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Puntive damages are assessed in addition to compensatory damages to punish the defendant for the commission of an aggravated or outrageous act of misconduct and to deter him and others from such conduct in the future. In Korea, the measure of recovery in all civil cases is compensation for the injury sustained. Thus, punitive damages as part of the civil liability are not allowed by the statute. None the less, The court may be face with the stigma of the punitive damages problem in respect of enforcement of foreign judgments involving punitive damages award. Recently the U.S. Court has been asked on several occasions to clarfy constituional issues surrounding punitive damages. The constitutional objection to punitive damages receiving the most attention recently is that punitive damages violate the clause relating to excessive fines. The United States Constitution Eighth Amendment provies: "Excessive bail shall not he required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishment inflicted." The Eighth Amendment has never been employed by the United States Supreme Court to ascertain the excessiveness of a fine. Its main use has been in criminal cases, to examine whether a punishment is cruel and unusual, or proportional to the crime for which it has been imposed. Thus, the Court refused to apply the Eighth Amendment prohibition against cruel and unusual punishments in a civil case. The second and more complex set of constitutional challenges to punitive damages come under the due process clause of the fifth and Fourteenth Amendments. The process for imposing a punitive damages sanction is so lacking as to deny defendants the due process guaranteed by the fifth and fourteenth amendments. But, the court held that the fifth and Fourteenth Amendments do not apply to punitive damages awards in cases between private parties. Punitive damages are not distinctly criminal penalties. In punitive damages cases a defendant does not face incarceration, the most distincitve attribute of criminal sanctions. There are a number of other constitutional challenges which might be made. The defendant, for example, challenged the constitutionality of the punitive damages award under the contract clause. Another commentator has listed a number of additional constitutional challenges, including challenges for double jeopardy, equal protection and right to privacy. The Court did not reviw the challenges, saying they were improperly raised. It is likely that lower court rulings on the constitutionality of punitive damages will become relatively common and that eventually the U.S. Supreme Court itself will rule on the constitutionality of punitive damages. None the less, the more challenges that are placed before the courts, the more likely it is that definition of the limits of punitive damages will be emerging, first from the states and ultimately from the Supreme Court.
In this study, we optimized the shape of the surface aerator that will be installed in a biological reactor using the response surface method. Response surfaces of mass flow rate, impeller torque, mass flow rate per impeller torque are generated and used to track the optimum shape of the aerator. MOGA(Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm)method is adopted to find the optimum results. By increasing the mass flow rate per impeller torque, increase of oxygen supply efficiency to a reactor is anticipated. To verify the usability of the surface aerator, PIV measurements on flow fields inside a scale-downed biological reactor model are carried out. In this study, we optimized the shape of the surface aerator that will be installed in a biological reactor using the response surface method. Response surfaces of mass flow rate, impeller torque, mass flow rate per impeller torque are generated and used to track the optimum shape of the aerator. MOGA(Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm)method is adopted to find the optimum results. By increasing the mass flow rate per impeller torque, increase of oxygen supply efficiency to a reactor is anticipated. To verify the usability of the surface aerator, PIV measurements on flow fields inside a scale-downed biological reactor model are carried out.
본 논문에서는 스테레오 정합에 사용되는 다이내믹 프로그래밍을 기반으로 영상의 시ㆍ공간적 중복성을 고려한 고속 변이 추정 기법을 제안한다. 영상 내 인접한 화소 간에 존재하는 높은 상관성을 이용하여 격행으로 다이내 믹 프로그래밍 기반의 변이 추정을 수행하고 변이가 할당되지 않은 라인은 동일영역 내에서의 변이가 유사하다는 성질을 이용하여 주변의 변이벡터로 할당하였다. 또한 동영상의 변이 추정 시에는 프레임 간의 시간적 중복성을 고려한 알고리즘으로 수행시간을 크게 단축시킬 수 있었다. 모의 실험을 통하여 변이 정보를 이용한 중간시점 영 상 생성 결과 블록매칭 알고리즘에 비하여 0.8~2.4dB의 PSNR(peak signal to noise ratio)이 증가하는 것을 확인 하였다. 또한 일반적인 다이내믹 프로그래밍 기반의 변이 추정 방식과의 비교에서도 0.1dB가량의 PSNR이 증가하 였으며 약 48~68%의 계산량이 감소하는 것을 확인 할 수 있었다.
The aqueous extract of Chungsimyeonja-eum has been used to treat palpitation, anemia, chronic fatigue, hypertension, and stroke. It also possesses various pharmacological effects including hypotensive, blood circulating, sedative, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, and anti-stress activities. In the present results, the latency time of plantar test was decreased in the immobilization stress and incusion pain-induction group. However the paw withdrawal latency values were increased in the immobilization stress and incision pain-induction groups after treatment with the aqueous extract of Chungsimyeonja-eum. The c-Fos expression in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) in the dorsal raphe were enhanced in the immobilization stress and incision pain-induction groups. However, the treatment with the aqueous extract of Chungsimyeonja-eum suppressed the immobilization stress and incision pain-induced increase of c-Fos, 5-HT, and TPH expressions. Here in this study, we have demonstrated the protective effects of Chungsimyeonja-eum on immobilization and incision pain-induced stress. The present study revealed that Chungsimyeonja-eum treatment diminishes immobilization and pain stress.
This paper addresses a new variable stiffness actuator (VSA) of a walking robot in a stance that can actively regulate a spring preload through correlation between spring reaction forces and joint variables. Here, VSA aims to realize energy-efficient stance motion of robotic limbs system from changing working conditions of a walking robot. Compared to conventional spring-loaded structures, it can effectively control both a spring stiffness and a spring-clamping configuration on humanoid’s lower body responding on uncertainties. ADAMS / MATLAB co-simulation system and experiments on the proposed VSA system as an active torque compensator are investigated for realizing energy-efficient motion in a robot’s stance.