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We investigated the major trends in health aid financing in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) by identifying the primary donor organizations and examining several data sources to track overall health aid trends. We collected gross disbursements from bilateral donor countries and international organizations toward the DPRK according to specific health sectors by using the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development creditor reporting system database and the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs financial tracking service database. We analyzed sources of health aid to the DPRK from the Republic of Korea (ROK) using the official records from the ROK's Ministry of Unification. We identified the ROK, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), and The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) as the major donor entities not only according to their level of health aid expenditures but also their growing roles within the health sector of the DPRK. We found that health aid from the ROK is comprised of funding from the Inter-Korean Cooperation Fund, private organizations, local governments, and South Korean branches of international organizations such as WHO and UNICEF. We also distinguished medical equipment aid from developmental aid to show that the majority of health aid from the ROK was developmental aid. This study highlights the valuable role of the ROK in the flow of health aid to the DPRK, especially in light of the DPRK's precarious international status. Although global health aid from many international organizations has decreased, organizations such as GFATM and UNFPA continue to maintain their focus on reproductive health and infectious diseases.
General quantum field theories of chiral fermions interacting with gauge fields in a curved spacetime with dimension n are considered. We recalculate the gauge anomalies directly by using the functional determinant of a product of two Dirac operators. The usual multiplication rule of determinants does not hold in these cases. We separate the part causing such anomalous behaviors of functional determinants. We show that the gauge anomalies can be found from this part. We get the complete expression for the gauge anomalies in the presence of a general gravitational background metric.
General quantum field theories of chiral fermions interacting with gauge fields in a curved spacetime with dimension n are considered. These kinds of theories are known to have gauge anomalies, which should be reflected in the low-energy effective theory of Goldstone bosons by terms called the gauged Wess-Zumino-Witten action. By direct calculations, a complete form of the terms is obtained in curved space-times with a general dimension n.
As is well-known, the usual definition of rigid bodies is not possible in special relativity. However, special kinds of motions of extended objects will be shown to be possible so that these motions resemble those of rigid bodies in many respects. In contrast to the rigid-body motions in nonrelativistic cases, only the motions similar to translational ones are allowed. These rigid motions can be shown to correspond to the Fermi-Walker transportation.
Background : The purpose of study in to grasp the level of perception of hospital workers on the patient safety culture, consider the difference in perception of patients safety culture according to medical service and finally find out a way to establish patient safety culture in hospital. Methods : As for the data, the analysis on frequency, t-test, ANOVA and tukey test were carried out by using SPSS 12.0. Result : The results of comparison among the positive response ratios on the patients culture of hospital workers showed that the subjects had perceived the teamwork within units most positively(74.1%), and perceived most negatively on the non-punitive response to error(16.2%)and the staffing(26.2%). 68.6% of subjects answered that the medical error were mostly of always reported. when daytime working hours are longer, perception of patient safety culture ranked low. In general, departments for direct medical service than departments for indirect medical service assessed patient safety culture high. Conclusion : Organizational learning and teamwork within units, communication openness, active support of hospital management for patient safety, and cooperation across the units would be crucial to promote the overall perceptions of patients safety of hospital workers and the level of patients safety in the units and to improve the quality of the event reporting system.
Heat kernel expansions of the d th-order elliptic operators obtained by using a product of d/2 second order elliptic operators in curved space-time with dimension n are investigated. We calculate the first two coefficient functions of the expansions, which are not the simple sum of the coefficients for each second order elliptic operator. For the calculations, we use a method with a tangent vector coordinate system, with which our calculatins are manifestly covariant under coordinate and gauge transformations. d/2 개의 2계 타원 미분 연산자들의 곱으로 만들어진 d-계 타원연산자의 열핵(heat kernel) 전개를 연구하였다. 일반적인 차원 n 을 갖는 굽어진 시공간에서 계산을 수행하였다. 열핵 전개의 처음 두 항들을 계산하였는데 그 결과는 각 2계 연산자의 경우에 얻어진 항들을 단순히 더한 것과 같지 않고 추가적인 항들이 존재하게 된다. 이러한 계산을 위하여 좌표변환의 공변성을 유지하면서 접선벡터좌표계를 사용하는 방법을 사용하였다.
Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) having high density were synthesized on both Fe-Mo/Si and Fe-Mo/MgO/Si substrates by using thermal decomposition of C2H2 at 800 ℃. By applying an ultraviolet-irradiated-ozone (UV-ozone) treatment to the substrate, high-density catalyst nanoparticles could be attached to not only a Si substrate but also a MgO/Si substrate by using a dipping method. The vertically aligned SWCNTs were successfully synthesized on a MgO/Si substrate after NH3 pretreatment. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the catalyst and the SWCNTs.
A Gram-negative, nonmotile, endospore-forming, rod-shaped bacterial strain LHW35T, which belonged to the genus Paenibacillus, was isolated from marine sediment collected from the south coast of the Republic of Korea. A phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain LHW35T was most closely related to Paenibacillus taiwanensis G-soil-2-3T (97.2% similarity). The optimal growth conditions for strain LHW35T were 37°C, pH 6.0, and 0% (w/v) NaCl. The main isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone-7 (MK-7) and the major polyamine was spermidine. The diamino acid present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0 and C16:0. The polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, unidentified aminohospholipids, unidentified phospholipids, and unidentified polar lipids. A DNA-DNA hybridization experiment using the type strain of P. taiwanensis indicated <40% relatedness. The DNA G+C content was 45.0 mol%. Based on these phylogenetic, genomic, and phenotypic analyses, strain LHW35T should be classified as a novel species within the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus marinisediminis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LHW35T (=KACC 16317T =JCM 17886T).