabetic skin tissue than in the normal tissue. Immunohistochemical examination of EC-SOD protein expression supported the western blotting analysis. Conclusion: Diabetic skin tissues express a relatively small amount of EC-SOD protein and may not be protected against oxidative stress. We believe that EC-SOD is related to the altered metabolic state in diabetic skin, which elevates ROS production.
Background: Atopic dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, irritant or allergic contact dermatitis, rosacea, and acne are skin diseases that cause repeated facial erythema. Topical steroids are used to treat these dermatologic condition and long term use of topical steroids can cause complication such as skin atrophy, telangiectasia, and steroid induced acneiform eruption. PPARα is known to regulate keratinocyte differentiation and proliferation, and also participates in wound healing and skin inflammation. Objectives: This study is about the effect of PPARα activator containing moisturizers in patients with facial erythema by improving anti-inflammatory action and skin barrier function. Methods: 32 patients were included in this study and they were applied with PPARα activator containing moisturizers in one side of the face, and the other side with moisturizers not containing PPARα activator. They were applied twice a day two days a week and the study was double blinded, body-split study. The patients were checked of skin hydration, TEWL, and erythema the first day of hospital visit and 2 weeks after the study. Clinical photo analysis was done for checking erythema index and the result was assessed with doctor and patient survey. Results: Patients applied with PPARα activator containing moisturizer showed significant decrease of erythema measurement using mexameter, and decreased erythema index from photo analysis. No significant difference was noted in skin hydration and TEWL. Conclusion: We confirmed the effect and safety of PPARα activator containing moisturizers and anticipate it as a useful treatment for patients with facial erythema.