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We have analyzed sea surface temperature and salinity data collected in the western Pacific Ocean by using an automated Thermosalinograph (TSG) installed on the RV Onnuri during May - June of 2001. The TSG data exhibit characteristics of water masses distributed in the near surface layer of the cruise area very well. Especially, they reveal the diurnal surface temperature cycle and the effect of rainfall on temperature and salinity in the equatorial region, showing the effectiveness of the use of TSG. Problems to be improved for the better TSG operation are the method of water sampling and calibration of TSG sensors. Installation of a pressure gauge in the TSG system and periodical sensor calibration are strongly recommended to ensure reliability of data. 및 토의2001년 5-6월 한국해양연구원에서 연구선 온누리호를 이용하여 수행된 서태평양 대양항해 중 자동 기록으로 획득된 TSG 자료를 분석하고 이의 운용상 문제점 및 개선책을 제시하였다. 관측된 TSG 값은 CTD 측정값에 비하여 수온은 약 +0.3oC, 염분은 시간에 따라 약 0.06에서 +0.04 psu 편향오류를 보여주었으며, 관측오류의 요인은 취수된 해수의 TSG까지 이동시 수온 상승과 TSG 내에서의 미세한 기포로 판단된다. TSG 운용상 제기된 문제점은 TSG 센서를 통과하는 해수의 공급의 방법(즉, 통과 유속 증가에 의한 센서 통과 해수 내 기포 생성 유무)과 자료(특히, 염분) 검정 문제였다. 관측오류를 감소시키기 위하여 TSG 상태를 쉽게 판단할 수 있도록 기포감지기와 압력계의 설치가 필요하며, TSG 센서의 사전 검·교정이 이루어졌을 경우라도 TSG 자료를 검정할 수 있는 CTD 또는 염분계에 의한 현장 측정이 필수적인 것으로 나타났다.TSG 자료는 동중국해 대륙붕, 쿠로시오 통과해역, 필리핀해 및 서태평양 적도해역 표층의 해황을 잘 나타내었다. 특히, 적도해역에서 표층수온은 약 0.4-1.3oC 변화 폭의 뚜렷한 일 변화를 보여주었고 일중 최고 및 최저 수온은 현지 시간으로 14-15시 및 5-6시경으로 나타나 수온 상승 시간이 하강 시간보다 빠른 것으로 나타났다. 기상 자료와 비교 결과 구름에 의한 태양복사 차단 영향이 약 0.5oC 정도임을 시사해주었다. 적도해역에서 특징적인 염분 변화는 수 십 분에서 수 시간 지속되는 저염의 peak로 이는 열대 소나기성 강우의 영향으로 판단되며 수온도 약 0.2-0.6oC 정도로 낮아지는 영향을 주는 것으로 관측되었다.TSG 자료로부터 여러 해양물리학적 해석이 가능하였던 점은 TSG의 유용성을 나타낸 것으로 적절한 자료 처리 과정을 거치면 TSG 자료가 항해 해역 표층의 물리적인 해황 특성을 정확하게 나타낼 수 있다는 것을 의미한다. 이는 또한 국내의 TSG 운용의 수준이 SOOP(2001)과 같은 선박을 이용한 해양 표층 해황의 모니터링 프로그램에 참가 할 수 있는 수준에 근접해 가고 있음을 나타낸 것이라 할 수 있다. 따라서 앞으로는 연구사업에 관련된 항해에서뿐만 아니라 모든 항해 기간 중 TSG 자료가 획득될 수 있도록 하여 유용한 자료의 누적을 도모하고 연구선 활용의 효율을 높여야 할 것이다. 아울러 TSG 자료를 전지구해양예보를 위한 자료동화에 이용될 수 있도록 위성통신 등을 이용한 준 실시간 자료 전달 체계의 구성이 바람직하다.
The purpose of this study is to demonstrate, through case studies, the usefulness of utilizing local R&D centers under science and technology ODA programs. For the past few decades, advanced countries have supported ODA projects of developing countries, but there have been negative opinions regarding the results. Through a case study of the black pearl cultivation project between the Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology and Micronesia, this study explains the usefulness of actively utilizing Korean R&D centers established and operational in recipient countries. Although black pearl cultivation is not an ODA project, the case study offers valuable insights as it is operated in a similar form and thus highly applicable to future projects. Based on the case study, four implications were derived to ensure the successful operations of science and technology ODA projects in the future. First, there is a need to improve relevance by making use of the technological capacities of local R&D institutes to develop projects that reflect the needs of recipient and donor countries. Second, trust must be established with local communities over the long term in order to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of project operations. Third, the proportion of science and technology ODA projects must be expanded to acquire sustainability, and more support should be granted to ODA projects involving marine resources, which are an advantage for countries of Micronesia. Lastly, the locals should be offered employment opportunities and regular training programs to allow for the actual transfer of knowledge instead of mere techniques. The implications derived in this study will prove useful in pursuing science and technology ODA projects, especially with Micronesia.
Distribution patterns of sandy bottom macrobenthic communities were studied around the Hupo coastal area. The seasonal surveys were conducted at 15 chosen sites within a depth range of 10 to 50 m along 10 km of the coastline using a Smith-McIntyre grab (0.05 m2) in 2005. Overall depth distribution following the direction of the offshore become deeper parallel to the coastline. A total of 319 macrobenthic species were sampled with a mean density of 1,972 ind./m2, and mean biomass was 82.5 wet-weight g/m2. The major individual-dominant species were three polychaetes Spiophanes bombyx (436 ind./m2), Scoletoma longifolia (250 ind./m2) and Magelona japonica (170 ind./m2), and bivalve Adontorhina subquadrata (73 ind./m2). Cluster analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) analysis based on Bray-Curtis similarity identified 2 major station groups which corresponded to macrobenthic faunal assemblages and their characteristic species. In addition, environmental conditions were significantly different between station groups. Group I contained mostly 20 and 50 m deep sites and was associated with sandy mud. Group I was characterized by high abundance of S. bombyx, S. longifolia, A. subquadrata. It was divided into two sub-groups (I-I and I-II) in relation to depth. Sub-group I-I was associated with deeper sites than sub-group I-II. Group II included mostly inshore area shallower than 15 m and was associated with coarse and medium sand. Group II was characterized by Lumbrinerides hayashii and Urothoe grimaldii japonica.
We examined the intracellular antioxidative effects of 20 Arctic seaweed extracts in Raw 264.7 cells. Each seaweed species was subjected to extraction using acetone/dichloromethane and methanol, respectively, after which the extracts were combined and used as the test sample. The antioxidant ability of all 20 seaweeds extracts was evaluated using four different activity tests, including the degree of occurrence of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), ONOO−, and lipid peroxidation in Raw 264.7 cells, as well as the extent of oxidative damage of genomic DNA purified from Raw 264.7 cells. Crude extracts from Monostroma obscurum, Alaria esculnta, Laminaria digitata, Desmarestia aculeata, Chorda filum, Ptilota seriata, Phycidrys rubens, Devaleraea ramentacea and Palmaria palmata exhibited significant scavenging effects on the generation of intracellular ROS. Among them, Monostroma obscurum and Phycidrys rubens significantly inhibited membrane lipid peroxidation and DNA oxidation. Moreover, Phycidrys rubens exhibited scavenging effects on peroxynitrite generated from SIN-1. We examined the intracellular antioxidative effects of 20 Arctic seaweed extracts in Raw 264.7 cells. Each seaweed species was subjected to extraction using acetone/dichloromethane and methanol, respectively, after which the extracts were combined and used as the test sample. The antioxidant ability of all 20 seaweeds extracts was evaluated using four different activity tests, including the degree of occurrence of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), ONOO−, and lipid peroxidation in Raw 264.7 cells, as well as the extent of oxidative damage of genomic DNA purified from Raw 264.7 cells. Crude extracts from Monostroma obscurum, Alaria esculnta, Laminaria digitata, Desmarestia aculeata, Chorda filum, Ptilota seriata, Phycidrys rubens, Devaleraea ramentacea and Palmaria palmata exhibited significant scavenging effects on the generation of intracellular ROS. Among them, Monostroma obscurum and Phycidrys rubens significantly inhibited membrane lipid peroxidation and DNA oxidation. Moreover, Phycidrys rubens exhibited scavenging effects on peroxynitrite generated from SIN-1.
A satellite tracked drifter experiment was conducted to observe thermal structure and surface circulation in the northeastern East China Sea. For this experiment, four ADOS buoys, assembled with surface float and thermister chain, were deployed on August 2007 in southern Jeju-do, where the Kuroshio Branch Current is separated from the main stream. Thermal structure in the upper layer of the northeastern East China Sea was successfully observed during the following 1~3 months. Strong thermo-haline front in a northeast-southwest direction was observed. In the frontal zone, warm and saline Kuroshio origin water intermixes with fresher coastal water and flows toward the Korean Strait. Typhoon Nari, which passed over the East China Sea 20 days after commencement of study, caused distinct signals in the thermal structure and trajectory of buoys. During the typhoon, surface temperature abruptly dropped to about 4oC, while the thermocline formed at 30~50 m depth vanished due to strong vertical mixing. Internal inertial oscillation occurred several days after the typhoon. The fortuitous occurrence of typhoon Nari showed that ADOS buoys can provide useful and accurate air-sea interaction data during typhoons.
This study conducted sedimentological and geophysical surveys for 3 years (2006-2008) in southern Gyeonggi Bay, Korea to elucidate temporal changes in subaqueous dune morphology on a sand ridge trending northeast to southwest that has been excavated by marine sand mining. The sand ridge (~20 m in height, ~2 km in width and 3~4 km in length) has a steep slope on the NW side and a gentle slope on the SE side, creating an asymmetric profile. Large (10~100 m in length) and very large (>100 m in length)dunes occurring on the SE side of the ridge show a northeastward asymmetrical shape, whereas dunes on the NW side destroyed by marine sand mining display a southwestward asymmetry. The comparison between Flemming (1988)’s correlation and the height-length correlation of this study indicates that tidal current and availability of sand sediment are major controlling factors to the development and maintenance of dunes. Depth and sedimentary characteristics (grain size) are not likely to be major controlling factors, but indirectly influence dune growth by hydrological and sedimentary processes. The length and the height of dunes decrease toward the southeastern trough away from the crest of the ridge. These features result from the decrease of tidal current and sediment availability. The length and the height of dunes on the southeast side decrease gradually over time. This is a result of the interaction between tidal current and the decrease in sediment availability due to sediment extraction by marine sand mining. Marine sand mining has destroyed the dunes directly, causing irregular shapes of shorter length and lower height. The coarse fraction of suspended sediments is transported and deposited very close to the sand pit. By contrast, relatively fine sediments are transported by the tidal current and deposited over a wide range by the settling-lag effect, resulting in a decrease of sediment grain size in the area where suspended sediments are deposited. In addition, marine sand mining, decreases the height of dunes. Therefore, morphological and sedimentological characteristics of dunes around the sand pits will be significantly changed by future sand mining activities.
A terrestrial LiDAR was used to acquire precise and high-resolution topographical information of Malipo beach, Korea. Terrestrial LiDAR and RTK-DGPS (VRS) were mounted on top of a survey vehicle and used to scan 20 times stop-and-go method with 250 m spacing intervals at ebb tides. In total, 7measurements were made periodically from 2008 to 2009 and after each beach replenishment event. We carried out GIS-based 3D spatial analysis such as slope and volume calculations in order to assess topographical changes over time. In relation to beach replenishment, comparative analysis of each volume change revealed them to be similar. This result indicates that the terrestrial LiDAR measurements are accurate and can be used to analyze temporal topographical changes. In conclusion, the methodology employed in this study can be used efficiently to exercise coastal management through monitoring and analyzing beach process such as erosion and deposition.
This study evaluated economic feasibility and provided rationale for the development of the Korean Operational Oceanographic System (KOOS). KOOS is supposed to be established for the preservation and management of marine environments, and for the safety of ocean activities. Economic issues associated with operational oceanographic systems are discussed. During the operational period of KOOS associated with conservative small-input scenarios, and according to the macroeconomic inputoutput analysis, the system was estimated to generate 8.3 times its actual proposed economic investment (about KRW 327.7 billion). Other rationales that cannot be easily quantified were also discussed.
Recently, coastal erosion has become an important issue in relation to keeping territorial integrity of a nation as well as protecting the coastal marine ecosystem. This study examines some apprehensions about the effectiveness of the existing legal system concerning prevention of coastal erosion. After examining several case studies in Scotland, the USA, and the Netherlands, this study proposes appropriate revisional legal measures that can be applied in Korea: first, the coastal management act should be revised for stronger, enforceable and practical legal grounds emphasizing minimal coastal erosion; second, the proposed ?Comprehensive Coastal Erosion Prevention Plan? should be established and implemented in four steps such as characterization of issues through surveys of stakeholders and demand assessment, plan establishment, execution, and maintenance and management; third, there is a demand to establish and implement a legal framework to support monitoring activities which provide important data and information to prevent coastal erosion; fourth, the chronic region of damage is designated as the ?Vulnerable Area? to be protected and managed accordingly; fifth, the ?Coastal Coordination council? is established and operated for developing an integrated coastal management policy and visions for sustainable coastal zone, as well as coordinating and intervention of any activities which may cause coastal erosion.