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Standardization work for the ocean data produced by a variety of national oceanographic research projects was conducted in order to establish a national ocean data sharing system. For this work, we first prepared standard proposals for the national research ocean data by reviewing and analyzing of existing international and domestic ocean-data standards. The proposed standards were reviewed and revised by experts in the field of oceanography and academic societies for documentation. The 125-page technical report on the standards of 25 data items was prepared as an output of this research work, which is available free of charge for the public and interested parties. This paper explains the proposed standards of metadata and codes regarding the common properties of all the oceanographic data items. Especially, the standards for the metadata, codes and data formats of 4 physical data items were described in detail. In order to be adopted as the national standards for ocean data, however, the standards suggested here require further development and/or modification based on additional reviews of and ample feedbacks from the relevant academic and technical communities.
Establishing the strategic plans to foster the oceans and fisheries (O&F) industry as an engine for national sustainable economic growth has become an important task for developing countries as well as developed countries. The first step to do so is to identify O&F industry and analyze its economic effects. Therefore, the prime purposes of the paper are two-fold. The first is to identify O&F industry and estimate its market size using 2012 Input-Output (I-O) table published by the Bank of Korea. The second purpose is to obtain some quantitative information on production-inducing effect, value-added creation effect, and employment-inducing effect of the O&F industry. To this end, we apply an IO analysis using exogenous specification of the O&F industry. The results show that the O&F industry covers 4.1% and 3.0% of national output and gross domestic product, respectively. Moreover, we found that 1.0 won of production or investment in the O&F industry induces 1.7363 won of production and 0.4759 won of value-added in the national economy. One billion won of production or investment in the O&F industry touches off 7.5569 persons of employment. This information can be utilized in the O&F industry-related policy-making.
Production from copepodite IV to adult of two euchaetid species Euchaeta plana and Paraeuchaeta russelli was measured at the southeastern sea of Korea from April to November, 2014. The mean density was 2.0 ind m<SUP>-3</SUP> for E. plana and 4.1 ind m<SUP>-3</SUP> for P. russelli, with the high contribution of copepodite V to total density. The densities of total individuals, adult females and eggs were highest in November for both species. The mean egg production rate (EPR) was 1.7 eggs female<SUP>-1</SUP> d<SUP>-1</SUP> for E. plana and 3.1 eggs female<SUP>-1</SUP> d<SUP>-1</SUP> for P. russelli. Both of them showed the highest EPR in September but zero EPR in summer. The mean weight-specific EPR was 0.038 d<SUP>-1</SUP> for E. plana and 0.079 d<SUP>-1</SUP> for P. russelli. The mean total production rates of E. plana and P. russelli were 5.3 μg C m<SUP>-3</SUP> d<SUP>-1</SUP> and 17.8 μg C m<SUP>-3</SUP> d<SUP>-1</SUP>, respectively, with the largest production in November. The mean Production/Biomass ratio was 0.06 d<SUP>-1</SUP> for E. plana and 0.07 d<SUP>-1</SUP> for P. russelli, with its peak in September for both. The total production of E. plana and P. russelli was positively correlated with the density of a copepod Oncaea venusta, rather than chl-a concentration, indicating that the two copepods might be carnivores. This study evaluates the contribution of euchaetids to the copepod community in the southeastern sea of Korea.
The observed time series from the Korea Ocean Research Stations (KORS) in the Yellow and East China Seas (YECS) have various sources of noise, including bio-fouling on the underwater sensors, intermittent depletion of power, cable leakage, and interference between the sensors' signals. Besides these technical issues, intricate waves associated with background tidal currents tend to result in substantial oscillations in oceanic time series. Such technical and environmental issues require a regionally optimized automatic quality control (QC) procedure. Before the achievement of this ultimate goal, we examined the approach of the Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI)'s standard QC to investigate whether this procedure is pertinent to the KORS. The OOI QC consists of three categorized tests of global/local range of data, temporal variation including spike and gradient, and sensor-related issues associated with its stuck and drift. These OOI QC algorithms have been applied to the water temperature time series from the Ieodo station, one of the KORS. Obvious outliers are flagged successfully by the global/local range checks and the spike check. Both stuck and drift checks barely detected sensor-related errors, owing to frequent sensor cleaning and maintenance. The gradient check, however, fails to flag the remained outliers that tend to stick together closely, as well as often tend to mark probably good data as wrong data , especially data characterized by considerable fluctuations near the thermocline. These results suggest that the gradient check might not be relevant to observations involving considerable natural fluctuations as well as technical issues. Our study highlights the necessity of a new algorithm such as a standard deviation-based outlier check using multiple moving windows to replace the gradient check and an additional algorithm of an inter-consistency check with a related variable to build a standard QC procedure for the KORS.
The long-term linear trend of global sea-to-air dimethyl sulfide (DMS) flux was analyzed over a 16-year time span (2000~2015), based on satellite observation data. The emission rates of DMS (i.e. DMS flux) in the global ocean were estimated from sea surface DMS concentrations, which were constructed with chlorophyll a (Chl-a) concentrations and mixed layer depths (MLD), and transfer velocity from sea to air, which was parameterized with sea surface wind (SSW) and sea surface temperature (SST). In general, the DMS flux in the global ocean exhibited a gradual decreasing pattern from 2000 (a total of 12.1 Tg/yr) to 2015 (10.7 Tg/yr). For the latitude band (10° interval between 0° and 60°), the DMS flux at the low latitude of the Northern (NH) and Southern hemisphere (SH) was significantly higher than that at the middle latitude. The seasonal mean DMS flux was highest in winter followed by in summer in both hemispheres. From the longterm analysis with the Mann-Kendall (MK) statistical test, a clear downward trend of DMS flux was predicted to be broad over the global ocean during the study period (NH: −0.001~−0.036 μmol/m²/day per year, SH: −0.011~−0.051 μmol/m²/day per year). These trend values were statistically significant (p < 0.05) for most of the latitude bands. The magnitude of the downward trend of DMS flux at the low latitude in the NH was somewhat higher than that at the middle latitude during most seasons, and vice versa for the SH. The spatio-temporal characteristics of DMS flux and its long-term trend were likely to be primarily affected not only by the SSW (high positive correlation of r = 0.687) but also in part by the SST (r = 0.685).
There are a number of pieces of evidences that suggest a link between marine diatoms and microorganisms, but knowledge about related microbial communities is greatly lacking. The present study investigated the microbial community structures related to the growth of the marine diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana. We collected free-living bacteria (FLB) and particle-associated bacteria (PAB) at each growth stage (e.g., lag, exponential, stationary and death) of the diatom, and analyzed their bacterial 16S rDNA using pyrosequencing. Metagenomics analysis showed that community structures of FLB and PAB differed considerably with the progress of growth stages. FLB showed higher diversity than PAB, but variation in the different growth stages of C. meneghiniana was more evident in PAB. The proportion of the genus Hoeflea, belonging to the order Rhizobiales, was dominant in both FLB and PAB, and it gradually increased with the growth of C. meneghiniana. However, Enhydrobacter clade tended to considerably decrease in PAB. In addition, Marinobacter decreased steadily in FLB, but first increased and then decreased in PAB. These results suggest that Hoeflea, Enhydrobacter, and Marinobacter may be closely related to the growth of diatom C. meneghiniana.
We determined the maturity and growth of the Marbled sole, Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae based on monthly sampling in the West Sea of Korea from February 2009 to December 2010. Determination of sex of P. yokohamae was by gonadal inspection, and age and growth were determined by analyzing the otolith. The biological minimum size of P. yokohamae female was 24.5 cm. The seasonal changes in the ratio of a translucent zone to an opaque zone revealed that the end of the translucent zone of the otolith were annuli formed in May once a year. We compared 8 type growth equations with several length-at-age data. By using the length-at-monthly age data of these, the calculated von Bertalanffy growth equations were Lt = 41.7(1 − e−0.47(t + 0.24)) for females and Lt = 32.7(1 − e−0.75(t + 0.01)) for males. We estimated that 24.5 cm was the total length of 2 year old P. yokohamae spawns in the cold water season from January to April, and grows to 8 years old for females and 6 years old for males in the West Sea of Korea.
Diatom growth is affected by associated bacteria that probably provide useful substances like vitamins. In the present study, we analysed the variation of vitamins B₁, B7 and B12 on the growth stages of the marine diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana and assessed putative vitamin-producing bacteria (e.g., α- and γ-proteobacteria). HPLC analysis showed that total amounts of vitamins B₁ and B12 decreased with cell growth, whereas vitamin B7 increased gradually on the growth stages. B₁ and B12 measured 0.5% and 0.18% at the stationary phase, following 0.25% and 0.72% at the lag phase. They considerably increased to 0.75% and 0.77% at the death stage. 16S pyrosequencing showed relatively high ratios of α- and γ-proteobacteria in all the growth stages of the C. meneghiniana. In addition, we detected previously-reported vitamin-producing bacteria, such as Marinobacter, in high numbers. The species was dorminant in the lag (relative abundance 72%) and exponetial (72%) stages, whareas it decreased in the stationary (49%) and death (48%) stages. These results suggest that vitamins B₁ or B12 may be necesaary for diatom growth and that associated bacteria, including Marinobacter, may produce these substances for the cell growth of C. meneghiniana.
The Paguroidea is an important group in terms of marine biodiversity. In Korea, paguroids have been studied by many taxonomists and recently we conducted comprehensive taxonomic studies on hermit crabs from the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. As a result, a checklist of 61 species of Paguroidea in South Korean water with their geographical distribution was prepared. Remarks on taxonomy, geographical distribution, and the Korean scientific names of each applicable species were also provided.
Ocean surface current data in Korea was collected using sets of High-Frequency Ocean Surface Radars (HFOSRs) with 25 radial sites in the frequency range of 5~43 ㎒. Site selection and the correct installation of HFOSR are very important considerations in order to secure continuous and reliable results. The installation procedures of HFOSR are summarized as follows: 1. Survey area selection; 2. Investigation of ambient radio waves and installation environment; 3. Domestic license of radio station; 4. Installation of antenna and housing of electrical and communication devices. The current work describes the entire processes of HFOSR installation within Korea.