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Confirmatory factor analysis based on a measurement model of a structural equation model was used to test the construct validity of 13 subjects in the Korean Dental Licensing Examination (KDLE). The results of 1,086 examinees who wrote the KDLE in 2004 were analyzed. The thirteen subjects were classified into 62 major categories and 122 intermediate categories. There were 364 items. A hierarchical model was constructed, including major and intermediate categories. The impact of the variables was determined by the standardized regression coefficient that related latent and measured variables in the measurement model. The KDLE showed a high goodness-of-fit with a root mean square error of approximation of 0.030 and a non-normed fit index of 0.998. When the latent variables for the major and intermediate categories were analyzed, the standardized regression coefficients of all of the subjects, with the exception of Health and Medical Legislation, were significant. From the result, we concluded that the 13 subjects showed constructive validity. In addition, the study model and data were very compatible. The subject Health and Medical Legislation had a low explanatory impact with respect to testing the ability of dentists to perform their jobs. This study suggests that similar psychometric studies are needed before integrating or deleting subjects on the KDLE, and to improve item development.
Johannes Brahms(1833-1897), one of the representative composers in the Romantic era, is called a "romantic classicist" as he struck out a path of his own that contained novelty in conservativity. This thesis examines variations in general, reviews Brahms' piano music focusing on his piano variations, and analyzes "Variations and Fuga on a Theme by Handel, Op.24" regarding performance. Variations and Fuga on a Theme by Handel, Op. 24, composed in 1861, took the theme from the second movement of suite No. 2 in Klavierstücke book 2 by Händel. It consists of the theme, 25 variations, and fuga. Most of the 25 variations have the same structure as the theme, and are character variations as they respectively have their own character. Extensive use of counterpoint is found in the fuga, and a complex texture and a rich use of pedals comprise its characteristics. It is worth to research Variations and Fuga on a Theme by Handel, Op. 24 with its diverse techniques of variations within rigidity. The purposes of the thesis are investigating and suggesting preferable approaches to performing the piece by analyzing the piece
Microorganisms and their by-products are considered to be the major causes of pulpal and periapical pathosis. The role of microorganisms in endodotic infection has been studied regarding the prevalence of particular organisms found in root canal and periapical lesions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of culture supernatants of several oral microorganims isolated from infected root canals on the viability of cultured cell lines using colorimetirc assay. S. simulans, S. sciuri, E. faecium, S. intermedius, S. mitis, S. sanguis and S. uberis were incubated in Todd-Hewitt broth for 16 hours. 20 and 100ul of filtered bacterial cell culture supernatants were added to MK and Hep-2 cells. Cell viability was measured using MTT colorimetric assay. 20ul and 100ul of S. sanguis supernatant showed significant cytotoxicity cmpared to control on MK cells. 100ul of S. sanguis supernatant significantly depressed viability of HEp-2 cells. E. faecium and S. intermedius did not affect the viability of MK and HEp-2 cells.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the desirable approaches to the general music class Korea in older to offer student-centered and experience-oriented music education Since most of the music classes in Korea have been teacher-centered and knowledge-oriented for about 50 years, it is time to change the new direcrtion in music education. The uses of behavioral objectives, iconic learning, call chart, progammed listening, Kodaly method, and Orff approach were selected as new methods to be student-centered, experience-oriented, and easily applicable to Korean educational situations. The principles of each approach were briefly discussed and the sample lesson plans of the approaches were presented. And then, each technique was applied to the conventional musical activities such as singing session, instrumental session, creative session, and listening session. The applied lesson plans of each session were also provided.
The purpose of the study was to develop the education program for the elementary music teacher training. The procedures of this study were as follows: 1) surveyed the current status of the subject specialist system to the elementary teacher ; 2) reviewed the related literatures of the subject system in order to devise the educational system for the subject specialist;3)revised the educational system through the first educational specialist council; 4) reviewed the musical competences for the music teacher and analyzed the Korean and American music education curriculum; 5) surveyed the revised educational system to the music education professors at the national university of education; 6) consulted the revised educational system to the educational specialist council; 7) developed the music programs for the elementary music teacher training based on the three plans of the devised educational systems. The three plans are step by step and required the prescribed certificate as the subject specialist The first plan is the same credit as intensified program in the university of education, the second plan is the expanded first plan, and the third plan is the enlarged plan because the credits for the specialist program are biggest among the others. Since music education majors do not take the other subject education courses such as physical education, art eduction, English education, the whole credits for the specialist program are 33. The devised music programs for the elementary music teacher training offer the same required music courses comprised of all areas of music performance, music theory, music education, Korean music. As the credits increase, the selective music courses are augmented. 본 연구의 목적은 초등학교에서 음악교과를 전담하여 제대로 가르칠 수 있는 교사를 교육대학에서 양성하는 방안을 제시하고 그에 따른 음악교사교육 프로그램을 개발하는 것이다. 이 목적을 달성하기 위하여 교과전담제에 관한 초등교사의 의견을 설문 조사하였고 초등교과 전담교사 양성제도에 관한 선행연구를 바탕으로 교과전담교사 양성 방안을 구안하였으며 제1회 전문가 협의회를 거쳐 초등교과 전담교사 양성방안을 수정하였다. 또한 음악교사로서 필요한 자질을 검토하였고 한국과 미국의 초등음악교사 양성 프로그램을 분석하였으며 수정한 전담교사 양성방안과 프로그램에 대하여 교육대학교 음악교육과 교수들의 설문조사를 실시하였고 제2회 전문가 협의회를 거쳐 최종적으로 초등교과 전담교사 양성 방안과 프로그램을 구안하였다. 본 연구에서 구안한 초등교과 전담교사 양성방안은 3가지인데 모두 교사자격증에 전담교과명을 병기하는 것이 공통점이다. 제1안은 교육대학교의 기존 심화과정을 통해 교과전담교사를 양성하는 방안이고 제2안은 제1안의 시행을 전제로 하면서 전담 교과에 한하여 심화과정의 학점을 6학점 ~ 9학점 정도 늘리는 방안이며 제3안은 교과전담 (음악, 미술, 체육, 영어 교육과) 학생에 한하여 국어, 수학, 사회, 과학, 윤리, 실과 교과의 각과교육을 모두 필수로 이수하면서 체육, 음악, 미술, 영어의 각과교육 중에서 하나만을 선택하는 방안이다. 3가지 양성방안에 따른 음악교사 양성 프로그램은 교과교육학과 교과내용학을 3가지 방안 모두에서 고루 배정하여 필수 과목을 동결시키고 심화과정의 학점수가 증가할수록 음악실기 같은 교과내용학의 비율을 확대하여 음악적 능력 배양에 중점을 두었다. 음악 프로그램의 교과목들은 3가지 방안에서 거의 비슷하게 제시하였는데 이는 프로그램을 현실적으로 더 쉽게 적용하기 위해서이다.
Purpose: This study explored the possibility of using the Angoff method, in which panel experts determine the cut score of an exam,for the Korean Nursing Licensing Examination (KNLE). Two mock exams for the KNLE were analyzed. The Angoff standard settingprocedure was conducted and the results were analyzed. We also aimed to examine the procedural validity of applying the Angoff method in this context. Methods: For both mock exams, we set a pass-fail cut score using the Angoff method. The standard setting panel consisted of 16 nursing professors. After the Angoff procedure, the procedural validity of establishing the standard was evaluated by investigating the responses of the standard setters. Results: The descriptions of the minimally competent person for the KNLE were presented at the levels of general and subject performance. The cut scores of first and second mock exams were 74.4 and 76.8, respectively. These were higher than the traditional cut score(60% of the total score of the KNLE). The panel survey showed very positive responses, with scores higher than 4 out of 5 points on aLikert scale. Conclusion: The scores calculated for both mock tests were similar, and were much higher than the existing cut scores. In the secondsimulation, the standard deviation of the Angoff rating was lower than in the first simulation. According to the survey results, proceduralvalidity was acceptable, as shown by a high level of confidence. The results show that determining cut scores by an expert panel is an applicable method.