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It has been said that the modern design was introduced about thirty years ago in our country. Since that time, although modern design has rapidly developed in keep pace with economic growth and industrial development, high level of technology and function, expression toward refinement of design has been required more than before. Designers who have made an effect to extend these professionalized design technology have to start from common base - foundation of all formative arts as an elementary work. Plane organization which is essential in design process can be contributed to develop the basic capability of formative arts with modern aesthetic structure and creativity of form stylization. In principle, the elements of organization are form, colour, and material excluding the times, historical meaning, or locality and also have to be genuined and abstracted. It can be said that orarnization in points of utility and aesthetics is limited in comparison with the scope and content of reality. Therefore, it is justified that organization is a basis of design. Form, which is defined as a tongible and visible and thing, has an important meaning or role in making something. The main goal of this study is seeking for the elements of form including colour and texture. Three elements of orgarnization are point, line and facet which are essential for formative theory and activity of communication or product design. This study tries to confirm the definition and principle of form and apply through analysis of three elements of organization. Finally, it seeks for a possibility of new art expression.
Purpose : This study investigated whether the association between sodium intake and refractive error among children and adolescents. Methods : This study used the data from 968 children and adolescents aged 5~18years, obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2016. Sodium intake was measured by data for food items in the 24-hour diet recall. For refractive error, the spherical equivalent (SE) of the right eye was applied. The association between a sodium intake and refractive error was analyzed using logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results : There is a correlation between sodium intake and refractive error ( <0.001), and the higher the sodium intake, the higher the refractive error ( <0.001). In particular, sodium intake was shown significantly higher in myopia. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, in multivariate logistic regression analysis it was found that high sodium intake was significantly associated with an increased risk of myopia (OR 1.62; 95% CI 1.12-2.33, =0.010). Conclusion : Our results revealed a significant association between sodium intake and refractive error in Korean children and adolescents. Being high sodium intake was also found to be associated with myopia.
Purpose: The aim of our study was to identify risk factors associated with anastomotic leakage (AL) after an anterior resection (high anterior resection+low anterior resection) for rectal cancer. Methods: Between January 1998 and December 2007, 356 patients underwent an anterior resection for rectal cancer. Early anastomotic leakage (EAL) was defined as leakage identified during hospitalization. Late anastomotic leakage (LAL) was defined as leakage identified in outpatients. Results: AL (EAL+LAL) occurred in 30 patients (8.4%, mean time: 15.4 days). Among of them, EAL occurred in 20 patients (5.6%, mean time: 5.1 days), and LAL occurred in 10 patients (2.8%, mean time: 36.0 days). In the univariate analysis, the size of the tumor, the tumor level from the anal verge, and the level of anastomosis were significantly associated with AL. In EAL, the size of the tumor, the tumor level from the anal verge, the level of anastomosis, the operation type, and the value of serum albumin on day 3 after the operation were risk factors. In LAL, the tumor level from the anal verge and the level of anastomosis were risk factors. In the multivariate analysis, tumor size >7 cm (AL: P<0.001, EAL: P<0.001) and tumor level from the anal verge ≤8 cm (AL: P=0.014, EAL: P=0.001) were independent risk factors. Conclusion: AL and EAL after an anterior resection for rectal cancer were related to the size of the tumor and the level of the tumor from the anal verge. Purpose: The aim of our study was to identify risk factors associated with anastomotic leakage (AL) after an anterior resection (high anterior resection+low anterior resection) for rectal cancer. Methods: Between January 1998 and December 2007, 356 patients underwent an anterior resection for rectal cancer. Early anastomotic leakage (EAL) was defined as leakage identified during hospitalization. Late anastomotic leakage (LAL) was defined as leakage identified in outpatients. Results: AL (EAL+LAL) occurred in 30 patients (8.4%, mean time: 15.4 days). Among of them, EAL occurred in 20 patients (5.6%, mean time: 5.1 days), and LAL occurred in 10 patients (2.8%, mean time: 36.0 days). In the univariate analysis, the size of the tumor, the tumor level from the anal verge, and the level of anastomosis were significantly associated with AL. In EAL, the size of the tumor, the tumor level from the anal verge, the level of anastomosis, the operation type, and the value of serum albumin on day 3 after the operation were risk factors. In LAL, the tumor level from the anal verge and the level of anastomosis were risk factors. In the multivariate analysis, tumor size >7 cm (AL: P<0.001, EAL: P<0.001) and tumor level from the anal verge ≤8 cm (AL: P=0.014, EAL: P=0.001) were independent risk factors. Conclusion: AL and EAL after an anterior resection for rectal cancer were related to the size of the tumor and the level of the tumor from the anal verge.
Xylobiose (XB), a xylose dimer, is a low-calorie sweetener with prebiotic activity. Unlike its well-defined biosynthesis and production methods, its sensory characteristics have not been well investigated. This study aims to identify the relative sweetness and sensory profile of XB. XB was prepared as an aqueous solution, and its relative sweetness (RS) compared to 5% sucrose was determined using the 2-alternative forced choice method. The sensory profile was identified by 10 trained panelists using descriptive analysis. The RS of XB was determined to be 0.34. XB was characterized by its yellowness, corn aroma and flavor, and its nurungji (scorched rice) candy flavor. The persistence of sweetness of XB was similar to that of sucrose, but its onset of sweetness was slower. When XB was mixed with sucrose at a ratio of 7:93, the mixture exhibited a similar sensory quality to that of sucrose, thereby making it a useful sucrose complement.
This study focuses on women and fashion in Korea between the 1960s and 1970s, when the government regulated the socio-cultural aspects of individuals while achieving remarkable economic industrialization, particularly through the representative popular weekly magazine ‘Sunday-Seoul’. The scope of this study included 168 issues from September 22, 1968 to December 26, 1971. Two research methods were applied, literature research and content analysis research. First, the literature on Korean society, culture, women‘s fashion, the sociological, feminine and popular cultural studies were reviewed. Thereafter, the contents, cover, articles, pictorials were collected and analyzed for classification and identification of the women’s images and women's fashion. In the case of fashion articles, the contents of vocabulary and description texts were highlighted, and in the case of pictorials, the visual elements such as images, silhouettes of clothes, details of features, and patterns of materials were assessed. The images of women in Sunday Seoul's articles and pictorials exhibited extreme opposite, presenting the most important purpose of marriage, 'wise mother and good wife' and 'image of sexual object' for men. The two images of women differed; however, there was one more female image ‘industrial laborer’ which was placed in the blind spot of interest. The characteristics of fashion which appeared in ‘Sunday-Seoul’ were ‘uniform modern elegance’ based on neat mini-style, and ‘sexual image of exposure fashion’ which endeavored to selectively borrow from overseas pictorials and trend-oriented articles. This could be viewed as a 'transformation of traditional Hanbok', 'avant-garde trend' and 'de-sexualization & indifference of fashion’.
Cefepime is fourth generation class, broad-spectrum cephalosporin. In contrast to older cephalosporins, cefepime penetrates the gram-negative cell more rapidly, targets multiple essential penicillin-binding proteins, and escapes the effects of many beta-lactamases due to the enzymes’ low affinity for the drug. However, it should be used judiciously because unnecessary, improper, and prolonged use may lead to the emergence of cefepime-insensitive bacteria and risk decline in its efficacy. Therefore, this study was performed to evaluate the use of cefepime and its efficacy. We retrospectively analyzed medical records of patients who received cefepime at Chonbuk National University Hospital, from January 2011 to July 2011. As a result, 169 cases were studied; the justification of use showed a high rate of appropriate use 161 cases(95.3%). A majority of the critical(process) indicators also showed a high rate of appropriate use 126~164 cases(74.6~100%). The dosage of cefepime was appropriate in 122 cases(72.2%). Duration of therapy was appropriate in 100% of patients with neutropenia, but other cases were lower. Complications occurred in 35 cases, including nephrotoxicity(9 cases), hepatotoxicity(4 cases), gastrointestinal effects(8 cases), hematologic effects(5 cases), fever(3 cases), skin reactions(5 cases) and neurotoxicity(1 case). In outcome measures, the total therapeutic response rate showed 60.9%. Cefepime was being used for appropriate reasons, but it was not being well monitored. Since the improper use of antibiotics can lead to an increase of multidrug-resistant bacterias, increased safety measures could be taken by authorized clinical pharmacists to prescribe antibiotics for proper use and ongoing monitoring. Additional studies will also need to be considered for a wider variety of clinical data.
Background: Basic National Institute of Health (NIH) and sensitive antihuman globulin (AHG) methods are widely used for T-cell complement-dependent cytotoxicity crossmatch (XM) tests. Whereas NIH-negative, AHG-positive (NIH−/AHG+) results are caused by weak antibodies, NIH+/AHG− results are usually due to autoantibodies. We found that solid organ transplantation candidates with NIH+/AHG− XM results are repeatedly excluded from allocation of deceased donor organs by the Korean Network for Organ Sharing (KONOS) allocation system. Here, we attempted to demonstrate that these patients do not have donor-specific HLA antibodies (DSAs). Methods: Sera showing NIH+/AHG− results in the analysis of 1,668 KONOS T-cell XM tests were screened for panel reactive antibody (PRA) using a Luminex test. For screen-positive samples, antibody identification was conducted using a Luminex single antigen assay and the presence or absence of class I DSAs was determined. For positive controls, 42 KONOS XM tests showing probable true-positive (NIH−/AHG+ or NIH+/AHG+) results were reviewed for PRA results based on electronic medical records and the presence or absence of DSAs was determined. Results: NIH+/AHG− results were observed in 1.3% (21/1,668) of KONOS XM tests analyzed. Most of these (18/21, 85.7%) were negative for PRA or DSAs. All probable true-positive cases were either positive for DSAs (24/42, 57.1%) or had high PRA (mean, 92% [range; 42%∼100%]), complicating accurate identification of antibody specificities. Conclusions: NIH+/AHG− results are not rare (1.3%) in KONOS XM tests. Most of these results are not due to DSAs, and these patients should not be excluded from organ allocation.