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Multilayer Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films coated on quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) of octa-substituted metallophhtalocyanines (MPc(OEH)_8, M = Cu, Co, and Sn) and dihydrogen phthalocyanines (H₂Pc(OEH)_8) were used to quantify NO₂ concentrations. They were exposed to various concentrations of NO₂ in dry N₂. Among the four phthalocyanines we tested, the metal-free H₂Pc(OEH)_8 was observed to be m48t sensitive to NO₂. However, its LB film showed a partially irreversible behavior, that is part of the frequency change due to NO₂ adsorption could not be recovered even after purging with pure N₂ gas for an extended period. Examining the spectra of NMR and FTIR revealed fact that the irreversible portion of frequency change was due to ether groups in the linkage between side chains and the Pc unit. In order to remove the effect of such initial deactivation, on NOD quantification experiment, a freshly fabricated LB film was treated at a high concentration of NO₂ so that the ether sites were saturated. A pretreated LB film showed a reproducible performance for repeated uses. The CuPc(OEH)_8 LB film showed a satisfactory sensing performance down to as low as 4 ppm. For the H₂Pc(OEH)_8 LB film, the lower detection limit was found to be 35 ppb of N02. In order to make the experimental condition more realistic, the carrier gas, dry nitrogen, was replaced by air. It was observed that the presence of oxygen, a weak electron acceptor, reduced the sensitivity and thus increased the sensing limit to hundreds of ppb. Results of experiments with moisture added showed that the interference of moisture was quite severe.
The growth and characterization of heteroepitaxial Si_(l-x)Ge_x films grown by the RTCVD (Rapid Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition) method were described. For the growth of Si_(l-x)Ge_x heteroepitaxial layers, SiH₄/ GeH₄ / H₂ gas mixtures were used. The growth conditions were varied to investigate their effects on the Si / Ge composition ratios, the interface abruptness and crystalline properties. The experimental data shows that the misfit threading dislocation in Si_(l-x)Ge_x / Si heteroepitaxial film of about 400 A thickness was not observed at the growth temperature of as low as 650℃, and the composition ratios of Si / Ge changed linearly with SiH₄ / GeH₄ gas mixing ratios in our experimental ranges. In the in-situ boron doping experiments, the doping abruptness would be controlled within several hundreds Å/decade.
Silicon epitaxial films of submicron level were successfully grown by the RTCVD method. For the growth of silicon epitaxial layers, SiH₂Cl₂/ H₂ gas mixtures and various process parameters including Hz prebake process were used. The growth conditions were varied to investigate their effects on the interface abruptness of doping profile, the film growth rates and crystalline properties. The crystallinity of the undoped silicon was excellent at the growth temperature of 900℃. The doping profiles were measured by SIMS technique. The abruptness of doping profile would be controlled within about 200A /decade in the structure of undoped Si / n^+ -Si substrate.
저자들은 1979년 3월부터 1980년 10월까지 서울대학교병원내과에 입원하여 만성신부전증으로 진단받고 혈액투석요법을 받지 않은 환자 15예, 혈액투석요법을 시행중인 환자 39예 및 신장이식술을 받고 신장능이 호전된 환자 23예에서 혈청 CEA치를 방사면역측정법으로 측정하여 정상대조군과 비교하여 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 1) 정상 성인 65명의 혈청 CEA치의 범위는 1.0∼4.3 ng/ml이었으며 평균은 1.6±0.66 ng이었다. 2) 혈액투석요법을 시행치 않은 만성신부전증 환자 15예의 혈청 CEA치는 0.3∼8.3 ng/ml이었고 평균은 3.6±2.10 ng/ml로써 정상대조군에 비하여 유의하게 증가되어 있었다(p$lt;0.001). 3) 혈액투석요법으로 치료중인 만성신부전증 환자 39예의 혈청 CEA치는 0.7∼6.7 ng/ml로 평균이 3.0±1.52 ng/ml이며, 정상대조군에 비하여 유의하게 상승되어 있으나(p$lt;0.001), 혈액투석을 받지 않은 환자군과는 유의한 차이가 없었다. 4) 신이식 환자 23예의 혈청 CEA치의 분포는 1.8∼10.8 ng/ml이고 평균은 3.8±1.96 ng/ml로 역시 정상대조군에 비하여 유의하게 증가되어 있으나(p$lt;0.001), 만성신부전증 환자군과는 유의한 차이가 없었다. 5) 이상의 혈청 CEA치가 정상범위 이상으로 상승된 49명��환자중 이학적 소견이나 검사소견상 악성종양은 발견되지 않았다. The serum CEA levels were measured by radioimmunoassay technique in 15 patients with chronic renal failure, who were not treated with hemodialysis, in 39 patients under hemodialysis and in 23 patients who received renal transplantation. The results were compared with those in 65 normal adults and the following results were obtained. 1) Serum CEA concentrations in 65 normal adults were in the range of 1.0 to 4.3 ng/ml with a mean value of 1.6±0.66 ng/ml. 2) Serum CEA concentrations in 15 chronic renal failure patients who were not treated with hemodialysis, were in the range of 0.3 to 8.3 ng/ml with a mean value of 3.6±2.10 ng/m1 which was significantly higher than those of normal controls(P$lt;0.001). 3) Serum CEA concentrations in 39 chronic renal failure patients under hemodialysis were also much higher than normal controls(p$lt;0.001), but not significantly different from those of the patients who were not under hemodialysis(P$gt;0.05). 4) In 23 patients who received renal transplantation, serum CEA levels were snificantly higher than normal controls(P$lt;0.001), but not significantly different from those of chronic renal failure patients.
A planar Bi-Sb multijunction thermal converter with high thermal sensitivity and small ac-do transfer error has been fabricated by preparing the bifilar thin film Pt-heater and the hot junctions of thin film Bi-Sb thermopile on the Si₃N₄/SiO₂/Si₃N₄-diaphragm, which functions as a thermal isolation layer, and the cold junctions on the dielectric membrane supported with the Si-substrate, which acts as a heat sink, and its ac-do transfer characteristics were investigated with the fast reversed de method. The respective thermal sensitivities of the converter with single bifilar heater were about 10.1 mV/mW and 19.8 mV/mW in the air and vacuum, and those of the converter with dual bifilar heater were about 5.1 mV/mW and 7.fi mV/mW, and about 5.3 mV/mW and 7.8 mV/mW in the air and vacuum for the inputs of inside and outside heaters, indicating that the thermal sensitivities in the vacuum, where there is rarely thermal loss caused by gas, are higher than those in the air. The ac-do voltage and current transfer difference ranges of the converter with single bifilar heater were about ±1.80 ppm and ±0.58 ppm, and those of the converter with dual bifilar heater were about ±0.63 ppm and ±0.25 ppm, and about ±0.53 ppm and ±0.27 ppm, respectively, for the inputs of inside and outside heaters, in the frequency range below 10 kHz and in the air.
Microstrip line was fabricated on the oxidized porous silicon layer which has nearly electrically and chemically identical properties with thermally oxidized silicon layer. Thick oxidized porous silicon layer of few tenth of micrometers was prepared by thermal oxidation of porous silicon layer on silicon substrate. Multi-step thermal oxidation process warm used obtain high quality arid thick oxidised silicon layer and to release thermal stress. Microstrip line warm fabricated on the oxidized porous silicon layer. Its microwave characteristics were measured and the availability for MMIC substrate was investigated.
The strain characteristics of a fiber optic Fabry-Perot pressure sensor with high sensitivity using a Si₃N₄/SiO₂/Si₃N₄ (N/O/N) diaphragm is experimentally investigated. A 600 nm thick N/o/N diaphragm was fabricated by silicon anisotropic etching technology in 44 wt KOH solution. An interferometric fiber optic pressure sensor has been manufactured by using a fiber optic Fabry-Perot intereferometer and a N/O/N diaphragm. The 2 cm length fiber optic Fabry-Perot interferometers in the continuous length of single mode fiber were produced with two pieces of single mode fiber coated with TiO₂ dielectric film utilizing the fusion splicing technique. The one end of the fiber optic Fabry-Perot interferometer was bonded to a N/O/N diaphragm, and the other end was connected to an optical setup through a 3 dB coupler. For the N/O/N diaphragm sized 2 x 2 ㎟ and 8 x 8 ㎟, the pressure sensitivity was measured 0.11 rad/kPa and 1.57 rad/kPa, respectively, and both of the nonlinearities were less than 0.2%FS.
Background: Several factors have been influenced to mortality of patients with end-stage renal disease treated with hemodialysis. We performed this study to evaluate the factors influencing to mortality in chronic hemodialysis patients in eight hemodialysis centers. Method: We analyzed retrospectively the demographic characteristics, risk stratification, Kamofsky scale, regularly tested laboratory finding(CBC, Blood chemistry), hospitalization rate, and gross mortality among 150 patients from June, 1994 to June 1996. Results: 1) A total of 150 patients were enrolled, male 91 and female 59 and mean age was about 53 years. 43 patients had diabetes and 107 patients had nondiabetes. The mean duration of hemodialysis was 48.2±24.7 months(range, 9-123months), 2) 82 patients(54.7%) required hospitalization during the 2 year follow-up period and the most common cause of hospitalization was cardiovascular disease. 3) A total of 43 patients(28.7%) had been died during the 2 year follow-up period and the most common cause of death was cerebrovascular disease. 4) In univariate analysis, advancing age, Kamofsky scale($lt;80 points), diabetic nephropathy as the underlying cause of ESRD, comorbid illness, high risk group in risk stratification, total HD duration, HD length per week, low serum albumin and creatitine concentration were all associated with significantly increased risk of death. In multivariate analysis, diabetic nephropathy as the underlying cause of ESRD and low serum albumin concentration were more highly associated with death probability. Conclusion: We conclude that diabetic nephropathy as underlying cause of ESRD and serum albumin concentration are more important elements in determining patient mortality.
The purpose of this study is to analyze death injuries and operation troubles of urban transit. No difference was shown in death rates between Line 1 of Pusan urban transit and Line 5, 7, and 8 of Seoul metropolitan transit. And relief time by another train did not depend upon the number of crews. We concluded that thorough inspection and preventive maintenance of trains and facilities are necessary for safe and timely service of urban transit.