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This study was done to determine the effects of pollen load on growth, biochemical components and digestibility of protein from pollen load in rats. Weanling male rats were divided into three groups. Pollen load was given at three levels and comprising 0, 6, 12 persent of dietary protein. Consumption of pollen load 12% protein from pollen load significantly decreased weight gain(P<0.05), protein efficiency ratio(P<0.05), food efficiency ratio(P<0.05), organ weight(P<0.05), plasma protein content(P<0.05) and apparent digestibility of protein(P<0.05). However there was no difference in the protein content in the liver among three groups. The diet containing 6% protein from pollen load was better nutritional efficiency and apparent digestibility in comparison to those of 12% protein from pollen load.
갈화해정탕은 역대로 酒傷病에 쓰여진 대표적인 처방이다. 이 연구에서는 알콜 투여 후 자연회복군, 알콜 투여 후 갈화해정탕 투여군, 알콜 투여 후 운동 적용군, 알콜 투여 후 갈화해정탕 투여 운동 병행군으로 나누어 각각의 혈청 지질과 BUN, Creatinine의 함량 변화를 알아 보았다. 1. Total cholesterol 함량은 2주 후에는 갈화해정탕 투여 및 운동 병행군에서 감소하였고, 4주 후에는 갈화해정탕 투여 및 운동 병행군에서 유의성 있게 감소하였다. 2. HDL-cholesterol 함량은 2주 후에는 운동 적용군에서 유의성 있게 증가하였고, 4주 후에는 자연회복군, 갈화해정탕 투여군에서 유의성 있게 증가하였다. 3. Triglyceride 함량은 2주 후에는 운동 적용군에서 유의성 있게 감소하였고, 4주 후에는 갈화해정탕 투여군에서 유의성 있게 감소하였다. 4. Free fatty 함량은 2주 후에는 갈화해정탕 투여군에서 유의성 있게 감소하였고, 4주 후에는 갈화해정탕 투여군, 갈화해정탕 투여 및 운동 병행군에서 유의성 있게 감소하였다. 5. BUN 함량은 2주 후에는 갈화해정탕 투여 및 운동 병행군에서 유의성 있게 감소하였고, 4주 후에는 운동 적용군에서 유의성 있게 감소하였다. 6. Creatinine 함량은 2주 후에는 갈화해정탕 투여 및 운동 병행군에서 유의성 있게 감소하였고, 4주 후에는 운동 적용군, 갈화해정탕 투여 및 운동 병행군에서 유의성 있게 감소하였다. 이상의 결과로 갈화해정탕 투여 및 운동부하는 알콜 대사량 증가의 효과가 있을 것으로 생각된다. Galwhahaejungtang has beer? used to alcoholic disease. Object of This study is examining the effect of Galwhahaejungtang and exercise on variation of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride. free fatty acid, BUN, Creatinine in rat with alcohol administration. METHODS AND MATERIALS Fifty four rats were divided into four groups. 1. The group of rat with alcohol administration and no treatment 2. The group of rat with alcohol and Galwhahaejungtang administration 3. The group of rat with alcohol administation and exercise 4. The group of rat with alcohol, Galwhahaejungtang administration and exercise Serum of rat were obtained after 2 weeks and 4 weeks. RESULTS 1. The level of total cholesterol was decreased in the group of rat with Ckluhahaejungtang administration and exercise after 2 weeks. After 4 weeks, the level of total cholesterol Lvas significantly decreased in the group of rat with Galwhahaejungtang administration and exercise. 2. The level of HDL-cholesterol was significantly increased in the group of rat with exercise after 2 weeks. After 4 weeks, the level of HDL-cholesterol was significantly increased in the group of rat with no treatment and with Gulwhahaejungtang administration. 3. The level of tryglyceride was significantly decreased in the group of rat with exercise after 2 weeks, After 4 weeks, the level of tryglyceride was significantly decreased in the group of rat with Galwhahaeiungtang administration. 4. The level of free fatty acid was significantly decreased in the group of rat with Galwhahaejungtang administration after 2 weeks. After 4 weeks, the level of free fatty acid waas significantly decreased in the group of rat with Galuhbejungtang administration and with Galuhahaejungtang administration and exercise. 5. The level of BUN was significantly decreased in the group of rat with Galwhahaejungtang administration and exercise after 2 weeks. After 4 weeks, the level of BUN was significantly decreased in the group of rat with exercise. 6. The level of creatinine was significantly decreased in the group of rat with Galwhhaejungtang administration and exercise. After 4 weeks, the level of creatinine was significantly decreased in the group of rat with exercise and with Galhahaejungtang administration and exercise. CONCLUSION Based on these results, it is considered that Galwhahaejungtang administration and exercise has an accelerating effect on alcohol metabolism Key words : Galwhahaejungtang, lipid, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, free fatty acid, exercise, BUN, creatinine, alcohol metabolism
This study was performed to investigate the content of a few inorganic metals and the degree of water temperature pH, DO, BOD, COD, SS, TH, Cl^(-), SO_(4)^(-), total alkali and PO_(4)^(3)-P in Singal Lake. In general they are favorable as the water to see but compared with the several terms which are measured in 1976 the pollution of the water increased by five or six times.
Vitellogenin(Vtg), a phospholipoglycoprotein precursor of egg yolk, is synthesized and secreted from the liver in response to estrogens in female fish. Vtg is normally undetectable in the blood of male fish, but can be induced by exposure to chemicals possessing estrogenic activity. Thus, the presence of Vtg in blood of male fish can serve as a useful biomarker for assessing previous exposure to estrogenic compounds. In the present study, Vtg was abnormally expressed in Rhynchocypris oxycephalus treatment of Estradiol Benzoate (E_(2)). As the result, it was found that the level of Vtg in blood from R. oxycephalus was increased by treated quantity of E_(2) with dose-effect manner.
Color is basically important in our life because it not only plays a role as a visual media but also provokes the human being into emotional action. That is, we can recognize, classify and utilize much information around us by using our color sense. In order to properly apply color so that we can get the upmost effect of color, we must pursue reasonable color arrangement by means of understanding functions of color. According as the improvement of product functional quality due to the technical development consumer requests for satisfactory design for goods as much as functional one. Color has worth for being as an esthetic factor and also as an essential part in our life. Nowadays importance of design has been increased among elements which are deciding factors in ranking product quality. Especially the role of design in electronics holds 60% of purchase motive factors. Besides the role of color holds the majority in design factors. Color is considerable for the fuctional side and it stimulates consumers to buy goods, color contributes enterprise to make up its good image and most of all it makes a distinction with other company's goods. The color plan of a product should be based on scientific research for being fitted our focus and turning to advantage. And it should be planned by a completely strategic progress with all goods' condition which surrounds us as well as fully expressed by their own distinction. We believe the color plan of a product sets up a co-operation between products and consumers, and increases more competitive power than others in electronics market. Therefore We hope this study will help to establish systematic and actual color plan methods and carry out color application.
목적 : 1999년부터 2002년까지 4년간 서울아산병원에서 시행된 산전 세포유전학적 검사 2,372건의 후향적 분석을 통하여 최근에 시행한 검사의 적응증, 비정상적인 핵형의 유형들에 대해서 살펴보고 각각의 적응증에서 실제로 비정상적인 핵형이 관찰되는 빈도에 대해서 알아보고자 한다. 연구 방법 : 총 1,780건의 양수천자술, 455건의 제대혈천자술, 137건의 융모막 융모채취술을 통한 산전 세포유전학적 검사들을 대상으로 후향적으로 의무기록을 검토하였다. 세포유전학적 검사 결과, 산전 유전 진단의 적응증, 검사 시의 연령, 비정상적인 핵형들의 유형에 대하여 분석하였고 산전 유전 진단을 시행하게 된 각각의 적응증이 갖는 양성예측률에 대한 계산을 통하여 비정상적인 태아의 핵형을 가장 민감하게 예측해 줄 수 있는 지표에 대하여 평가하였다. 결과 : 총 2,372건의 산전 세포유전학적 검사 중 비정상 핵형이 158건에서 확인되었다. (6.7%). 산전 유전진단의 적응증에서 가장 흔한 적응증은 비정상적인 산모 혈청 선별검사이었고 (33.9%), 비정상 초음파 소견 (22.9%)과 고령 임신 (20.0%)이 그 다음으로 흔한 적응증이었다. 균형 재배열과다형성을 정상 핵형으로 간주하였을 때 비정상적인 핵형과 정상 태아 핵형이 확인된 산모의 연령에는 유의한 차이가 관찰되지 않았다 (31.9±5.3 vs. 32.1±4.5세). 균형 재배열과 다형성을 제외한 비정상 태아 핵형이 확인된 산모에서 산전 유전 진단의 가장 흔한 적응증은 비정상 초음파 소견(58.7%)이었는데, 비정상 초음파 소견이 발견되었을 때 실제로 비정상적인 태아의 핵형이 나타나는 양성 예측률은 9.9%로 확인되었다. 결론 : 본 연구의 결과는 산전 세포유전학적 진단의 여러 적응중 가운데 비정상 초음파 소견이 태아의 비정상적인 핵형을 예측하는데 가장 민감한 지표가 될 수 있음을 시사한다. Objective : To review and evaluate a total of 2,372 cases of prenatal cytogenetic diagnoses at Asan Medical Center from 1999 to 2002. Methods : We reviewed to medical records of the patients in whom the procedure for prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis was performed. A total of 1780 cases of amniocentesis, 455 cases of cordocentesis, and 137 cases of chorionic villus sampling were analyzed. The cytogenetic results, indications for prenatal cytogenetic diagnoses, maternal ages, and the profiles of abnormal karyotypes were reviewed. We calculated the positive predictive value of each indication for abnormal fetal karyotypes and evaluated a factor that was the most sensitive marker for abnormal fetal karyotypes. Results : Among the 2,372 cases of prenatal cytogenetic diagnoses, abnormal karyotypes were identified in a total of 158 cases (6.7%). The most frequent indication for prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis was abnormal maternal serum screening (33.9%), followed by ultrasonographic abnomality (22.9%) and old age (20.0%). No significant difference was found between mean maternal age with and without abnormal fetal karyotypes after excluding balanced rearrangements and polymorphisms (31.9±5.3 vs. 32.1±4.5 years). Among the 92 cases of abnormal fetal karyotypes after excluding balanced rearrangements and polymorphisms, the most frequent indication for prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis was ultrasonographic abnormality (58.7%), followed by abnormal maternal serum screening (10.9%). The positive predictive value of ultrasonographic abnormality for abnormal fetal karyotype was 9.9%. Conclusion : Among the several indications for prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis, ultrasonographic abnormality could be the most predictive marker for abnormal fetal karyotypes.