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This study examined the effect of ergonomic heel rest that was designed for drivers who have physical handicap in the low leg muscles or have to drive prolonged hours with frequent foot pedaling. An experiment was designed to test the ergonomic heel rest with traditional foot pedal. Forty subjects participated in the experiment. Electromyography(EMG) was used to monitor the muscle activity and fatigue of right leg, and Electro-goniometer was used to measure the ranges of motions of the knee and ankle. A simulator of driver's seat was built for the experiment and the heel rest was installed on it. In order to examine the low muscle activity and range of motion, subjects used the foot pedal for 15 minutes repetitively for each experimental condition. Another 15 minutes test without the heel rest was also performed for comparison. The Root Mean Square(RMS) and Mean Power Frequency(MPF) Shift were used to quantify the level of muscle activity and local muscle fatigue. In results, statistically significant decreases of muscle activity and fatigue were found in all the low leg muscles. The range of motion of the knee and ankle joint also decreased when the heel rest was used. The mechanism of the heel rest effect was discussed in this study. This type of heel rest can be applied to real driving situation after ensuring the safety, or overcoming the psychological discomfort possibly due to unfamiliarity.
Traffic signs without a cognitive consideration in their design may cause information-processing problem that could result in a mental confusion among drivers often lead to a serious traffic accident. Therefore, in this study, several traffic signs currently used in Seoul Metropolitan area have been sampled and analyzed to identify design problems that usually caused by neglecting drivers cognitive ability. To classify the practical design problems, five major information-processing problems have been suggested: indistinguishable information, information conflict, missing information, sign-load mismatch, and information overload. In order to solve these cognitive problems, new traffic signs have been suggested in this study. An experiment was also performed to validate the new traffic sign. Twenty-four healthy subjects participated in the experiment. They were asked to answer the Question after observing the traffic signs continuously displayed on computer screen. The result indicated that subjects improved the accuracy in understanding the signs by 1.4 times when they used the suggested traffic sign compared to the old one. Based upon the results, a cognitive guideline was suggested for correct and speedy reading of traffic signs by improving information processing and reducing of human error. In conclusion, the traffic sign may well be applied to design an intelligent traffic sign system to increase the safety and comfort of drivers, especially in complex load condition.