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The seawater pipes in the engine rooms of ships are surrounded by severely corrosive environments caused by fast flowing seawater containing chloride ions, high conductivity, etc. Therefore, it has been reported that seawater leakage often occurs at a seawater pipe because of local corrosion. In addition, the leakage area is usually welded using shielded metal arc welding with various electrodes. In this study, when seawater pipes were welded with four types of electrodes(E4311, E4301, E4313, and E4316), the difference between the corrosion resistance values in their welding zones was investigated using an electrochemical method. Although the corrosion potential of a weld metal zone welded with the E4316 electrode showed the lowest value compared to the other electrodes, its corrosion resistance exhibited the best value compared to the other electrodes. In addition, a heat affected zone welded with the E4316 electrode also appeared to have the best corrosion resistance among the electrodes. Furthermore, the corrosion resistance of the weld metal zone and heat affected zone exhibited relatively better properties than that of the base metal zone in all of the cases welded with the four types of electrodes. Furthermore, the hardness values of all the weld metal zones were higher than the base metal zone.
The combustion chamber of a diesel engine is often exposed to a more serious wear and corrosion environment than other parts of the engine because its temperature increases as a result of using heavy oil of low quality. Therefore, repair and built-up welding methods must be performed on worn or corroded parts of the piston crown, exhaust valve, etc. from an economical point of view. In this study, Inconel 718 filler metal was used in repair welding on the groove of a forged steel specimen for a piston crown, along with built-up welding on the surface of another forged steel specimen. Then, the corrosion characteristics of the weld metal zone for the repair welding and the deposited metal zone for the built-up welding were investigated using electrochemical methods in a 35% H2SO4 solution. The deposited metal zone indicated better corrosion resistance than the weld metal zone, showing a nobler corrosion potential, higher impedance, and smaller corrosion current density. It is considered that metal elements with good corrosion resistance were generally included in the filler metal, and these elements were also greatly involved in the deposited meta by built-up welding, whereas the weld metal consisted of metal elements mixed with both the filler metal and base metal elements because of the molten pool produced by the repair welding. Finally, it is considered that the hardness of the weld metal was increased by the repair welding, whereas the built-up welding improved the corrosion resistance of the deposited metal.
Modified C95600 bronze contains Fe component if 0.7 weight percentage besides Cu-7Al-2.5Si composition. The shape of centrifugal cast is a circular pipe with thick wall. Specimens machined from the centrifugal cast were quenched in oil after isothermal holding at a given heat treatment temperature in the range of 700-900 ℃. Mechanical properties and structural morphology are depended on the quenching heat treatment temperature regardless of isothermal holding time. Tensile strength or Brinell hardness is increased with increasing heat treatment temperature. The microstructure caused by quenching contains mixing phases of α+β’+ FeSi+κ, which martensite if β’ phase has been transformed from β phase. Effect of isothermal holding temperature on mechanical properties in case of quenching heat treatment attributes to the change if volume fraction if β" on the structural morphology. Mechanical characteristics of specimen, initially quenched fram 850 ℃, and then tempered at 500 ℃, does not show an obvious softerning indication, because disappearance of β’ during tempering process can be compensated by precipitation of brittle phase ?.
Backgroud: Various Q-switched(QS) lasers, such as ruby, alexandrite or neodymium:YAG(Nd:YAG) lasers, are used to remove tattoos and permanent makeup. To our knowledge, there has been no indication or guideline published for the optimal time for laser-mediated tattoo removal. Objective: To set a guideline for the optimal irradiation time for tattoo and permanent makeup removal via 1,064nm QS Nd:YAG(QSND) laser, we compared the degree of tattoo removal and skin histologic changes when the irradiation was employed at different time points. Mothods: Rat skin was marked with 54 artificial permanent makeup marks with black ink using a permanent makeup machine. The marks were irradiated with a 1,064 nm QSND laser on the application day, and 3 days, 5 days, 1 week, 2 week, and 3 weeks after application. Pigmentation changes were checked over time using a Mexameter and skin biopsy. Results: There was no significant difference in the degree of pigment removal as examined by Mexameter on the day of makeup application compared to 3 days, 5 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, and 3 weeks after application. Histologically, the permanent makeup pigments seemed to move from epidermis to superficial and mid dermis with time. The pigments were relatively well removed throughout the epidermis and dermis when the laser was employed 7 days after tattoo application, compared to laser irradiation on the day of application, as viewed histologically. Conclusion: Laser removal of permanent makeup is effective on the day of application, as determined by testing pigment levels. However, based on histopathology, it is recommended to use lasers to remove permanent makeup about a week after application, since the wound repair process is almost complete at that time.
본 연구는 복싱 잽(jab) 동작 시 상지회전 운동에 따른 근활성도를 분석하는데 목적이 있었다. 최근 1년간 근골격계 상해을 경험하지 않은 대학교 남자 복싱선수 7명이(나이: 21.44±0.53 yrs, 신장: 171.22±4.32 cm 체중: 66.00±8.43 kg, 경력 7.22±0.67 yrs) 3가지 Type으로(Type 1: 손등이 위쪽, Type2: 손등이 좌측방향, Type 3: 손등이 우측방향) 잽 동작을 수행하는데 발생되는 상지 근육들의 활성도를 측정하였다. Noraxon wireless system을 이용하여 인체 근육의 활성도 자료를 수집하였으며 상지회전 운동에 따른 잽의 3가지 Type에 따른 차이를 검증하기 위해 one-way repeated ANOVA(α=.05)에서 실시하여 다음과 같은 결과를 도출하였다. 복싱 잽 동작 시 상지 근육들의 근활성도 및 최대 손 속도 그리고 Type 1에 대하여 일반화한 수치를 분석한 결과, Type 3 조건에서 통계적으로 가장 큰 수치를 나타내었다. 그러므로 복싱 잽 동작 시 상지의 회내 회전 운동은 펀치력을 상승시킬 수 있을 것으로 사료된다. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of upper extremity rotation movement on muscles activation of upper and forearm during the boxing jab. Eight elite boxing player(age = 21.44±0.53 yrs, mass = 66.00±8.43 kg, height = 171.22±4.32 cm, career = 7.22±0.67 yrs) were performed three type of jab(Type 1: the back of the hand toward ground, Type 2: the back of the hand toward right, Type 3: the back of the hand toward left) on muscles activation of upper and forearm. All muscles activation data was collected using Noraxon wireless system. The value of mean IEMG, %RVC and velocity of hand were compared among the three type of jab by using the one way repeated ANOVA(a=.05). The results indicated that mean IEMG, velocity of hand and normalized value by Type 1 were significantly higher in the Type 3 condition. Therefore, it was known that upper extremity internal rotation may increase power of punch for attacking game during a boxing jab.
Cutaneous manifestations of secondary syphilis vary widely. Nodular lesions and condyloma lata on multiple sites are an uncommon presentation. A 34-year-old man presented with a 1-month history of multiple nodules and papules on the chest and multiple erythematous whitish nodules with maceration on the perineal area and anus, oral cavity, and umbilicus. On the basis of a serologic test for syphilis and skin biopsy, nodular syphilid and condyloma lata was confirmed. We report an unusual case of secondary syphilis that presented with multiple nodular syphilid on the chest and multiple condyloma lata arising in the perineum, anus, oral cavity, umbilicus. (Korean J Dermatol 2009;47(11):1324~1327)
Background: Chickenpox is caused by the varicella zoster virus of herpes viridae and very contagious childhood disease. It is uncommon in adults and can be associated with serious complications. And chickenpox may be dangerous in adult patients, because the complications are more frequent in adults than children. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of chickenpox occurred in adults in Korea. Methods: Total 100 cases of chickenpox inpatients over the 18 years of age were retrospectively evaluated in regard to monthly, seasonal incidence, sexual difference, age distribution, hospitalization period, transmission route, prodromal symptoms, cutaneous manifestations, the associated conditions, laboratory abnormalities, complications during 18 year period from 1991 to 2009. Results: The results were as follows. 1. Monthly incidence of chickenpox was highest in May (20%), lowest in September (2%). The peak incidence on seasonal analysis was in Spring and Summer and the lowest incidence was in Autumn. 2. The ratio of males to females was 1.3: 1. Chickenpox was seen most frequently in the 20-39 year age group (82%). 3. The mean onset time was 3.6 days, and the mean hospitalization period was 6.1 days. 4. The frequencies of the prodroml symptoms in chickenpox, in descending order, were fever (79%), sore throat (26%), myalgia (26%), itching (24%), chilling (21%), headache (9%), cough (8%), fatigue (4%), and appetite loss (2%). Common cutaneous manifestations were papules (97%), vesicles (95%), pustules (35%), crusts (29%). And mucosal involvement was observed in 6% of the patients. 5. Associated conditions of chickenpox were observed for 31 patients (31%); renal diseases (8%), dermatologic diseases (5%), hepatic diseases (4%), hypertension (4%), diabetes mellitus (3%) and so on. 6. The most common abnormal laboratory findings was abnormality of liver function test (23%). 7. The most common complications of chickenpox was secondary infections (12%), and others were acute pharyngotonsillitis (4%), viral pneumonia (4%), hepatitis (2%), keratoconjunctivitis (2%). Conclusion: Our data showed that the complications and laboratory abnormalities of chickenpox in adults are more common than in childhood. (Korean J Dermatol 2010;48(4):272~277)
Nevus sebaceous (NS) is a congenital hamartomatous disorder of the skin and its adnexa, usually involving the scalp or the face. It characteristically evolves and changes morphology with time. Various benign and malignant neoplasms can develop in association with NS. Most common benign or malignant tumors developed within the NS are syringocystadenoma papilliferum and trichoblastoma or basal cell epithelioma. We now report a case of NS associated with sebaceous adenoma, basal cell epithelioma, and eccrine poroma in a 63 year old male. (Korean J Dermatol 2009;47(7):825~830)