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Objective: To evaluate the effect of obesity on obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) by age in relation to anthropometric measurements. Methods: The medical records of 1,110 participants diagnosed with OSAS were analyzed according to age. All participants underwent nocturnal polysomnography and had their body mass index, waist circumference, neck circumference (NC), and waist-to-hip ratio measured. Results: According to the multiple linear regression analysis model for the natural logarithm of the apnea-hypopnea index treating all four anthropometric measurements and gender as covariates, the final stepwise model accounted for an increasing percentage of the variability in the severity of OSAS as a function of age: 7.0, 9.1, 14.5, and 25.6% for those aged <30, 30–39, 40–49, and 50–59 yrs, respectively. It accounted for a decreased percentage among those 60–69 (20.3%) and 70 yrs or older (3.9%). The correlation between NC and the severity of OSAS linearly increased as a function of age for those aged 30–59 yrs, peaked among those in their 60s, and dramatically decreased thereafter. Conclusion: Middle-aged patients with OSAS were more likely to be obese, as measured by anthropometric measurements, than were younger or older OSAS patients. In particular, the predictive value of NC was significantly lower for younger and older OSAS patients.
The present study examined the effect of using Quick Response (QR) code, which makes it easier to access a website or resources immediately, with the smartphone as a means of assessing students’ vocabulary knowledge. Ninety-six Korean EFL university students who were taking a core intermediate level TOEIC course participated in this study. During the semester, 51 took the QR code-delivered vocabulary quiz, while the other 45 were being given the paper-delivered one. The two groups’ vocabulary quiz scores were compared, and the QR code-based groups’ responses to the survey were analyzed. The survey results indicated that the students were in favor of using the QR code as it helped them become more motivated, practice more to learn new words and to use them appropriately within sentences, and consequently improve their vocabulary and writing ability. And these positive perceptions of using the QR code for a limited time seemed to have led them to better perform on the vocabulary quiz than those in the paper-based group. It is suggested that the QR code should be used for only a brief time under strict control of teachers in order to maximize language learning.
Two phosphate solubilizing bacteria, Pantoea rodasii PSB-11and Enterobacter aerogenes PSB-12, were isolated from button mushroom compost and employed to assess their synergistic effect in liquid medium and on growth of green gram plants by single and co-inoculation of the strains. Co-inoculation of two strains was found to release the highest content of soluble phosphorus (521 µg ml-1) into the medium, followed by single inoculation of Pantoea strain (485 µg ml-1) and Enterobacter strain (470 µg ml-1). However, there was no significant difference between single inoculation of bacterial strain and co-inoculation of two bacterial strains in terms of phosphorous release. The highest pH reduction, organic acid production and glucose consumption was observed in the E. aerogenes PSB-12 single inoculated culture medium rather than those of co-inoculation. According to the plant growth promotion bioassay, co-inoculated mung bean seedlings recorded 10.6% and 10.7% higher shoot and root growth respectively compared to the control. Therefore, in concluding, co- inoculation of the strains P. rodasii and E. aerogenes displayed better performance in stimulating plant growth than inoculation of each strain alone. However, being short assessment period of the present study, we recommend in engaging further works under field conditions in order to test the suitability of the strains to be used as bio-inoculants.
The aim of this study is to grasp the current state of preservation of pansori recordings made by DBS(Dong-A Broadcasting System), to examine their value as research materials, and to conceive a practicable utilization plan of them. By finding and introducing undisclosed pansori recordings, this study will contribute to the advance of research on modern pansori. DBS made recordings of Korean traditional music such as Korean folk song, pansori, sijo, and Korean instrumental music, most of which seem to remain. Pansori recordings, except danga recordings, are assorted into two kinds: tomak-sori recordings and batang-sori recordings. Tomak-sori recordings are taken from the five traditional pansori works: Chunhyangga, Simcheongga, Heungboga, Sugungga, and Jeokbyeokga. Batang-sori recordings on the other hand are taken from restored or newly created pansori works as well as the five traditional pansori works. Because there are some restrictions on playing the original tapes, the object of this study is confined to batang-sori recordings. Batang-sori recordings, which have been preserved by Dong-A Ilbo, are 16 sets all together. Among them 11 sets are studio recordings, which include Chunhyangga, Simcheongga, Heungboga, Sugungga, and Jeokbyeokga performed by Kim Yeonsu, and Chiaksan, Sugyeongnangjaga, Baebijangtaryeong, Onggojiptaryeong, Jangkkitaryeong, and Byeongangsoega performed by Park Dongjin. And the rest are live recordings, which include Sugungga performed by Park Chowol, Simcheongga performed by Kim Sohui, Jeokbyeokga performed by Park Dongjin, Chunhyangga and Simcheongga performed by Seong Uhyang. 본 연구의 목적은 동아방송(DBS) 판소리 녹음의 보존 현황을 파악하고, 그자료적 가치와 활용 방안을 검토하는 데 있다. 아직 공개되지 않은 판소리 녹음들을 발굴하여 학계에 소개하고 실현 가능한 활용 방안을 제시함으로써, 근·현대판소리 연구를 위한 자료의 확충에 기여하고자 한다. 동아방송은 민요, 판소리, 시조, 기악 등 다양한 전통음악을 직접 녹음하거나외주를 주어 녹음했는데, 그 중 대부분이 지금까지 남아 있는 것으로 보인다. 판소리 녹음은 단가 녹음 몇 종을 제외하면, 토막소리 녹음과 바탕소리 녹음으로분류할 수 있다. 토막소리 녹음은 전승5가를 대상으로 이루어졌는데, 스튜디오녹음과 공연 실황 녹음이 있다. 바탕소리 녹음은 전승5가 외에도 다양한 창작판소리 및 복원판소리 작품들을 대상으로 이루어졌으며, 토막소리 녹음과 마찬가지로 스튜디오 녹음과 공연 실황 녹음이 있다. 원본 릴 테이프를 열람하는 데여러 가지 제약이 있기 때문에, 본 연구의 대상은 바탕소리 녹음으로 한정하였다. 현재 보존되고 있는 동아방송 판소리 녹음 중에서 바탕소리 녹음으로 분류되는 것은 모두 16종이다. 스튜디오 녹음으로 김연수 창 <흥보가>, <춘향가>,<심청가>, <수궁가>, <적벽가> 녹음과, 박동진 창 <치악산>, <숙영낭자가>,<배비장타령>, <옹고집타령>, <장끼타령>, <변강쇠가> 녹음 등 11종이 있고,공연 실황 녹음으로는 박초월 창 <수궁가> 녹음, 김소희 창 <심청가> 녹음,박동진 창 <적벽가> 녹음, 성우향 창 <심청가>, <춘향가> 녹음 등 5종이 있다. 본 연구를 위해 필자가 직접 2008년부터 2013년까지 총 10여 차례 동아일보안산공장에 있는 보존서고를 방문하여 바탕소리 녹음의 보존 현황을 자세히조사하였고, 1963-80년에 간행된 일간지와 기타 문헌들을 참고하여 바탕소리녹음에 관한 정보들을 수집하였다.
Purpose: This study aims to examine the influence of vitamin D and calcium on depression and cognitive function of the elderly living alone in a city. Methods: The participants were registered in eight senior centers in S city and they had lived alone. Data were collected between November 28, 2014 and March 7, 2015. A total of 155 people participated in data collection to measure the serum vitamin D, the serum calcium, depression, and cognitive function. The data were analyzed with t-test, ANOVA, Pearson's correlation and multiple regression analysis. Results: There were significant differences in depression according to gender and perceptions of health status. Depression correlated significantly with the serum calcium and perceptions of health status, and a stepwise regression analysis showed that the perceptions of health status were significant. There were significant differences in cognitive function according to education level and age. Cognitive function correlated significantly with the serum vitamin D and a stepwise regression analysis showed that education level and age were significant. Conclusion: Consequently, elderly people with poor perceptions of their health status need a depressive intervention program and those with a higher age and lower level of education need a cognitive function intervention program.
Looking at the 100th anniversary of the birth of 『Mujong』, the survey of Korean literature researchers in Japan by what perspectives and methodologies they have studied and evaluated 『Mujong』 is also a meaningful study for the possibility of new index. This paper focuses on the pioneering researches of the three researchers: Saegusa ToshiKatsu, Setsuko Hatano, and Naomi Ono, and also examined the comparative studies of Japanese literature and the diverse research results in the field of adjoining disciplines. Saegusa organized Kwangsoo Lee's repeated motifs, and presented the tangible elements and set the 『Mujong』 as a prototype of the whole novel that can understand the entire work of Kwangsoo Lee. Hatano, through her extensive research over a long period of time, presented a new research methodology and the meaning of history of literature of 『Mujong』 by identifying the influence of various literary trends and thoughts of Japan since the Meiji in the formation of Kwangsoo Lee's early thought. Ono can be evaluated to have made a closer approach to the understanding of 『Mujong』 by analyzing Kwangsoo Lee at the time of writing and his career until writing 『Mujong』 and revealing the relationship between 『Mujong』 and all elements of Kwangsoo Lee. Based on the in-depth advanced research of Kwangsoo Lee's research, it is the worthy result of a comparison study between the Japanese literature centered on Soseki Natsume and research in the neighboring discipline. Through the result of many-sided researches by these diverse perspectives and methodology, Kwangsoo Lee's research has become more concrete and broader, and it can be said that Korean modern literature is no longer only for Korea, but for the literary history worthy of illuminating modernity in East Asia. 본 논문은 『무정』 탄생 100주년을 맞이하여 일본의 한국문학연구자가 어떠한 시각과 방법론으로 『무정』을 연구하고 평가했는지를 살펴보려고 한다. 이는 앞으로의 이광수 연구 동향과 평가를 정리하는 계기가 됨은 물론, 한국문학에 대한 새로운 지표를 열 가능성이 있는 주제라고 생각한다. 본고에서는 사에구사 도시카쓰, 하타노 세쓰코, 오노 나오미, 세 연구자의 선구적인 연구를 중점적으로 살펴보고, 일본문학과의 비교 연구, 인접학문분야에서의 다양한 연구 성과도 살펴보았다. 사에구사는 이광수의 반복되는 모티프를 정리하고, 유형적 요소를 제시하여 이광수 작품 전체를 이해할 수 있는 소설 전체의 원형으로서 『무정』을 자리매김하였다. 하타노는 오랜 기간에 걸친 방대한 연구를 통하여 메이지 이래 일본의 다양한 사조 및 사상들이 이광수의 초기 사상을 형성하는 데 어떠한 영향을 주었는지를 규명함으로써 『무정』을 새롭게 연구할 수 있는 방법론을 제시하는 한편, 『무정』의 문학사적 의의를 명확히 했다. 오노는 이광수가 『무정』을 쓰게 되기까지의 경력 및 『무정』 집필 당시의 이광수의 상황을 치밀하게 분석했다. 이는 『무정』과 이광수의 자전적 요소의 관련성을 밝힘으로써 『무정』을 한층 더 깊게 이해할 수 있는 방법을 제시했다고 평가할 수 있다. 이러한 깊이 있는 선행연구를 바탕으로 이루어진 나쓰메 소세키를 중심으로 한 일본문학과 비교한 연구들과 이광수와 관련된 인접학문분야의 연구도 눈여겨보아야 할 성과이다. 이처럼 다양한 시각과 방법을 통해 이뤄진 다각적인 연구 성과를 통하여 이광수 연구는 한층 더 구체적이고 폭 넓은 방향으로 나아가고 있다. 또한 이는 한국 근대문학이 더 이상 한국만의 것이 아니라 동아시아 근대를 조명해 볼 수 있는 문학사적 가치를 지닌 것임을 재인식시키는 계기가 되었다고 할 수 있다.
It is difficult to perform speech acts for request, apology, complaint, compliment, greeting, or refusal in English as they can convey wrong information. Performing the speech act of refusal can be even more difficult for ESL or EFL students because refusal indicates one’s objection to the others’ offer, invitation, suggestion, or request. Particularly Korean students are easy to fail in expressing refusal politely in English due to many differences between Koreans and Americans: social and cultural differences and differences in performing the speech act and using semantic formulas. Their refusal thus often sounds pragmatically inappropriate even though it is grammatically perfect. In this paper, first, what kinds of differences are found between Koreans and Americans when refusing, what makes them misunderstand each other, and how instruction can help Korean students in it are discussed. And then five commonly used textbooks are reviewed to show how American refusal is taught, what kinds of problems are found, and what can be modified to teach it more explicitly and effectively. Finally, a sample lesson plan of teaching American refusal to Korean university students is presented to raise their pragmatic awareness as well as to enhance their pragmatic competence.