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        • KCI등재

          포스트식민문학의 한 가지 양상 - 응구기의 『십자가의 악마』의 세계문학과의 대화적 관계성 연구

          이효석 원광대학교 인문학연구소 2021 열린정신 인문학연구 Vol.22 No.1

          The novels, which Ngugi wrote in Gikuyu language since Devil on the Cross, have been criticized for their excessive representation of the anti-imperialism and anti-dictatorship while victimizing literary values compared to his previous English novels. It seems that his literary style has been changed to articulate his criticism of Kenya's political reality to the general public. However, Gikuyu novels such as Devil on the Cross present a new direction and possibility of postcolonial literature. Ngugi created a new literature that dialogically combined the traditions of Gikuyu literature with other literary and cultural materials outside of Kenya. This is a literary example of his recent claim of ‘globalectics’ which highlights the dialectical conversations between various cultures for the inner center of the ‘globe’ such as the world literature. Devil on the Cross forms a conversational relationship with previous writers, borrowing and responding to forms, characters and themes from the Bible and Kim Jiha's poems, as well as Goethe's Faust, Hawthorne's "Young Goodman Brown", Hardy's Tess, etc. The novel shows his willingness to create a global consciousness through alliances, unions, and mergers of literature which, in turn, form a post-colonial world literature. 응구기가 『십자가의 악마』 이후부터 기쿠유어로 작업한 소설은 반제 반독재의 첨예한 문제의식이 두드러진 반면 문학적 가치에 대한 고려는 이전의 영어소설에 비해 그만큼 떨어지는 것으로 비판받아왔다. 응구기의 기쿠유어 소설들이 이전의 영어소설과 달리 케냐의 정치현실에 대한 비판을 일반 대중에게 쉽게 전달하기 위해 스타일에 변화가 일어난 것은 분명하다. 그러나 『십자가의 악마』와 같은 작품은 포스트식민문학의 한 방향과 가능성을 제시한다. 응구기는 케냐의 기쿠유 문학의 전통과 그가 알고 있는 외부의 다른 문학적 재료들을 대화적으로 결합한 새로운 문학을 만들어내었다. 이는 그가 최근 주장하기 시작한 다양한 문화들의 접촉과 대화를 통한 글로벌레틱스(globalectics)의 구현이라는 문제의식의 문학적 구현으로 평가할 수 있다. 『십자가의 악마』는 성서와 김지하의 시 뿐만 아니라, 괴테의 『파우스트』, 호손의 「젊은 브라운 형제」, 하디의 『테스』에서 형식과 인물과 주제를 빌려오고 반응하면서 이전 작가들과 대화적 관계를 형성한다. 그는 포스식민문학을 다양한 언어로 만든 문학들의 동맹, 결합, 합병을 통해 글로벌 의식을 만들어내고자 하는 의지를 보인다.

        • SCOPUSKCI등재

          자발성세균성복막염의 발생에 있어서의 복수단백량의 역할

          이효석,김정룡,김웅,최상운 대한소화기학회 1990 대한소화기학회지 Vol.22 No.2

          The present study was designed to reevaluate the role and clinical implication of ascitic fluid protein concentration in the development of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in patients with nonalcoholic liver cirrhosis. Ascitic fluid protein content was analyzed in 34 patients with SBP including 13 patients who developed SBP during hospitalization in comparison with those of 34 age- and sex-matched cirrhotic patients with non-infected ascites (NA). Ascitic fluid protein concentration was serially determined before, at the onset of, and during the convalescent phase of SBP and the sequential changes were correlated with the body-weight reduction by diuresis. The results are summarized as follows; (1) The mean ascitic fluid fluid protein concentration of the SBP group (983.4±609.8 mg/dl) was not statistically different from that (938.4± 599.8 mg/dl) of the NA group (p=0.76). (2) The ascitic fluid protein concentration increased significantly with the development of SBP (p=0.01). (3) The proportional increase in ascitic fluid protein concentration was in linear correlation with the reduction of body weight, both in patients with SBP and in patients with NA (y=0.29x+1.66, r=0.54 and y=0.08x+1.41, r=0.54). The slope of the regression line in the former was steeper than that of the latter, indicating that the development of SBP, per se, increases the protein concentration in the ascites. We conclude that any cirrhotic patient with ascites is at the risk of developinp SBP regardless of the ascites protein content, which is subject to change with diuresis as reflected by the body-weight reduction.

        • SCOPUSKCI등재

          만성 B형 간염에 대한 Thymosin의 효과

          이효석,김정룡,한철주 대한소화기학회 1996 대한소화기학회지 Vol.28 No.1

          Background/Aims: Chronic hepatitis B is a common and progressive disease, but a satisfactory antiviral therapy has not been developed. Thymosin ?l(T?1) was reported to be effective for chronic hepatitis B with few side effects. We planned pilot trial to evaluate the efficacy of T?l for patients in Korea, a HBV endemic area. Methods: A small scale prospective randomized controlled trial was performed. Seventeen patients who had been clinica]ly diagnosed as chronic hepatitis B and positive for HBeAg were enrolled and randomly a.;signed to either treated or control group. Nine patients in treated group received T?l 1.6 mg twice a week for 24 weeks, and 8 patients in control group were just followed up. Serum HBeAg, anti-Hbe, HBV DNA, liver function tests were done rnonthly. The criteria for response was defined as loss of HBeAg, HBV DNA and near normalization of ALT at the completion of therapy(at 6th month). After the end of therapy patients were followed up for 18 months. Results: Initially no difference in age, sex, ALT, HBV DNA level between treated and control group was noticed. Serum HBV DNA concentration was less than 250 pg/ml in 44%(4/9) of treated group. In treated group the response rate was 11%(1/9) at best which was not statistically different from that of control(13%; 1/8). The ALT level of treated group decreased during 18 months follow-up after the completion of therapy, but it was not statistically different from that of control group. Cirrhotic progression was noticed in 44%(4/9) of treated patients. Conclusions: These findings suggest that thymosin does not have a remarkable effect on chronic hepatitis B in a hepatitis B endemic area.

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