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      • Democratization and Politics of Trasformismo: Explaining the 1990 Three-Party Merger in South Korea

        권혁용 사단법인 코리아컨센서스연구원 2017 분석과 대안 Vol.1 No.2

        Research on democratic transitions has relatively ignored the question of why some countries experience a regressive form of political pacts, while others do not. This paper develops a simple game-theoretic model to explain the phenomenon of collusive pacts in the process of democratization. Trasformismo is a term that refers to a system of political exchange based on informal clientelistic politics. The existing studies of the politics of trasformismo have emphasized the timing of industrialization and the tradition of strong state as conditions of the politics of trasformismo. However, not every late industrializers and not every strong states experienced some variants of collusive political pacts in their trajectories of democratization. In this paper, I contend that the politics of trasformismo is rather a generalizable pattern of political elites’ behavior under particular circumstances. By developing a simple game theoretic model, this paper suggests the conditions under which political actors are likely to collude to a regressive form of political pacts. The model shows that the likelihood of collusion to a regressive form of political pacts is a function of a set of parameters. First, a higher level of incumbency advantage in electoral competition is likely to be associated with a higher probability of collusive political pacts. Second, a higher degree of the monopoly of political representation of political parties without a close link with a variety of societal forces is likely to induce collusive behavior among politicians. Third, the ruling party leader’s expectations about the likelihood of a safe extrication are related to collusive political pacts. This paper then engages in a case study of the 1990 three-party merger in South Korea. The 1990 Korean case is interesting in that the ruling party created a new party after having merged with two opposition parties. This case can be considered a result of political maneuver in a context of democratization. The case study suggests the empirical relevance of the game-theoretic model. As the game of trasformismo and the case study of the 1990 three-party merger in South Korea have shown, the collusive political pact was neither determined by a certain stage of economic development nor by a particular cultural systems. Rather, it was a product of the art of trasformismo based on party leaders’ rational calculations of the expected likelihood of taking governing power. Research on democratic transitions has relatively ignored the question of why some countries experience a regressive form of political pacts, while others do not. This paper develops a simple game-theoretic model to explain the phenomenon of collusive pacts in the process of democratization. Trasformismo is a term that refers to a system of political exchange based on informal clientelistic politics. The existing studies of the politics of trasformismo have emphasized the timing of industrialization and the tradition of strong state as conditions of the politics of trasformismo. However, not every late industrializers and not every strong states experienced some variants of collusive political pacts in their trajectories of democratization. In this paper, I contend that the politics of trasformismo is rather a generalizable pattern of political elites’ behavior under particular circumstances. By developing a simple game theoretic model, this paper suggests the conditions under which political actors are likely to collude to a regressive form of political pacts. The model shows that the likelihood of collusion to a regressive form of political pacts is a function of a set of parameters. First, a higher level of incumbency advantage in electoral competition is likely to be associated with a higher probability of collusive political pacts. Second, a higher degree of the monopoly of political representation of political parties without a close link with a variety of societal forces is likely to induce collusive behavior among politicians. Third, the ruling party leader’s expectations about the likelihood of a safe extrication are related to collusive political pacts. This paper then engages in a case study of the 1990 three-party merger in South Korea. The 1990 Korean case is interesting in that the ruling party created a new party after having merged with two opposition parties. This case can be considered a result of political maneuver in a context of democratization. The case study suggests the empirical relevance of the game-theoretic model. As the game of trasformismo and the case study of the 1990 three-party merger in South Korea have shown, the collusive political pact was neither determined by a certain stage of economic development nor by a particular cultural systems. Rather, it was a product of the art of trasformismo based on party leaders’ rational calculations of the expected likelihood of taking governing power.

      • KCI등재

        선택도핑에 도금법으로 Ni/Cu 전극을 형성한 태양전지에 관한 연구

        권혁용,이재두,이해석,이수홍,Kwon, Hyuk-Yong,Lee, Jae-Doo,Lee, Hae-Seok,Lee, Soo-Hong 한국전기전자재료학회 2011 전기전자재료학회논문지 Vol.24 No.12

        The use of plated front contact for metallization of silicon solar cell may alternative technologies as a screen printed and silver paste contact. This technologies should allow the formation of contact with low contact resistivity a high line conductivity and also reduction of shading losses. A selective emitter structure with highly dopes regions underneath the metal contacts, is widely known to be one of the most promising high-efficiency solution in solar cell processing. When fabricated Ni/Cu plating metallization cell with a selective emitter structure, it has been shown that efficiencies of up to 18% have been achieved using this technology.

      • KCI등재

        한국 정치학 방법론과 인과추론

        권혁용 고려대학교 평화와 민주주의연구소 2015 평화연구 Vol.21 No.1

        reased over the past years in the Korean political science academia. This paper examines methodological trends and diversification of research methods in Korea. Furthermore, this paper examines causal inferences both in experimental studies and non-experimental observational studies. We introduce basic ideas and logics behind regression approach, matching, regressiondiscontinuity design, and differences-in-differences. We anticipate that the design-based approach to causal inferences that corresponds with theory would increase in the Korean political science academia. 한국 정치학 연구의 뚜렷한 추이의 하나는 정성적 연구방법이건 정량적 연구방법이건 연구설계와 방법론에 대한 관심이 증가해왔다는 점이다. 이 논문은 지난 20년 동안 한국 정치학에서 방법론적 경향과 추이를 살펴보고, 그동안 진행된 한국 정치학 연구방법의 다원화에 대해 고찰한다. 또한 실험방법과 비실험설계의 관찰자료 연구방법에서 모두 강조되는 인과추론에 대해 살펴본다. 인과추론을 위한 정량적 연구방법으로 회귀분석, 매칭, 불연속회귀 설계, 그리고 이중차분법 등을 소개한다. 한국 정치학 연구에서 이론과 조응하는 연구설계에 바탕한 인과추론(design-based approach)에 대한 강조가 강화될 것으로 기대한다.

      • 가구통행실태 조사자료를 이용한 출근통행거리 변화분석

        권혁용,이원석,조중래 대한교통학회 2008 대한교통학회 학술대회지 Vol.59 No.-

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        2007년까지의 수도권의 인구변화를 살펴보면, 서울시의 경우 2000년 1,031만명에서 2007년 1,019만명으로 감소하고 있는 반면, 경기도의 경우 2000년 921만명에서 2007년 1,110만명으로 서울시보다 인구가 많아졌다. 이는 경기도내에 지속적인 택지개발로 인구가 꾸준히 유입되었기 때문인 것으로 판단된다. 이처럼 경기도에 유입된 인구로 인해 서울로 통행하는 통행자수가 증가하였고, 이로인한 교통시설의 확충과 택지개발은 또다른 인구유입 요인으로 작용하여 수도권내 통행자의 통행거리를 장거리화하고 있는 것으로 판단된다. 이러한 사실은 수치적으로 명확히 밝히기 위해 본 연구에서는 2002년과 2006년에 실시된 수도권 가구통행실태조사자료를 분석하여 수도권내 출근통행거리의 변화를 분석하고자 한다.

      • KCI등재

        A Trilemma of Conceptual Validity, Generality, and Causality:Research Strategies in Comparative Analysis

        권혁용 한국국제정치학회 2006 國際政治論叢 Vol.46 No.5

        This paper explores a methodological examination of several imp ortant works incomparative politics. From the analytic frame of a virtual trilemma ---consisted ofconceptual validity, generality, and causality,---several influ ential works incontentious politics, “civic”political culture, and comparative political economy areexamined.I argue that scholars respond to the trilemma situation by adop ting a particularmethodological strategy. While sometimes the methodological str ategy may turnout to be successful, it more often than not creates a problem, which may bringabout a negative consequence. The paper raises two issues. Firs t, any carefulmethodological aplication may have to bear a trade-off between merits anddrawbacks of a particular method. Second, methodological choice in research oughtto be guided by well-specified theory...............................

      • KCI등재

        Does National Identity Collide with Economic Interest? Public Support for Northeast Asian Economic Integration in South Korea

        권혁용,지은주 한국학술연구원 2010 Korea Observer Vol.41 No.1

        What are the determinants of individual preferences for regional economic integration? This paper explores how national identity and economic interest are intertwined in forming preferences for regional economic integration. We argue that national identity tends to reinforce support for regional economic integration. However,national identity influences the unskilled more than the skilled, leading to the seemingly irrational formation of preferences among unskilled labor, even when those preferences are against their economic interest. Strong national identity often prompts unskilled labor to support regional economic integration when it may result in more costs than benefits for them. We empirically test these arguments using the Korean sample from the 2006 Chicago Council on Global Affairs-East Asia Institute public opinion survey on international relations. Our statistical analysis finds supporting evidence for our arguments about the relationship between national identity, economic interest, and preferences for regional economic integration.

      • KCI등재

        세계화에 대한 인식과 고용상태 평가

        권혁용 한국정치학회 2007 한국정치학회보 Vol.41 No.2

        Despite wide discussions about the politics of globalization in the comparative political economy literature, the mechanism that maps globalization onto political behavior has been underexplored. This paper examines the causal effects of perceptions of globalization on the assessment of employment situation. Analysis of Eurobarometer 61.0 (2004) finds that individual worries about employment situations increase as a function of negative perceptions of globalization. Empirical findings are confirmed with nonparametric matching analysis, which corroborates the causal effects of perceptions of globalization on the assessment of employment situations. 세계화에 대한 개인의 인식이 국내 고용상태를 평가하는데 영향을 미치나? 최근 비교정치경제의 활발한 연구들에도 불구하고 세계화와 국내 정치경제적 결과에 대한 연계고리들에 대한 논의는 여전히 논쟁적이다. 이 논문은 경제불안에 관한 최근연구들을 바탕으로 하여, 세계화가 개인적 수준의 경제불안을 초래하는 하나의 중요한 요소인가를 분석한다. 이 논문의 경험적 발견들은 2004년 유로바로미터(Eurobarometer) 분석으로부터 도출된다. 회귀분석접근법과 대응분석(matching analysis)을 모두 채택하여 분석한 경험적 결과는 전체고용과 개인수준의 고용상태 평가에 대한 세계화의 영향을 보여준다. 세계화를 고용에 대한 위협이라 인식하는 사람일수록 고용상태 평가가 부정적인 전망으로 이른다. 세계화의 정치(the politics of globalization)를 분석하는 첫 단계는 정치행위자로서의 개인이 세계화를 어떻게 국내 정치경제적 상황과 연계지어 인식하는지를 고찰하는 것이라 할 수 있다. 이 논문은 그러한 시도를 보여준다.

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