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      • KCI등재

        단결정 실리콘 태양전지의 후면 전극형성에 관한 비교분석

        권혁용,이재두,김민정,이수홍,Kwon, Hyuk-Yong,Lee, Jae-Doo,Kim, Min-Jeong,Lee, Soo-Hong 한국전기전자재료학회 2010 전기전자재료학회논문지 Vol.23 No.7

        Surface recombination loss should be reduced for high efficiency of solar cells. To reduce this loss, the BSF (back surface field) is used. The BSF on the back of the p-type wafer forms a p+layer, which prevents the activity of electrons of the p-area for the rear recombination. As a result, the leakage current is reduced and the rear-contact has a good Ohmic contact. Therefore, the open-circuit-voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF) of solar cells are increased. This paper investigates the formation of the rear contact process by comparing aluminum-paste (Al-paste) with pure aluminum-metal(99.9%). Under the vacuum evaporation process, pure aluminum-metal(99.9%) provides high conductivity and low contact resistance of $4.2\;m{\Omega}cm$, but It is difficult to apply the standard industrial process to it because high vacuum is needed, and it's more expensive than the commercial equipment. On the other hand, using the Al-paste process by screen printing is simple for the formation of metal contact, and it is possible to produce the standard industrial process. However, Al-paste used in screen printing is lower than the conductivity of pure aluminum-metal(99.9) because of its mass glass frit. In this study, contact resistances were measured by a 4-point probe. The contact resistance of pure aluminum-metal was $4.2\;m{\Omega}cm$ and that of Al-paste was $35.69\;m{\Omega}cm$. Then the rear contact was analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM).

      • KCI등재

        선택도핑에 도금법으로 Ni/Cu 전극을 형성한 태양전지에 관한 연구

        권혁용,이재두,이해석,이수홍,Kwon, Hyuk-Yong,Lee, Jae-Doo,Lee, Hae-Seok,Lee, Soo-Hong 한국전기전자재료학회 2011 전기전자재료학회논문지 Vol.24 No.12

        The use of plated front contact for metallization of silicon solar cell may alternative technologies as a screen printed and silver paste contact. This technologies should allow the formation of contact with low contact resistivity a high line conductivity and also reduction of shading losses. A selective emitter structure with highly dopes regions underneath the metal contacts, is widely known to be one of the most promising high-efficiency solution in solar cell processing. When fabricated Ni/Cu plating metallization cell with a selective emitter structure, it has been shown that efficiencies of up to 18% have been achieved using this technology.

      • KCI등재후보

        Propranolol의 용량에 따른 식도 정맥류 재출혈 예방

        권혁용 ( Hyuk Yong Kwon ),하경호 ( Kyung Ho Ha ),김선영 ( Sun Young Kim ),박진홍 ( Jin Hong Park ),김지숙 ( Ji Suk Kim ),김병석 ( Byung Seok Kim ),이창형 ( Chang Hyeong Lee ) 대한내과학회 2014 대한내과학회지 Vol.86 No.1

        목적:베타차단제는 간경변 환자의 식도 정맥류 재출혈 예방을 위해 널리 이용되어져 왔다. 하지만 베타 차단제를 사용하더라도 문맥압 감소가 충분하지 않으면 식도 정맥류 의 재출혈을 유발할 수 있다. 본 연구의 목적은 최대 내약 용량군과 저용량군 사이에 식도 정맥류 재출혈률을 비교하는 것이다. 방법:식도 정맥류 출혈로 응급 내시경적 정맥류 결찰술을 시행 후 베타차단제를 1개월 이상 복용하였던 95명이 등 록되었다. 혈역학적 안정이 이루어진 뒤 모든 환자는 propranolol 을 투약하였는데 49명은 최대 내약 용량(154.7 ± 10.1 mg/day)을 나머지 46명은 저용량(39.1 ± 5.8 mg/day)을 복용 하였다. 식도 정맥류 재출혈 발생을 연구의 종료 시점으로 정하였다. 결과:최대 내약 용량군과 저용량군 사이에 기본 특징을 비교했을 때, 나이, 성별비, 간경변의 원인, 복수와 뇌증의 유병률, 혈청 크레아티닌, 추적 기간은 차이가 없었다. 최대 내약 용량군에서 저용량군에 비해 Child-Pugh 등급, MELD 점수, 혈청 빌리루빈이 낮았고 프로트롬빈 시간은 짧았으며 베타차단제의 감량률은 높았다. 최대 내약 용량군에서 식도 정맥류 재출혈률은 저용량군에 비해 유의하게 낮았다(38.8% vs. 67.4%, p = 0.007). 식도 정맥류 재출혈에 관여하는 인자로 는 Child-Pugh 등급과 propranolol의 용량이 단변량 분석에서 유의한 인자였다. 그러나 다변량 분석에서는 propranolol의 최대 내약 용량만이 식도 정맥류 재출혈을 감소시키는 유의 한 인자였다. 결론:식도 정맥류 재출혈 예방을 위한 propranolol의 효과를 용량에 따라 비교해 보았을 때 최대 내약 용량군이 저용 량군보다 우수하였다. 본 연구는 식도 정맥류 재출혈을 예방 하기 위해 propranolol을 최대 내약 용량으로 투약하는 것이 중요함을 보여주었다. Background/Aims:Beta-blockers have been used extensively to prevent esophageal variceal (EV) rebleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to compare the rate of EV rebleeding according to the dose of beta-blocker, between maximally tolerable dose (MTD) and low dose (LD) groups. Methods:A total of 95 patients, who were treated with emergent EV ligation for acute EV bleeding and have since then taken propranolol for 1 month or longer, were enrolled. Forty-nine patients took propranolol at the MTD (154.7 【 10.1 mg/day), and 46 patients took propranolol at the LD (39.1 【 5.8 mg/day). The end point was occurrence of EV rebleeding. Results:The MTD and LD groups were well matched for age, sex, etiologies for cirrhosis, presence of ascites or encephalopathy, serum creatinine levels, and follow-up periods. The MTD group showed relatively lower Child-Pugh scores, mode for end stage liver disease (MELD) scores, and serum bilirubin, as well as shorter prothrombin time, but a higher dose reduction rate, as compared with the LD group. The rate of EV rebleeding was lower in the MTD group than the LD group (38.8% vs. 67.4%, p = 0.007). In the univariate analysis, the risk factors for EV rebleeding were Child-Pugh classification and dose of propranolol. However, the dose of propranolol was only a significant risk factor for EV rebleeding according to the multivariate analysis. Conclusions:The effect of propranolol on the prevention of EV rebleeding was superior in the MTD group than in the LD group. (Korean J Med 2014;86:42-48

      • 결정질 실리콘 태양전지에 적용하기 위한 후면 전극형성에 관한 연구

        권혁용(Kwon Hyuk-Yong),이재두(Lee Jae-doo),김민정(Kim Min-Jeong),이수홍(Lee Soo-Hong) 한국태양에너지학회 2010 한국태양에너지학회 학술대회논문집 Vol.2010 No.4

        It is important to reduce the recombination loss of surface for high efficiency. In order to reduce recombination loss is a way to use the BSF(back surface field). The BSF on the back of the p-type wafer forms a p+layer. so, it is prevented to act electrons of the p-area for the rear recombination. As a result, the leakage current is reduced and the rear-contact has a good Ohmic contact. therefore, open-circuit-voltage and Fill factor (FF) of solar cells are increased. This paper investigates the formation of rear contact process comparing Aluminum-paste(Al-paste) with Pure Aluminum-Metal(99.9%). It is shown that the Pure Aluminum-Metal(99.9%) provides high conductivity and low contact resistance of 21.35mΩ㎝ using the Vacuum evaporation process but it is difficult to apply the standard industrial process because high Vacuum is needed and it costs a tremendous amount more than Al-paste. On the other hand, using the Al-paste process by screen printing is simple for formation of metal contact and it is possible to produce the standard industrial process. however, it is lower than Pure Aluminum-Metal(99.9) of conductivity because of including mass glass frit. In this study, contact resistances were measured by 4-point probe. each of contact resistances is 4.2mΩ㎝ of Pure Aluminum-Metal and 35.69mΩ㎝ of Al-paste. and then rear contact have been analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy(SEM).

      • KCI등재

        선택도핑을 적용한 Ni/Cu 전면 전극 실리콘 태양전지에 관한 연구

        이재두 ( Jae Doo Lee ),권혁용 ( Hyuk Yong Kwon ),이수홍 ( Soo Hong Lee ) 대한금속재료학회(구 대한금속학회) 2011 대한금속·재료학회지 Vol.49 No.11

        The formation of front metal contact silicon solar cells is required for low cost, low contact resistance to silicon surfaces. One of the available front metal contacts is Ni/Cu plating, which can be mass produced via asimple and inexpensive process. A selective emitter, meanwhile, involves two different doping levels, with higher doping (≤30 Ω/sq) underneath the grid to achieve good ohmic contact and low doping between the grid in order to minimize the heavy doping effect in the emitter. This study describes the formation of a selective emitter and a nickel silicide seed layer for the front metallization of silicon cells. The contacts were thickened by a plated Ni/Cu two-step metallization process on front contacts. The experimental results showed that the Ni layer via SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and EDX (Energy dispersive Xray spectroscopy) analyses. Finally, a plated Ni/Cu contact solar cell displayed efficiency of 18.10% on a 2×2 cm2, Cz wafer.

      • KCI등재후보

        내분비-대사 ; Statin 치료시 LDL 콜레스테롤의 직접 측정값과 계산값의 비교

        김현진 ( Hyeon Jin Kim ),석지혜 ( Ji Hye Suk ),강지현 ( Ji Hyun Kang ),권혁용 ( Hyuk Yong Kwon ),황치성 ( Chi Sung Hwang ),김명준 ( Myoung Joon Kim ),김미경 ( Mi Kyung Kim ),김태익 ( Tae Ik Kim ),김인주 ( In Joo Kim ) 대한내과학회 2010 대한내과학회지 Vol.79 No.3

        목적: LDL 콜레스테롤의 수치를 적정 수준으로 조절하는 것이 고지혈증에 의한 심혈관계 질환의 1차적 혹은 2차적 예방에 매우 효과적이다. Statin의 사용은 일차적으로 LDL 콜레스테롤의 감소를 목표로 하지만, Friedewald 공식에 이용되는 세 가지 변수인 총 콜레스테롤, 중성지방과 HDL 콜레스테롤의 변화도 관찰된다. 이제까지 직접측정법과 Friedewald 공식에 의한 계산법을 비교한 연구들에서는 statin 치료를 고려해서 분석하지 않았으므로 기존의 연구 결과가 statin을 사용한 후에도 적용될 수 있을지는 아직 알 수 없다. 이에 우리는 statin 치료 후에 Friedewald 공식에 따른 계산값을 직접 측정법으로 측정한 LDL 콜레스테롤 결과와 비교하여 그 차이를 분석하고자 하였다. 방법: 메리놀병원 내분비내과와 심장내과 진료를 받고 있는 환자들 중에서 적어도 6개월 이상 statin을 복용한 985명의 심혈관 질환 고위험군인 환자들을 대상으로 연구하였다. 총 콜레스테롤, 중성지방, HDL 콜레스테롤 측정치를 이용한 Friedewald 공식으로 계산된 LDL 콜레스테롤 수치를 직접 측정한 LDL 콜레스테롤 수치와 비교하였다. 결과: Statin 치료 후 DLDL-C은 80.5±21.3 mg/dL이었고, FLDL-C은 82.1±23.3 mg/dL이었다. 두 수치를 비교하였을 때, 전반적인 상관관계는 양호하였으나(R2=0.879) paired t-test 상에서 두 값의 차이는 통계적으로 유의하였고, 실제 42% 이상의 환자에서 %ΔLDL이 ±10% 이상이었다. 계산값과 직접 측정값을 당뇨병 환자의 LDL 콜레스테롤의 치료 목표인 100 mg/dL을 기준으로 목표 도달률을 비교하였을 때, 비당뇨병군에서는 통계학적으로 유의한 차이가 없었지만(p=0.132), 당뇨병군에서는 통계학적으로 유의한 차이가 있었다(p=0.007). 결론: Statin 치료 후 Friedewald 공식으로 계산한 LDL 콜레스테롤과 직접 측정한 LDL 콜레스테롤 수치는 비교적 좋은 연관성을 보였으나, 각각의 수치의 비교에서는 의미 있는 차이를 보였다. 특히 당뇨병군의 치료효과 판정에서는 유의한 차이가 있었다. 향후 statin 치료의 적정성을 평가하거나 치료 변경 여부를 결정하는 경우에 Friedewald 공식에 의한 계산값과 LDL 콜레스테롤의 직접측정법의 비교에 대해서 추가적인 연구가 뒷받침되어야 할 것으로 생각된다. Background/Aims: Lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is the primary target for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have shown that estimated LDL-C levels calculated using Friedewald`s formula (FLDL-C) are closely correlated with directly measured LDL-C levels (DLDL-C). However, because statins not only reduce LDL-C, but also alter the levels of parameters used to calculate FLDL-C (i.e., total cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), whether calculated LDL-C levels remain a reliable estimate of actual levels after statin treatment is unclear. Methods: Subjects included 985 patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease who had taken statins for more than 6 months. FLDL-C data were compared to DLDL-C data. Results: A strong correlation was observed between DLDL-C and FLDL-C data (R2=0.879). However, the absolute values for FLDL-C and DLDL-C differed significantly according to a paired t-test, and 42.3% of patients showed a difference of greater than 10% between these two values. Among patients with diabetes, the percentage of patients deemed to have achieved target LDL-C levels differed significantly according to the method of LDL-C determination (p=0.007). Conclusions: FLDL-C and DLDL-C data remained well correlated after statin treatment, although the absolute values differed significantly according to the LDL-C determination method. Furthermore, the percentage of subjects deemed to achieve target LDL-C levels differed significantly according to the method of determination among patients with diabetes. (Korean J Med 79:277-284, 2010)

      • KCI등재

        폐경기 이후의 섬유근통 환자에서 심장기능의 평가

        강지현 ( Ji Hyun Kang ),이지현 ( Ji Hyun Lee ),조경임 ( Kyoung Im Cho ),김태익 ( Tae Ik Kim ),권혁용 ( Hyuk Yong Kwon ),김현진 ( Hyeon Jin Kim ),김명준 ( Myoung Joon Kim ),황치성 ( Chi Sung Hwang ) 대한류마티스학회 2009 대한류마티스학회지 Vol.16 No.3

        Background: Aberrations of cardiovascular regulation have been reported in patients who suffer with fibromyalgia (FM). Abnormalities of the cardiovascular autonomic regulation, as well as the correlation between coronary heart disease and depression, have been considered to be the causative factors. The clinical features of transient left apical ballooning syndrome with the patients under acute stress have been clearly described, but the effect of chronic stress such as FM on the myocardium is unknown. We investigated the cardiac strain in FM patients by strain imaging with using the 2D grayscale images, and we quantified the regional myocardial deformation properties. Methods: We investigated 30 consecutive postmenopausal women (mean age: 48±8 years) who satisfied the criteria for fibromyalgia with atypical chest pain by performing standard and 2-dimensional strain echocardiography (2DS). Those patients with hypertension, coronary heart disease or diabetes were excluded. The global and segmental longitudinal deformation parameters of the LV from 3 apical views were analyzed, and the patients underwent a manual tender point survey for determining the number of tender points and tender point counts, and the patients completed the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ), the brief fatigue inventory (BFI), and Beck depression inventory (BDI). Results: The global longitudinal LV strain was significantly reduced in the FM patients with a high FIQ score (>40) as compared to the patients with a low FIQ score (-18.61%vs.-22.72%). Also, both the global and segmental longitudinal LV strains were negatively associated with fatigue or the tender point counts. However, there was no significant association between depression and the LV strain. Conclusion: This study showed the reduced myocardial longitudinal deformation in FM patients. This suggested that strain imaging is a feasible approach to assess the regional ventricular function in FM patients.

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