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Background/Aims: Combined esophageal variceal ligation and sclerotherapy has been hypothesized to be more effective for the control of bleeding esophageal varices than ligation alone. The present study was to compare the combined therapy with ligation alone in terms of variceal eradication, rebleeding, complication and survival rates in patients with bleeding esophageal varices. Methods Thirty-eight patients with bleeding esophageal varices were randomly assigned to receive ligation alone in 20 patients or the combined therapy in 18 patients. The clinical and endoscopic characteristics of patients in the ligation group were similar to those of patients in the combination group. In the combination group, 1-3 mL of ethanolamine was injected proximal to each ligated site. Treatments were repeated every 2- to 3-month until varices were eradicated. Results' No significant differences were found between the ligation and combination groups in variceal eradication rates (70% vs. 72%), numbers of endoscopic sessions required to achieve eradication (3.5±0.33 vs. 3.3±0.31), rebleeding rates (30% vs. 28%) or 2-yr cumulative survival rates (95% vs. 75%). There were significantly more complications in the combination group (25% vs. 89%, p=0.001). Conclusion' Ligation alone is recommended rather than the combined ligation and sclerotherapy because of its lower complication rates. (Korean J Hepatol 1998;4:143 - 150)
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Purpose: This study was conducted to measure macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (mGC-IPL) thickness in patients with a history of unilateral single attack of acute primary angle closure (APAC) and to compare it with that of unaffected fellow eyes 8 weeks after resolution using spectrum domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods: Medical records of 24 patients with history of first episode of unilateral APAC were reviewed retrospectively. Eight weeks after APAC, mGC-IPL thickness and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness were measured with SD-OCT and analyzed in eyes affected by APAC (group 1) and fellow eyes (group 2). Results: There were no significant differences between the groups with regard to best corrected visual acuity, spherical equivalent, central corneal thickness, or axial length (<em>p</em> > 0.05). There were no significant differences in mGC-IPL thickness in the superotemporal, superior, or superonasal sectors (<em>p</em> > 0.05). However, average, inferonasal, inferior, and inferotemporal sectors of group 1 were significantly thinner than those of group 2 (<em>p</em> = 0.002, 0.002, 0.001, 0.001, respectively). In addition, average mGC-IPL difference between affected eyes and fellow eyes showed a statistically significant correlation with attack duration (correlation coefficient = 0.249, <em>p</em> = 0.019). Conclusions: Normalization of elevated intraocular pressure as soon as possible after APAC onset is recommended in order to reduce mGC-IPL loss, and measurements of mGC-IPL thickness can be helpful for follow-up of APAC patients. J Korean Ophthalmol Soc 2014;55(8):1167-1173
Background/Aims: Myofibroblast like cell (MFLC) plays an important role in hepatic fibrogenesis. A continuously proliferating human MFLC line would be valuable in studying human hepatic fibrogenesis. The present study was attempted to establish immortalized human liver MFLC line. Methods: Fetal liver cells were transfected with SV40 large T gene. The transfected cells were selected and those colonies with morphologic characteristics of MFLCs were further cloned by limiting dilution method. Growth characteristics of subcultured cells were investigated. Indirect immuno-fluorescece studies were carried out to confirm the expression of SV40 large T antigen, to analyze the expression pattern of intermediate filaments, and to detect smooth muscle alpha-actin. Moreover, the activity to store vitamin A was analyzed. Results: Subcultured cells were spindle in shape and aggregated to form a typical hills-and-valleys structure in an overconfluent culture condition. They were stained positively for SV40 large T antigen. Doubling time of the cells was approximately 36 hours. Their growth rates were accelerated by increasing serum concentration in the media and they did not form colonies in soft agar assay. They were stained to vimentin and smooth muscle alpha-actin but not to cytokeratin and factor-VIII related antigen. These cells were also able to take up and store vitamin A. Conclusions: We established an immortalized human MFLC line derived from the hepatic stellate cells.