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In various engineering fields, determining the appropriate parameter set is a cumbersome and difficult task when solving optimization problems. Despite the appropriate parameter setting through parameter sensitivity analysis, there are limits to evaluating whether the parameters are appropriate for all optimization problems. For this reason, kinds of a Self-adaptive Harmony searches have been developed to solve various engineering problems by the appropriate setting of algorithm`s own parameters according to the problem. In this study, various types of Self-adaptive Harmony searches were investigated and the characteristics of optimization were categorized. Six algorithms with a differentiation of optimization process were applied and compared with not only the mathematical optimization problem, but also the engineering problem, which has been applied widely in the algorithm performance comparisons. The performance of each algorithm was compared, and the statistical performance indicators were used to evaluate the application results quantitatively. 다양한 공학분야의 최적화 문제를 해결하기 위해 적절한 매개변수를 설정하기란 번거로운 작업이며, 매개변수 민감도 분석을 통해 적절한 매개변수를 설정하더라도 설정된 매개변수가 모든 문제에 적절한지 판단하기에는 한계가 있다. 이러한 이유로 매개변수를 문제에 따라 적절하게 설정하는 매개변수 자동검보정 (Self-adaptive) 화음탐색 알고리즘이 개발되고 발전하고 있다. 본 연구에서는 지금까지 개발된 자가적응형 하모니서치를 조사하고 그의 특성을 해탐색, 설정 매개변수, 적용성 등으로 구분하였으며, 이 중 매개변수 설정의 번거로움을 없애고, 적절한 매개변수 설정을 통해 해의 성능 향상을 위해 개발 된 6 가지 자가적응형 화음탐색 알고리즘을 선택하여 비교 분석을 수행하였다. 최적화 결과의 객관적인 비교를 위해 대표적인 수학적, 공학적 최적화 문제를 모두 적용 하였고, 다양한 성능 지수 (Performance index)를 사용하여 각 알고리즘의 성능을 정량적으로 비교하였다. 이것은 향후 신규 최적화 알고리즘을 개발하거나 해 탐색의 성능을 향상시키는 연구에 도움이 될 것으로 기대된다.
지난 8월 20일부터 5일간 러시아 모스크바서 "'97세계한민족과학기술자공동협의회" 총회를 겸한 "남북과학기술교류심포지엄'이 열렸다. 미국ㆍ중국ㆍ일본ㆍ러시아ㆍ영국ㆍ호주 등 세계 14개국에서 온 재외한국과학기술자협회장들의 총회에 이어 열린 이번 심포지엄은 러시아ㆍ중국ㆍ한국의 석학들이 참가했으며 정조영박사의 기조강연과 더불어 열띤 학술토론을 벌였다.
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia mainly occurs in immunocompromised patients and it is also known of major cause of death in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. After consolidation chemotherapy, acute lymphoblastic leukemia children is developed Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia frequently no an opportunistic infection but there were no controlled studies which have been performed to evaluate the usefulness of corticosteroid in Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We experienced a case of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in acute lymphoblastic leukemia with febrile neutropenic 6 years old girl. She was treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and prednisone. We report this case with brief review of related literature.
The purpose of this study is providing with basic information to the advertising and program drawing-up strategy by analyzing the content consumption behavior based on 2012 London Olympic Games ratings of 20s-40s, who are the major object of marketing of advertisers by leading market. 2012 AGB Nielsen rating information was analyzed for this study. The result of the study is as following. 1) What are the differences in rating and share between 20s-40s and all ages? The rating of 20s-40s was higher than the rating of all ages. There was no difference in share. 2) What are the differences by area in the rating and share of 20s-40s? The rating of 20s-40s in metropolitan area was higher than the rating of nationwide 20s-40s. There was no difference in share. 3) What are the differences by broadcasting company in the rating and share of 20s-40s? There were differences by broadcasting company in the rating and share of 20s-40s. SBS and KBS2 were higher and MBC, KBS1 followed. 4) What are the differences by game in the rating and share of 20s-40s? There were differences by game in the rating and share of 20s-40s. Rhythmic gymnastics, archery, judo and wrestling recorded higher ratings. Football had the highest share and archery, swimming, rhythmic gymnastics followed. 5) What are the differences by weekday in the rating and share of 20s-40s?The rating on Saturday of 20s-40s was higher than other weekdays. There was no difference in share. 6) What are the differences by time grade in the rating and share of 20s-40s? There were differences by time grade in the rating and share of 20s-40s. In rating, B grade was classified as same level with SA grade by exceeding A grade. In share, B grade was higher than SA grade and A grade.
The purpose of this study is to research the rearrangement of vowels. We have to consider this matter from the several standpoints such as phonology, shape of vowels, the use of language and educational effects with "Hunminjeongeum". The basic arrangement of vowels may be summarized as follows. First, letters of vowels are divided into four parts; basic letters, combined letters with <l>, compound letters with two basic letters, combined letters with compound letters and <l>. Second, basic letters are arranged in aperture. So, we have the rearrangement of vowels like this; <ㅏ ㅑ ㅓ ㅕ ㅗ ㅛ ㅜ ㅠ ㅡ ㅣ>, <ㅐ ㅒ ㅔ ㅖ ㅚ ㅟ ㅢ>, <ㅘ ㅝ>, <ㅙ ㅞ>. This suits the educational goals in classroom and the frequency of vowels in real language life.
Optimal design of the water supply pipe network aims to minimize construction cost while satisfying the required hydraulic constraints such as the minimum and maximum pressures, and velocity. Since considering one single design factor (i.e., cost) is very vulnerable for including future conditions and cannot satisfy operator’s needs, various design factors should be considered. Hence, this study presents three kinds of design factors (i.e., minimizing construction cost, maximizing reliability, and surplus head) to perform multi-objective optimization design. Harmony Search (HS) Algorithm is used as an optimization technique. As well-known benchmark networks, Hanoi network and Gyeonggi-do P city real world network are used to verify the applicability of the proposed model. In addition, the proposed multi-objective model is also applied to a real water distribution networks and the optimization results were statistically analyzed. The results of the optimal design for the benchmark and real networks indicated much better performance compared to those of existing designs and the other approach (i.e., Genetic Algorithm) in terms of cost and reliability, cost, and surplus head. As a result, this study is expected to contribute for the efficient design of water distribution networks.