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Background: Recently, The number of patients who have been complaining of the vertigo or dizziness has been increasing due to rapid growth of elderly population and senile disease. The differentiation of dizzy patients is not familiar to most emergency physicians. This study was designed to differentiate true vertigo and to investigate the clinical difference among central vertigo, peripheral vertigo, and other causes of dizziness. Methods: The authors analyzed the cases of 237 dizzy patients who visited the emergency department of Chonnam University Hospital during the recent 2 years. For the base of dizziness, associated past illnesses, severity, nystagmus type, and the causes of central and peripheral vertigo. Results: Female patients were 142(59.9%) and male patients were 95(40.1%). The most common age group was the 6th decade. The origin of dizziness was classified as peripheral cause(25.3%), central cause(32.9%), and others(41.8%). As to nature of the dizziness, the rotatory sense was dominant in peripheral vertigo and the floating sense and blurred vision in central vertigo. Peripheral vertigo was triggered by position change of head and body, and central vertigo by the eye movement. Audiograms I showed that most patients with central vertigo had normal hearing, but 46.7% of thoswith peripheral vertigo had an abnormal hearing disturbance. Nystagmus was more prevalent in peripheral vertigo Conclusion: History taking and physical examination played an important role in the diagnosis of dizzy patients. An important part of the diagnosis of a dizzy patient could be to evaluate the peripheral origin, the central origin and others causes. Because central vertigo may be associated with a significant neurological pathology, spectral radiological studies, including MRI and CT, are mandatory to rule out a devastating brain lesion.
Aims: Chronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection increases the risk for progressive liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma and negatively impacts the patient’s quality of life. HCV treatment is evolving with direct acting antivirals but IFN based therapy has been the standard of care for many years and remains available in some countries. The MOSAIC study aims to characterize patients with chronic HCV infection and assess the impact of IFN-containing treatment on health-related quality of life, work related productivity and health care utilization. Methods: MOSAIC is an international prospective multicenter observational study that has been conducted in 20 countries. Consecutive patients with chronic HCV infection were enrolled and those who initiated an IFN based regimen were prospectively followed for 48 weeks. We report results from the Korean cohort Results: 100 patients were enrolled: 86 were treatment naïve and 14 were treatment experienced. 33 patients initiated an IFN based regimen: 6 patients started IFN + RBV, 26 patients started Peg-IFN + RBV, none started Peg-IFN + RBV + DAA and 1 patient received other treatment. Among the treated cohort, demographic and disease characteristics were the following: the mean age was 54.5 years; 14 patients were male. 14 had minimal or no fibrosis, 2 portal fibrosis, 3 bridging fibrosis and 6 patients suffered from cirrhosis. HCV Genotype distribution was as follows: genotype 1: 11; genotype 2: 19 and genotype 3: 3. Table 1 describes the results at baseline and changes over 4, 12 and 48 weeks and end-of-treatment (EOT) for the quality of life and work productivity outcome measures (EQ-5D-5L, HCV-PRO and WPAI). Conclusions: Results from the Korean cohort of the MOSAIC study show a moderate trend for deterioration of health-related quality of life and work productivity associated with IFN based treatment for patients with chronic HCV infection during treatment period. Acknowledgements: The design, study conduct, analysis, and financial support of MOSAIC study were provided by AbbVie. AbbVie participated in the interpretation of data, review, and approval of the content of the abstract. All authors had access to all relevant data and participated in writing, review, and approval of this abstract. Medical writing support was provided by Olivier Van de Steen of Medeor-consulting, funded by AbbVie. Disclosures: Sang Hoon Ahn: served as an advisor and lecturer for Bristol-Myers Squibb, Gilead Sciences, F.Hoffmann-La Roche, Merck, AbbVie, and has received unrestricted grants from Bristol-Myers Squibb, Gilead Sciences, and F. Hoffmann-La Roche for investigator- initiated trials Won Hyeok Choe: Nothing to disclosure Yoon Jun Kim: Nothing to disclosure Jeong Heo: received a grant from GSK; Research support from BMS, and Roche; Advisor for Abbvie, BMS, Gilead Sciences, Pharma Essentia, SillaJen, and Johnson & Johnson. Dorota Latarska-Smuga, Jiho Kang: are employees of AbbVie, Inc. and may hold stock or stock options. Seung Woon Paik: received grant and research support from AbbVie, BMS, Gilead, GSK, Merck, Novartis, and Roche
A Newly proposed control methodology applied to the aeroelastic system experiencing flutter is investigated and its performance is verified experimentally. The flexible cantilever beam slicked with piezofilm sensor and piezoceramic actuator is modelled in physical domain. Dynamic moment equation for the system is derived via Ito's stochastic differential equation and F-P-K equation. Also system's characteristics in stochastic domain is analyzed simultaneously. LQG controller is designed and used in physical and stochastic domain. It is shown experimentally that the vibration of beam is controlled effectively by designed LQG controller in physical domain. By comparing the result with that of LQG controller designed in stochastic domain, it is shown that the new control method, called Heo-stochastic control technique, has better performance as a controller.
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PDGF와 LPS는 골 대사에 중요한 조절요소이다. 외인성 PDGF는 골 흡수를 자극하기도 하고, 또 새로운 골 형성을 자극하기도 한다. LPS는 골파괴 활성의 자극요인으로 알려져 있다. 본 연구의 목적은 골개조에 중요한 역할을 하는 치주 인대에 PDGF와 LPS의 상호 작용을 평가하기 위해서 시행되었다. 배양된 사람의 치주인대 세포에 PDGF와 LPS를 첨가 배양하여 각 농도와 시간에 따른 대조군에 대한 백분율로 환산된 세포 활성의 평균과 표준편차를 구하고 ANOVA를 시행하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 1. PDGF를 단독으로 가한 경우 0.1ng/ml에서는 세포활성이 대조군과 차이가 없었으나 1mg/ml에서는 배양 2일째에, 10ng/ml에서는 배양 2,3일째에 유의한 세포 활성 증가를 보였다. 2. LPS 단독처리시 0.5㎍/ml 및 5㎍/ml 농도에서 배양 1일째, 2일째에는 대조군과 차이가 없었으나 배양 3일째에 유의한 활성 감소가 없었다. 3. 0.5㎍/ml 및 5㎍/ml 농도의 LPS에 1ng/ml 및 10ng/ml농도의 PDGF첨가시, 배양 3일째에 LPS단독 투여시보다 유의한 세포 활성 증가가 있었으며 특히 10ng/ml PDGF 첨가시에는 대조군보다 활성이 컸다. 이상의 연구결과로 골개조 과정에 관여하는 것으로 여겨지는 치주 인대세포에 대한 적절한 농도의 PDGF와 LPS의 복합투여는 PDGF 단독 투여 못지 않게 치주 인대세포의 활성을 증가시키는 것으로 사료된다. Platelet-derived growth factor(PDGF) and lipopolysaccharide(LPS) may be the important regualtors of bone metabolism. Exogenous PDGF is recognized to have a stimulating effect on bone resorption in organ culture, but to stimulate the formation of new bone ultimately. LPS is known to be a stimulating agent on the osteoclastic activity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects and the interaction of PDGF and LPS on periodontal ligament(PDL) cells which have important roles in bone remodeling. Cultured human periodontal ligament cells were treated with various concentration of PDGF and/or LPS. The cellular viability was measured by Microtitration(MTT) assay according to the lapse time of culture. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The viability of PDL cells was not different from the control in 0.1ng/ml of PDGF, but was significantly increased to be over the level of control in 1ng/ml of PDGF at the second day of culture, and in 10ng/ml of PDGF at the second and the third day of culture. 2. The cellular viability was decreased in 0.5㎍/ml or 5㎍/ml of LPS at the third day of culture. 3. Incubation with both 1ng/ml or 10ng/ml of PDGF and 0.5㎍/ml or 5㎍/ml of LPS resulted in the increased cellular viability at the third day, which was greater than LPS only treated group. It was greater than even the control group in 10ng/ml of PDGF. From the above findings, we could summarize that the admixture of PDGF and LPS could not less increase the viability of the human periodontal ligament cells than PDGF only.
아이들은 성장하면서 정서적으로나 신체적으 로 사회성과 인지 발달의 변화가 심하기 때문 에 연령과 성별, 취향 다양한 조건에 따라 계 획적인 아동 공간 연출을 하는 것이 무엇보다 는 중요한 것이 가구라고 할 수 있으며, 이를 위해 아동 가구의 연구가 더욱더 중요하다. 아동 가구의 요소는 규격, 재료, 기능, 형태, 색채, 도장, 문양이 있지만 그 중에서도 색채 는 형태나 다른 요소들 보다 앞선 단계에서 인간의 의식에 영향을 미치며 형태보다 더욱 강한 심리적 반응과 감정 정서에 영향을 주게 된다. 본 연구에서 조사된 만11세~만13세 아동의 가구의 색채 현황 조사와 아동의 선호색을 비 교해보면 아동의 기호와 다른 색채를 사용하 고 있다는 것을 알 수 있다. 이를 개선하기 위해서는 아동의 색채 인식 정도나 발달특성 을 고려하여 아동가구의 색채 계획을 세우는 것이 중요하다. 그러나 아동의 선호색에만 의 존한 아동가구의 색채 선택은 아동 공간에서 의 다른 요소들과의 부조화를 야기할 수도 있 다. 또한 아동의 선호색을 문화적 배경과 환 경, 새로운 기술의 진보에 따른 대중매체의 발달로 더욱더 다양한 색채와 접할 수 있기 때문에 색에 대한 관심과 표현이 아주 다양해 지고 변화하고 있다. 결과적으로 아동가구의 색채는 가구의 형태나 기능들의 요소에 따른 색채 변화와 그 시대에 따른 아동이 선호하는 단일색이나 배색을 적절히 수용하고 계획하여 사용할 수 있어야 하겠다. Children are so tend to vary the developmental stage of perception and social association emotionally and physically that well planned spacial disposition of furniture is very important element for them by the different circumstances of gender or preferences also study on children's furniture is more important in this view. There are fundamental elements for children furniture such as size, materials, function, style, color, painting, and pattern design but the color among any other elements influence so much to the person's consciousness anterior to the other stages and influence more to psychological response and sensual emotion than style of the furniture. The analysed result in this study revealed that children of 11~13 age use different colors than they prefer when compared the preference colors and reality of the color use for the children. Naturally, it is important to plan the coloring of children furniture considering the degree of perception and development of the children to improve this phenomena. But the color selection depending on the simple children's preference colors may raise discordance with other elements for the children space. As the development of mass media by the technical development and cultural background, and environment of the children, they are able to contact to diverse coloring that their color preference is changing very dynamically and the attentions on colors and expressions are dynamic and changing. In result, the planning and use of the children furniture color should accept adequately preferred unit or combination of the colors to meet the children of the age and to meet color changes by functional elements or style of the furniture.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the Taekwondo program on cognitive competence of children with mental retardation. The subjects were 18 children with mental retardation. The children were devided into two groups. One group(n=9) was in an experimental group and the other group(n=9)was a control group. To find out any changes of their cognitive competence, the Taekwondo program was executed to the exercise group three times a week, for forty minutes a day over ten weeks......
본 연구는 인구사회학적요인(교사의 성별, 연령, 교급, 학교위치, 보직유무), 학교조직요인(합리풍토, 인화풍토, 폐쇄풍토, 상사의 지원, 업무 스트레스), 사회심리학적요인(긍정적 성격, 부정적 성격, 자아존중감, 가정화목, 경제적 곤란)이 교사의 직무만족도에 미치는 영향을 검토하는데 그 목표를 두고 있다. 본 연구의 목표를 달성하기 위해, 전남지역 초·중·고등학교 교사 644명에게 '성취감 만족', '일 자체만족', '복지 만족'의 하위요소로 구성된 교사 직무만족 척도와 사회심리학적변인, 학교조직변인, 인구사회학적변인들에 관해 질문하는 설문지를 실시하였다. 인구사회학적변인들 중에서 학교 위치는 교사직무만족과 전혀 상관이 없었으나, 교사의 성별, 교급, 보직유무, 연령은 교사의 직무만족도와 유의하게 상관이 있었다. 학교조직변인들도 교사의 직무만족과 높은 상관관계를 나타내어, 상사의 지원이 높을수록, 학교 조직이 합리적으로 운영되고 학교조직의 인화단결이 잘될수록 교사들이 느끼는 직무만족도가 높은 것으로 나타났고, 학교가 폐쇄적 풍토를 지니고 교사들의 업무스트레스가 높을수록 교사들의 직무 만족도가 떨어지는 것으로 나타났다. 사회심리학적변인들의 경우, 교사가 긍정적 성격을 가지고 있고, 자아존중감이 높을 때, 그리고 가정이 화목할 때 직무만족도가 높은 것으로 나타났으며, 부정적 성격을 가지고 있을 때, 그리고 경제적 곤란을 느끼고 있을 때는 직무만족도가 낮은 것으로 나타났다. 인구사회 학적변인, 학교조직변인, 사회심리학적변인들을 동시에 사용하여, 중다회귀 분석한 결과를 살펴보면, 교사의 성별이나, 연령, 교급과 같은 인구사회학적요인보다는 합리풍토, 인화 풍토와 같은 학교조직요인과 교사의 긍정적, 부정적 성격과 자아존중감과 같은 교사의 사회심리학적요인이 교사직무만족도를 예측하는 데 훨씬 더 중요하게 작용하는 것으로 나타났다. The major goal of the present study was to investigate the influences of sociodemographic factors, school organizational factors, and teachers' sociopsychological factors on teachers' job satisfaction. Six hundred and forty-four elementary, middle, and high school teachers completed a questionnaire that included items on job satisfaction, sociodemographic characteristics of teachers, school organizational factors and teachers' sociopsychological factors. Among the sociodemographic variables, the location of the school was not related to teachers' job satisfaction, however, the teacher's gender, age, and the level of school were correlated with job satisfaction. School organizational factors such as the school's social closeness and supports of super-ordinates, and the teachers' sociopsychological factors such as positive personality and self-esteem were also significantly related to job satisfaction. Stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed that in general, school organizational factors and teachers' sociopschological factors play more important roles in teachers' job satisfaction than sociodemographic variables of teachers.
The purpose of this study was to analyze attack skills and scores in 8 weight classes of male Taekwondo athletes who participated in the semi-final and final matches(48 athletes) in the 14the Asian Games(2002, Busan). The 14th Asian Games was chosen for this study because it is in these games that the rules were revised to a variable scoring system. The results obtained from this analysis were as follows; 1. There is a sinificant difference of attack skill frequency per Korean(Foreign) male athlete was 50.00(51.38) times and scores obtained were an average of 5.06(4.25) points per athlete. 2. There is a significant difference in attack frequency between the light weight group and heavy weight group of Korean and Foreign male athletes. Korean male athletes: Between groups, in case of momtong-dolryeochagi, naraechagi and tchikeachagi, the frequency of the light weight group was shown to be higher. The frequency of momtong-dolryeochagi was shown to be higher in the heavy weight group. 3. There is a significant difference in attack frequency between Korean male athletes and Foreign male athletes in the light weight group and heavy weight group. The light weight group: Between groups, in case of momtong-dolryeochagi and eolgul-dolryeochagi, the frequency of Korean male athletes was shown to be higher and in case of naraechagi, dwitchagi and dolgaechagi, the frequency of Foreign male athletes was shown to be higher. The heavy weight group: Between groups, in case of and eolgul-dolryeochagi, naraechagi and dwitchagi, the frequency of Korean male athletes was shown to be higher and in case of momtong-dolryeochagi, tchikeachagi and dolgaechagi, the frequency of Foreign male athletes was shown to be higher.
세계화와 지식기반경제 사회에서 요구되는 시민을 육성하기 위해서는 실질적인 경제교육의 주체라 할 수 있는 경제교육 담당교사들에 대한 객관적이고 실증적인 조사가 무엇보다 먼저 이루어져야 한다고 본다. 이러한 필요성을 인식하여 본 연구는 현행 학교교육에서 경제교육 담당교사들에 대한 경제인식 능력과 경제의식을 파악하여 교사들의 세계화와 지식기반경제시대에 대한 현 좌표를 살펴보고, 교사훈련기관인 사범대학이나 교육대학의 교육과정과 교사교육 연수프로그램에 있어서의 개선점에 대한 시사점을 찾아 세계화와 지식기반경제시대에서 요구되는 바람직한 경제교육의 방향을 모색하는데 있다. 본 연구의 목적 달성을 위해 경제교육 담당교사들의 경제인식 능력 및 경제의식에 대한 조사는 네 가지 영역, 즉 '대학시절과 연수과정에서 이수한 경제관련 과목에 대한 내용', '세계화와 지식기반사회에서의 우리 경제현안에 관련된 내용', '지식기반사회에서의 정보소양 능력에 관련된 내용', 그리고 '세계화시대에서의 경제소양에 관련된 내용'으로 이루어졌고, 이 네 가지 영역에 대한 조사는 전국 초 · 중 · 고등학교 경제교육 담당교사를 대상으로 설문지를 통해 이루어졌다. 연구조사를 통해 얻어진 결론은 우선 직전교육을 담당하는 대학의 교육과정뿐 아니라 교사들에게 새로운 경제 환경을 올바르게 인식할 수 있도록 미리 대비시키는 연수과정이 매우 불충분 한 것 같다. The purpose of this study intends to understand the economic recognition and awareness of economic teachers in the present school education field, to inspect the present aspects of the age of globalization and knowledge-based economy, to seek the suggestion of the improvements in the curriculum and training program of the institute of teacher training, and to explore the direction of the good economic education to be demanded at the age of globalization and knowledge-based economy. To achieve the purpose of this study, the survey of the economic recognition and awareness of economic teachers was implemented through the four areas, that is, the content of the economic curriculum to complete in the college course and training program, the content of the outstanding questions of our economy at the age of globalization and knowledge-based economy, the content of information literacy at the age of knowledge-based society, and the content of economy literacy at the age of globalization. These four areas was investigated through survey as the subjects of the economic teachers of elementary, middle, and high school.
The study was conducted to investigate the effect of different light qualities and day lengths controlled by using Light-Emitting Diode (LED) of blue, red, or blue plus red provided by LED System on flowering and growth of F1 Cyclamen miniature. Cyclamen persicum 'Dixie White' seedlings which have raised for 170 days after sowing were grown under conditions of 20° C air temperature and 60% relative humidity. Day length was controlled by blue, re, or blue plus red light (1:1 in energy ratio) with 10 or 12 hr for 63 days. Photosynthetic photon flux in the treatments with 10 or 12 hr was about 100 or 83 μmol m-2 s-1, respectively. Fluorescent lamp treatment of 12 hr day length was considered as a control. Flowering and growth in all the treatments were significantly affected by light quality or day length tested in the experiment. Number of flowers, which opened above the leaf canopy, was higher in red light treatment with 10 hr day length than that in control. Days to flowering were the shortest in day length treatment of 10 hr per day with blue plus red light among the treatments. Blooming period was also the longest in red treatment regardless of day length and mixture light treatment, and thus above 20 days prolonged than that in control. Otherwise, number of unfolded leaves or net photosynthetic rate was not significantly affected by the different light qualities and day lengths.