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        • 고려인삼이 흰쥐의 장기조직 핵산 함유량에 미치는 영향

          김철,최현,김정진,김종규,김명석,허만경,Kim, Chul,Choi, Hyun,Kim, Chung-Chin,Kim, Jong-Kyu,Kim, Myung-Suk,Huh, Man-Kyung 대한생리학회 1971 대한생리학회지 Vol.5 No.1

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          I. Chemical analysis A study was planned to see if administration of ginseng extract has any influence upon the adrenal, the hepatic, the splenic, and the pancreatic nucleic acid contents of rats, and to estimate the effect of ACTH administration as a substitute for stress reaction upon these nucleic acid contents of rats previously primed with ginseng. Ninety male rats$(body\;weight:\;150{\sim}200gm)$ were divided into the ginseng, the saline, and the normal control groups, which received for 5 days 0.5ml/100 gm body weight of ginseng extract solution (4 mg of ginseng alcohol extract in 1 ml of saline), same amount of saline, or no medication, respectively. On the 5th experimental day, each of the 3 groups was further divided into 2 subgroups yielding the ginseng, the ginseng-ACTIT, the saline, the saline-ACTH, the normal control, and the normal-ACTH subgroups. The ginseng, the saline, and the normal control subgroups were sacrificed 3 hours after the last medication, while the ginseng-ACTH, the saline·ACTH, and the normal-ACTH subgroups received ACTH(0.1 unit/subject) 1 hour after the last medication and were sacrificed after 1 more hour. The adrenal gland, the liver, the spleen and the pancreas of each rat were measured for RNA and DNA contents using the chemical method of Schmidt-Thannhauser-Schneider. Following results were obtained: 1. Adrenal RNA and DNA contents and RNA/DNA ratio were all significantly higher in the ginseng group compared with the values obtained from the normal control and the saline groups. Generally administration of ACTH reduced nucleic acid contents of the viscera examined. However, in the ginseng group the rate of decrease [(value of ginseng-ACTH subgroup-value of ginseng subgroup) x100/value of ginseng subgroup)] in adrenal RNA and DNA contents and in RNA/DNA ratio were more conspicuous than they were in the normal control and the saline groups. 2. Hepatic RNA and DNA contents and RNA/DNA ratio were all significantly less in the ginseng group than in the normal control and the saline groups. After ACTH, the rate of decrease in hepatic RNA, DNA, and RNA/DNA ratio of the ginseng· group was less conspicuous than those of the other 2 groups. 3. With regard to the splenic nucleic acid contents, the RNA and the RNA/DNA values of the ginseng group were higher than those of the normal control group but lower than those of the saline group, while the DNA value of the ginseng group was lower than that of the normal control group but higher than that of the saline group. Following administration of ACTH, the rate of decrease in RNA and DNA contents and in RNA/DNA ratio of the ginseng group was more conspicuous than that of the normal control group but less remarkable than that of the saline group. 4. Pancreatic RNA and DNA contents were notably lower in the ginseng group than in the normal control and the saline groups. However, the RNA/DNA ratio of the ginseng group was higher than that of the normal control and the saline groups.'After ACTH, the rate of decrease in pancreatic RNA and RNA/DNA ratio of the ginseng group was less than that of the normal. control group but more than that of the saline group, while the DNA content was actually increased in the ginseng group though it decreased in the normal control and the saline groups. Although the results are not clear enough for an accurate interpretation, they seem to indicate that ginseng exerts notable influence upon the RNA and DNA contents and the RNA/DNA ratio of the viscera stodied. On the whole the drug tends to increase the RNA and DNA contents and RNA/DNA ratio of the adrenal gland but seems to diminish the values of the other 3 viscera. In the early period following ACTH, ginseng facilitates the fall in RNA and DNA contents and RNA/DNA ratio of the adrenal gland, while it tends to reduce the fall in the values of the other viscera studied. II. Autoradiographic and histochemical analysis It was planned autoradiographically and his 1. 인삼주정추출물이 흰쥐의 부신, 간, 비장 및 췌장의 핵산 함유량에 어떤 영향을 미치며, 인삼 투여를 받고 있는 동물이 스트레스(ACTH의 투여로 대신)를 받을 경우에 이들 장기 핵산 함유량에 어떠한 변동이 오는지를 알기 위하여 90마리의 흰쥐($150{\sim}200gm$) 수컷을 인삼군과 식염수군 및 정상군으로 나누고 이것을 각각 다시 둘로 쪼개어 인삼군, 인삼-ACTH군, 식염수군, 식염수-ACTH군, 정상군 및 정상-ACTH군의 여섯 작은 무리로 나누어 다음과 같은 실험을 하였다. 인삼군과 인삼-ACTH군에서는 몸무게 100gm에 대하여 인삼주정추출액(생리적 식염수 1ml속에 4mg의 인삼주정추출물이 포함된 용액)을 0.5ml의 비율로 매일 등뒤 피하에 5일동안 주사하였으며, 식염수군과 식염수-ACTH군에는 생리적 식염수를 몸무게 100gm에 대하여 0.5ml의 비율로 인삼군과 동일한 방법으로 주사하였다. 실험시작 제 5일째에 정상군과 식염수군 및 인삼군은 각각 전처치 없이 또는 인삼 혹은 식염수 주사후 2시간 만에 도살하고, 정상-ACTH군, 인삼-ACTH군 및 식염수-ACTH군은 각각 직접 또는 인삼이나 식염수를 투여한 다음 1시간 만에 ACTH를 주사하고, 그 시각부터 1시간후에 도살하여 부신, 간, 비장 및 췌장 조직의 핵산 함유량을 측정하였다. 이들 측정치를 지표로하여 인삼이 장기 핵산에 미치는 영향을 관찰한바 다음과 같은 결과를 얻었다. 1) 부신조직 RNA, DNA 및 RNA/DNA는 인삼군의 값이 정상군 및 식염수군의 그것보다 현저하게 많다. 인삼군의 값에 대한 인삼-ACTH군 값의 감소율은 정상군 및 식염수군에 대한 정상-ACTH군 및 식염수-ACTH군의 그것보다 현저하게 크다. 2) 간 조직의 RNA, DNA 및 RNA/DNA는 인삼군의 값이 정상군 및 식염수군의 값보다 현저하게 감소되었다. 인삼군 값에 대한 인삼-ACTH군 값의 감소율은 정상군 및 식염수군에 대한 정상-ACTH군 및 식염수-ACTH군의 그것 보다 적다. 3) 비장 조직의 RNA와 RNA/DNA는 인삼군의 값이 정상군의 그것 보다 현저하게 증가되며, 식염수군 보다는 감소된다. 인삼군의 DNA는 정상군에서 보다 감소되며, 식염수군의 그것 보다 증가된다. 인삼군 값에 대한 인삼-ACTH군 값의 감소율은 정상군에 대한 정상-ACTH군의 그것 보다 크며, 식염수군에 대한 식염수-ACTH군의 그것 보다는 작다. 4) 췌장 조직의 RNA와 DNA는 인삼군의 값이 정상군 및 식염수군의 그것 보다 현저하게 감소된다. 인삼군의 RNA/DNA는 정상군 및 식염수군의 그것 보다 증가된다. 인삼군에 대한 인삼-ACTH군의 RNA와 RNA/DNA 감소율은 정상군에 대한 정상-ACTH군의 그것 보다 적으나 식염수군에 대한 실염수-ACTH군의 그것 보다는 현저하게 크다. 인삼-ACTH군의 DNA는 인삼군의 그것 보다 증가되었으나, 정상-ACTH군 및 식염수-ACTH군의 DNA는 정상군 및 식염수군의 그것보다 감소되었다. 이상의 실험성적만으로 명확한 해석을 내리기는 어려우나 인삼은 장기의 RNA, DNA 및 RNA/DNA 비율에 현저한 영향을 미치는 것으로 보인다. 대체로 인삼은 부신의 RNA와 DNA 함유량 및 RNA/DNA 비율을 모두 증가시키나 다른 장기에서는 이들 값을 감소시키는 경향이 있다. 한편 인삼의 투여를 받은 동물에서는 ACTH투여후 조기에 부신 조직의 RNA, DNA 및 RNA/DNA의 감소율이 커지며, 간, 비장 및 췌장 조직의 RNA, DNA 및 RNA/DNA의 감소율은 적어지는 경향이 있다. 2. 인삼 및 ACTH의 투여에 의하여 부신, 췌장, 간 및 비장의 DNA와 RNA 함유량이 변동하는 모습을 화학적 방법으로 추적하여 얻은 전편의 성적

        • 가토(家兎) 외경동맥(外經動脈)의 신장도(伸張度)에 대(對)하여

          이동일,주영은,Lee, Dong-Il,Choo, Young-Eun 대한생리학회 1973 대한생리학회지 Vol.7 No.2

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          가토(家兎)의 외경동맥(外頸動脈)의 신장도(伸張度)를 알기 위(爲)하여 좌측(左側) 외경동맥(外經動脈)을 절단(切斷)하여 적출(摘出)하고 전혈질(全血質)과 횡절편(橫切片) 및 종절편(縱切片)을 작성(作成)한 후(後) 생리적식염수(生理的食鹽水) 중(中)에 둔 군(群)과 동일(同一)한 방법(方法)으로서 얻은 각(各) 혈질표본(血質標本)을 0.15 mM 및 0.30 mM의 ATP 용액중(溶液中)에 둔 군(群)에서 각각(各各) 15분(分), 45분(分) 및 75분(分)에서 길이 일장력곡선중(一張力曲線中) 탄성(彈性)의 한계(限界) 내(內)에서 Hooke의 법칙(法則)에 따르는 부위(部位)에서 Young 율(率)을 구(求)하여 서로 비교(比較)하였던 바 다음의 결과(結果)를 얻었다. 1) 가토(家兎) 외경동맥(外經動脈)의 전혈질(全血質)을 생리적식염수(生理的食鹽水)에 둔 군(群)에서는 그 Young 율(率)이 실험시간(實驗時間) 15분(分)에서는 $4.74{\times}10^7 dyne/cm^2$이었으나 45분(分) 및 75분(分)에서는 각각(各各) 4.62 및 $4.13{\times}10^7 dyne/cm^2$이었다. 한편 ATP 0.30mM의 농도(濃度)에서는 0.15mM의 농도(濃度)에 비(比)하여 낮은 Young 율(率)을 나타내었다. 2) 외경동맥(外經動脈)의 횡절편(橫切片)의 Young 율(率)은 생리적식염수중(生理的食鹽水中)에서는 15분(分), 45분(分) 및 75분(分)에서 각각(各各) 4.11, 3.75 및 $3.90{\times}10^7 dyne/cm^2$으로서 15분(分)이 가장 높고 그 후(後)는 큰 변화(變化)가 없는 경향(傾向)이었으나, ATP 첨가(添加)로서는 실험시간(實驗時間)에 따른 변화(變化)는 볼 수 없었다. ATP 첨가(添加)로서는 0.30mM의 농도(濃度)에서 0.15 mM의 농도(濃度)에 비(比)하여 Young 율(率)이 낮았다. 3) 외경동맥(外經動脈)의 종절편(縱切片)의 Young 율(率)은 생리적식염수(生理的食鹽水)에 둔 군(群)에서는 15분(分), 45분(分) 및 75분(分)에서 각각(各各) 2.12, 2.48 및 $2.46{\times}10^7 dyne/cm^2$으로서 실험초기(實驗初期)에 비(比)하여 후기(後期)에서 Young 율(率)이 약간(若干) 높은 경향(傾向)을 나타내었고, 이러한 경향(傾向)은 ATP의 첨가(添加)로서도 비슷하였다. The distensibility of the major arteries has been investigated extensively, but the value expressed as Young Modulus varies widely by the different schools of the investigators, the major reason undoubtedly being the difficulties encountered in the measurement. In the present study, an attempt was made to elucidate the distensibility of the external carotid artery of the rabbit, which was placed in saline immediately after removing from the apparently healthy, normal rabbit without anesthesia. The circular section strip and longitudinal section strip were made from the whole artery, and Young Modulus of the whole artery, circular section and longitudinal section strips was calculated from the length-tension curve of each sample. Also, the similar samples of the artery seperately obtained were placed in ATP solution in the concentration of 0.15 mM and 0.30 mM, and Young Modulus was similary calculated. Experiments were performed at 15,45 and 75 min after the artery was removed from the rabbit, and the results thus obtained are summarized as follows. 1) Young Modulus of the whole external carotid artery of the rabbit in saline was $4.74{\times}10^7dyne/cm^2$ at 15 min, but lower values were obtained at 45 and 75 min, Young Modulus being $4.62{\times}10^7dyne/cm^2\;and\;4.13{\times}10^7dyne/cm^2$, respectively. When the arterial samples were placed in ATP solutions, Young Modulus did not change much throughout the experiment, and lower Young Moduli were obtained in 0.30 mM ATP solution than in 0. 15 mM ATP solution. 2) Young Modulus Of the Circular Section Strip in Saline was $4.11{\times}10^7dyne/Cm^2,\;3.75{\times}10^7dyne/cm^2\;and\;3.90{\times}10^7dyne/cm^2,$ respectively, at 15, 45 and 75 min, the value at 15 min being the highest. However, when the strip was placed in ATP solutions, no appreciable change was observed throughout the experiment, and Young Moduli were lower in 0.30 mM ATP solution than in 0.15 mM ATP solution. 3) Young Modulus of the longitudinal section strip in saline was $2.12{\times}10^7dyne/cm^2,\;2.48{\times}10^7dyne/cm^2\;and\;2.46{\times}10^7dyne/cm^2$, respectively, at 15, 45 and 75 min, Young Modulus being slightly elevated in the latter part of the experiment. A similar tendency was observed when the strip was placed in ATP solutions.

        • Synapse VS. Function: A Central Theme in Physiology

          Ito. Masao 대한생리학회 1994 대한생리학회지 Vol.28 No.1

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        • Motor Areas of the Cerebral Cortex-New Vistas

          Tanji Jun 대한생리학회 1994 대한생리학회지 Vol.28 No.1

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        • Ca-dependent Alteration in Basal Tone, Basal <sup>45</sup>Ca Uptake and <sup>3</sup>H-nitrendipine Binding in the Aorta of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

          Chang. Seok-Jong,Jeon. Byeong-Hwa,Kim. Hoe-Suk 대한생리학회 1994 대한생리학회지 Vol.28 No.1

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          We investigated the alterations in basal tone of aortic strips by changing the Ca concentration, basal <sup>45</sup>Ca uptake and <sup>3</sup>H-nitrendipine binding of the single cells of aortic smooth muscles in the spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. While the basal tone of the aortic strips in WKY rats was not affected by alteration of Ca concentration, that in SHR was decreased by the removal of Ca from the bath solution and was recovered by the restoration of Ca to normal levels. This contraction increased in a Ca concentration-dependent manner and reached a maximum at 2 mM Ca. The basal tone of aorta in SHR was suppressed by verapamil (10<sup>-6</sup>M). The basal tone of aorta in SHR increased about 50% in the strips of endothelial rubbing, compared with that of intact endothelium. Basal <sup>45</sup>Ca uptake in the aortic single smooth muscle cells of SHR was greater than that of WKY (p<0.01), Specific bindings of [<sup>3</sup>H]nitrendipine in the aortic single smooth muscles of SHR and WKY were saturable. The dissociation constant (K<sub>d</sub>) was 0.71±0.15 and 1.18±0.08nM SHR, respectively, and the difference in K<sub>d</sub> between two strains was statistically significant (p<0.03). The maximal binding capacity (B<sub>max</sub>) was 34.6±3.2 and 47.4±4.3 fmol/10<sup>6</sup> SHR respectively, and the difference of (B<sub>max</sub>) between two strains was statistically significant (p<0.05). from the above results, it is suggested that the increase of Ca influx via potential-operated Ca channels and the increase of the number of dihydropyridine-sensitive Ca channels contribute to high basal tone of the aortic strips in SHR.

        • The Change of Secretory Activity of the Alveolar Type ll Cell During Acute Alveolar Injury Induced by N-Nitroso-N-Methylurethane

          Lee. Young-Man,Bang. In-Sook,Lee. Suck-Kang 대한생리학회 1994 대한생리학회지 Vol.28 No.1

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          In the animal model of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) induced by N-nitroso-N-methylurethane (NNNMU) the secretory activity of alveolar type H cells during acute alveolar injury was investigated by determining phospholipid and pulmonary surfactant associated proteins in crude surfactant. The mechanism of the secretory change was studied by determination of DNA and RNA levels in the lung tissue. After induction of acute alveolar injury with NNNMU, pulmonary hemorrhage, atelectasis and gross hypertrophy were observed. Seven days after NNNMU treatment the level of total DNA in lung homogenate was increased markedly indicating that a hypertrophy was induced by cellular proliferation. Although the total DNA level increased, the RNA/DNA ratio was gradually decreased after NNNMU treatment. Seven days after NNNMU treatment the RNA/DNA ratio returned to the normal control level. During the acute alveolar injury, phospholipid and surfactant associated proteins were reduced significantly as compared with the control, implying that the secretory activity of alveolar type II cells was altered during acute alveolar injury induced by NNNMU. The protein content in crude surfactant during peak injury(7 days after NNNMU) was decreased significantly but phospholipid/protein ratios were identical in both control and NNNMU treatment groups. SDS-PAGE of proteins in crude pulmonary surfactant showed a decrease in major surfactant associated protein(M.W. 38,000) during acute alveolar injury. The present study may suggest that while alveolar type H cells proliferate markedly, transcription of alveolar type ll cell gene was inhibited by an unknown mechanism such as DNA methylation induced by NNNMU. Such an inhibition of transcriptional activity is thought to be associated with the decreased secretory activity of alveolar type ll cells, which may lead to pulmonary atelectasis and edema during the acute alveolar injury.

        • Facilitation of Afferent Sensory Transmission in the Cuneate Nucleus of Rat during Locomotor Movement

          Shin Hyung-Cheul,Park Hyoung-Jin,Jin Byung-Kwan,Chapin John K 대한생리학회 1994 대한생리학회지 Vol.28 No.1

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        • Effects of High Glucose Levels on the Protein Kinase C Signal Transduction Pathway in Primary Cultured Renal Proximal Tubule Cells

          Han. Ho-Jae,Kang. Ju-Won,Park. Kwon-Moo 대한생리학회 1996 대한생리학회지 Vol.30 No.2

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          Diabetes mellitus is associated with a wide range of pathophysiologic changes in the kidney. This study was designed to examine the mechanisms by which glucose modulates the expression of polarized membrane transport functions in primary cultured rabbit renal proximal tubule cells. Results are as follows: The rate of 30 minute Rb<sup>+</sup> uptake was significantly higher(137.76±5.40%) in primary renal tubular cell cultures treated with 20 mM glucose than that of 5 mM glucose. Not the level of mRNA for the α subunit of Na, K-ATPase but that of β subunit was elevated in primary cultures treated with high glucose. The initial rate of methyl-α-D-glucopyranoside(α-MG) uptake was significantly lower(71.91±3.02%) in monolayers treated with 20 mM glucose than that of 5 mM glucose. There was a tendency of an increase in phlorizin binding site in cells treated with 5 mM glucose. However, 3-O-methyl-D-glucose(3-O-MG) uptake was not affected by glucose concentration in culture media. TPA inhibited Rb<sup>+</sup> uptake by 63.61±1.94 and 45.80±1.36% and α-MG uptake by 48.54±3.69 and 41.87±6.70% in the cells treated with 5 and 20 mM glucose, respectively. Also TPA inhibited mRNA expression of Na/glucose cotransporter in cells grown in 5mM glucose medium. cAMP significantly stimulated α-MG uptake by 114.65±5.70% in cells treated with 5mM glucose, while it did not affect α-MG uptake in cell treated with 20 mM glucose. However, cAMP inhibited Rb<sup>+</sup> uptake by 76.69±4.16 and 66.87±2.41% in cells treated with 5 and 20 mM glucose, respectively. In conclusion, the activity of the renal proximal tubular Na,K-ATPase is elevated in high glucose concentration. In contrast, the activity of the Na/glucose cotransport system is inhibited. High glucose may in part affect the activity of the Na,K-ATPase and the Na/glucose cotransport system by controlling the protein kinase C and/or A signal transduction pathway in primary cultured renal proximal tubule cells.

        • The Effects of Bombesin on the Afferent Sensory Transmission in the Spinal Trigeminal Nucleus of Anesthetized Rats

          Shin. Hyung-Cheul,Won. Chung-Kil,Kim. Jun,Park. Hyoung-Jin 대한생리학회 1994 대한생리학회지 Vol.28 No.1

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          The present study was carried out to determine the effects of intracisternal administration of three doses of bombesin (0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 μg) on afferent somatosensory transmission in single neurons of the spinal trigeminal nucleus of anesthetized rats. Lower doses (0.001 μg) of bombegin did not change the afferent sensory transmission. Medium doses (0.01 μg) of bombesin significantly (p p<0.01) facilitated afferent sensory transmission in the 6 to 30 min post-drug period, but higher doses (0.1 μg) inhibited responsiveness of spinal trigeminal neurons in the 16 to 35 min post-drug period. The results indicate that endogenous bombesin-like peptide present in the spinal trigeminal nucleus may participate in the processing of the somatosensory information arising from the face.

        • Effect of Two Hours Head-down Bedrest on Orthostatic Tolerance

          Park Won-Kyun,Lyo Woon-Jae,Bae Jae-Hoon,Song Dae-Kyu,Chae E-Up 대한생리학회 1996 대한생리학회지 Vol.30 No.2

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