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Objectives The purpose of this study is to provide clinical evidence of Korean medicine for febrile seizure by review of randomized controlled trials on the effect of TCM (traditional Chinese medicine) for febrile seizure. Methods We searched randomized controlled trials about TCM treatment of febrile seizure from the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (January 2008 to June 2016). The selected literatures were assessed by Jadad scale. Results 40 papers were selected from 160 studies. Analyses of selected studies indicated that the TCM treatment group has significantly higher cure rate for febrile seizure than first aid or western medicine group. The most commonly used herbs were Gardeniae Fructus (梔子), Uncariae Ramulus cum Uncis (鉤藤), Cornus Gazeliae (羚羊角), Margarita (珍珠), Scutellariae Radix (黃芩), Glycyrrhizae Radix (甘草). The most commonly used acupoints were GV26 (人中), LI4 (合谷), KI1 (湧泉), GV20 (百會). There were no serious adverse events reported from the TCM treatment group during the treatment period. Conclusions TCM has been shown as not only effective but also safe treatment on febrile seizure. This finding can be widely utilized in clinical practice and can form the basis for development of clinical practice guidelines in future.
가스 하이드레이트는 고압과 저온 조건에서 객체분자(guest molecule)인 저 분자량의 가스와 주체분자(host molecule)인 물 분자가 결합하여 고체상으로 형성된 화합물을 일컫는다. 물과 가스에 의해서 형성이 된다는 점, 포집 가스의 종류에 따라 다양한 결정구조가 형성되며 선택적으로 가스를 포획할 수 있는 장점으로 인하여 이를 지구온난화 가스 저감을 위한 산업공정에 활용하는 연구가 최근 활발히 진행되고 있다. 본 논문에서는 $CO_2$ 또는 $CO_2-N_2$ 하이드레이트에 관한 전반적인 최근 연구 동향을 파악하여 이를 실제 산업 현장에 적용하는 경우에 대한 기술적 가능성을 모색해 본다. 특히 대규모 $CO_2$가 배출되면서도 이에 해당하는 연구가 활발히 진행되지 않았던 제철 공정에 대한 적용성을 중점적으로 검토하였다. Gas hydrates are crystalline solids composed of water and gas molecules. Water molecules are linked through hydrogen bonding and create cavities(host lattice) that can capture a large variety of guest molecules under appropriate conditions, generally high pressure and low temperature. Recently, many researchers try to apply gas hydrates to industrial processes to capture greenhouse gases due to the facts that the process is eco-friendly and target gas molecules can be preferentially captured. In this paper, we introduced recent studies on $CO_2$ and $CO_2-N_2$ mixture hydrates to evaluate the feasibility of industrial application of gas hydrate technology to $CO_2$ capture process. Specifically, we put emphasis on the technical feasibility of $CO_2$ separation in steel industry using gas hydrate formation principles.
[ $SF_6$ ] gas has been widely used as an insulating, cleaning and covering gas due to its outstanding insulating feature and because of its inert properties. However, the global warming potential of $SF_6$ gas is extremely high relative to typical global warming gases such as $CO_2$, CFCs, and $CH_4$. For these reasons, it is necessary to separate and collect waste $SF_6$ gas. In this study, the effects of a surfactant (Tween) on the formation rate of $SF_6$ gas hydrates were investigated. The $SF_6$ gas hydrate formation rate increased with the addition of Tween and showed a nearly 6.5 times faster hydrate formation rate with an addition of 0.2 wt.% Tween compared to an addition of pure water. This is believed to be due to the increased solubility of $SF_6$ gas with the addition of the surfactant. It was also found that $SF_6$ gas hydrate in the surfactant solution showed two-stage hydrate formation rates with a formation rate that increased rapidly in the 2nd stage.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
Background: The development of technology can be beneficial for the life and health of human society. Crowdsourcing refers to drawing upon a large pool of individuals in order to seek services, ideas, or other contributions. With the development of information communication technology, crowdsourcing is able to provide powerful results in environmental health research. Methods: We searched 'crowdsourcing' and 'citizen science' for keywords related to the environmental health field and only selected journal articles and conference proceedings material, such as research reports and WHO reports. Results: This paper reviewed environmental health research using crowdsourcing. Examples of such research based on crowdsourcing included practices in environmental disasters, noise monitoring, global positioning system (GPS) technology, smart phones, attached portable devices and information delivery by web. Crowdsourcing methods can provide notably distinct approaches for future environmental health research. However, it is also important to protect personal information whenever crowdsourcing is applied to data generation and information dissemination. Conclusion: We expect that this review may provide useful information for the development of new environmental health research methods using crowdsourcing and citizen science.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dose reduction when using the stepwise collimationmethod for scoliosis patients undergoing full spine radiography. A Monte Carlo simulation wascarried out to acquire dose vs. volume data for organs at risk (OAR) in the human body. While theeffective doses in full spine radiography were reduced by 8, 15, 27 and 44% by using four differentsizes of the collimation, the doses to the skin were reduced by 31, 44, 55 and 66%, indicating thatthe reduction of the dose to the skin is higher than that to organs inside the body. Althoughthe reduction rates were low for the gonad, being 9, 14, 18 and 23%, there was more than a 30%reduction in the dose to the heart, suggesting that the dose reduction depends significantly on thelocation of the OARs in the human body. The reduction rate of the secondary cancer risk based onthe excess absolute risk (EAR) varied from 0.6 to 3.4 per 10,000 persons, depending on the size ofthe collimation. Our results suggest that the stepwise collimation method in full spine radiographycan effectively reduce the patient dose and the radiation-induced secondary cancer risk.
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
Objectives: A hospital is a complex building that serves many different purposes. It has a major impact on patient's well-being as well as on the work efficiency of the hospital staff. Thermal comfort is one of the major factors in indoor comfort. The purpose of this study was to determine thermal comfort in various locations in a hospital. Methods: Various indoor environmental conditions in a general hospital were measured in February 2014. The predicted mean vote (PMV) and carbon dioxide ($CO_2$) concentration were measured simultaneously in the lobby, office, restaurant, and ward. Results: The ward was the most thermally comfortable location (PMV=0.44) and the lobby was the most uncomfortable (PMV = -1.39). However, the $CO_2$ concentration was the highest in the ward (896 ppm) and the lowest in the lobby (572 ppm). The average PMV value was the most comfortable in the ward and the lowest in the lobby. In contrast, for concentration of carbon dioxide, the highest average was in the ward and the lowest in the lobby. Due to air conditioner operation, during operating hours the PMV showed values close to 0 compared to the non-operating time. Correlation between PMV and $CO_2$ differed by location. Conclusion: The PMV and concentration of carbon dioxide of the hospital lobby, office, restaurant and ward varied. The relationship between PMV and carbon dioxide differed by location. Consideration of how to apply PMV and carbon dioxide is needed when evaluating indoor comfort.
The purpose of this study is to propose prototypical plans for a dwelling unit applying the concepts of 'open housing' and 'aging in place' for senior citizens living in cities focusing on specific life patterns with chronic disease. Especially, a unit was designed for diabetes patients because diabetes, a representative disease of elderly people, often accompanies complications such as arthritis and Alzheimer disease. A unit design suitable for the convenient life of the elderly people with diabetes will provide a guideline for the similar unit designs of the senior citizens with other diseases. In this study, three types of unit plan are proposed. A-type plan is for type-1 diabetes patients, B-type alt.1 for the independent seniors of type-2 diabetes patients, and B-type alt.2 for the dependant seniors of type-2 diabetes patients. And a support design for a unit plan with the exclusive area of $60\;m^2$ is proposed. The same support design is used for all three unit types. Although the locations of bathroom and storage room are fixed and the location of the kitchen is changeable only in wet-zone. In conclusion, senior residents with diabetes can choose one of three unit types before occupation and the chosen unit type can be renovated by replacing infill systems as the health condition or life style changes.
본 연구는 기상학적 가뭄지수가 수문학적 가뭄에 대한 모사정도를 검토하였다. 기상학적 가뭄지수 중에서 강수량을 변수로 하는 SPI(Standardized Precipitation Index)와 강수량 및 증발산량을 변수로 하는 SPEI(Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index)를 이용하였고, 수문학적 가뭄 평가를 위하여 월 총 유입량과 하천수 가뭄지수인 SDI(Streamflow Drought Index)를 계산하여, 최종적으로 기상학적 가뭄지수와 수문학적 가뭄지수와의 상관정도를 분석하였다. 월별 상관계수 비교결과, 지속기간 270일에 기상학적 가뭄지수와 월 총 유입량과 상관정도가 가장 높아서 0.67로 나타났고 기상학적 가뭄지수로 SDI와의 상관정도는 0.72~0.87이었다. 연별 극한값을 비교한 결과, 월 총 유입량의 최저값과 기상학적 가뭄지수의 연관성은 거의 확인되지 않았다. 다만 SDI와 SPEI가 매우 높은 상관정도를 보였다. 기상학적 가뭄지수로 수문학적 극한가뭄에 해석하는 데에 한계가 있는 만큼 수문 가뭄해석이 목적이라면 유량자료가 직접 활용될 수 있는 가뭄지수가 필요하다. In this study, meteorological drought indices were examined to simulate hydrological drought. SPI (Standardized Precipitation Index) and SPEI (Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index) was applied to represent meteorological drought. Further, in order to evaluate the hydrological drought, monthly total inflow and SDI (Streamflow Drought Index) was computed. Finally, the correlation between meteorological and hydrological drought indices were analyzed. As a results, in monthly correlation comparison, the correlation between meteorological drought index and monthly total inflow was highest with 0.67 in duration of 270-day. In addition, a meteorological drought index were correlated 0.72 to 0.87 with SDI. In compared to the annual extremes, the relationship between meteorological drought index and minimum monthly inflow was hardly confirmed. But SDI and SPEI showed a slightly higher correlation. There are limitation that analyze extreme hydrological drought using meteorological drought index. For the evaluation of the hydrological drought, drought index which included inflow directly is required.
본 연구는 홈케어 헤어트리트먼트 특성 및 사용 빈도에 따라 퍼머넌트 웨이브 시술시 모발에 미치는 영향을 알아보고자 수행하였다. 시중에 유통되는 헤어트리트먼트를 양이온계면활성제, 실리콘 오일로 구분하였다. 사용빈도에 따라 제품별 5회, 10회, 20회 다르게 헤어트리트먼트를 처리한 후 헤어 퍼머넌트 웨이브를 시술하였다. 실험 방법으로 모발의 굵기, 인장강도, SEM을 이용한 모표피 관찰, EDS를 이용한 모발 구성 원소 분석을 하였다. 실험 결과 천연유래성분이 주성분이며 양이온계면활성 및 실리콘 오일이 미첨가된 제품군이 모발 보호 효과가 높게 측정되었다. 이에 천연유래성분을 이용한 제품군이 더욱 연구 개발되어야 하며 자극적 화학 성분이 첨가된 제품은 사용 방법 및 빈도에 대한 연구가 진행 되어야 할 것으로 사료된다. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of home care hair treatment characteristics and frequency on hair during permanent wave treatment. The hair treatments distributed on the market were classified into cationic surfactants and silicone oil. Hair treatment was performed 5 times, 10 times, 20 times differently according to the frequency of use, and hair permanent wave was performed. The hair thickness, tensile strength, epidermal observation using SEM, and hair component analysis using EDS were performed as experimental methods. The results of the experiment showed that the natural-derived ingredient was the main ingredient, and the cationic surface activity and silicon oil-free product group had high hair protection effect. Therefore, the product group using natural ingredients should be further researched and developed, and the study on the method and frequency of use of products with irritant chemical ingredients should be conducted.
본 연구는 대학도서관 직원의 서비스 품질이 이용자 만족도와 지속의도에 어떠한 영향을 미치는지 알아보고, 만족도와 지속의도 향상을 위한 실질적인 방안을 제시하는 데 그 목적을 두고 있다. 다양한 도서관 서비스의 가치를 실현시킬 수 있는 기반핵심요소로서의 인적서비스는 그 가치와 중요성에 비해서 이전연구에서 상대적으로 강조되지 않았다. 본 연구는 인적서비스, 서비스 품질, 만족도, 지속의도의 개념을 이론적 배경으로 개념적 분석틀을 개발하여 이를 데이터 수집 및 분석에 유용한 가이드라인으로 활용한다. 본 연구에서는 방법론적으로 정량적 평가 외에 심층면담을 추가한 통합방법론을 활용하며, 결과적으로는 이용자들에게 대학도서관 인적서비스에 대한 긍정적 태도를 높여주는 전략을 제시함으로써 지속의도 확보 가능성을 확인할 수 있다는 점이 의의에 포함된다. This study aims at examining how academic library staffs' service quality affects the user satisfaction and continuance intention, and also seeking practical solutions for improving the satisfaction and continuance intention in academic libraries. Despite the value and importance of human-mediated library services which enable various library services to be more valuable, relatively few prior studies focuses on this topic. This study develops a conceptual framework based on the concepts of service quality, satisfaction, and continuance intention. This framework provides a useful guideline for data collection and data analyses. Values of this study include ensuring the continuance intention by suggesting strategies that may increase users' positive attitude toward human-mediated services in academic libraries, and methodologically, using both quantitative and qualitative methods.