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The Korean livestock industry has grown rapidly. Also the relative importance of livestock production in the total agricultural products has also increased very much. However, there are lots of problems to solve from now because of changing circumstances around Korea, such as increasing imports of low price livestock products, decreasing growth rate of domestic food consumption, and food safety problems. New directions for the animal resource industry are summarized as follows : Firstly, the business field of livestock industry must be enlarged to the animal resource area. Secondly, food safety and sustainable system are very important sectors to develop the animal resource industry in the future. Thirdly, new cooperative systems in the production field, such as integration, support system for calf raising and manure recycling are necessary. Fourthly, promotion and marketing strategies of brand products must be improved.
This study was carried out to establish an effective system for embryo transfer techniques by educational-industrial complex. The embryos of Korean Cattle were transferred into a total of 79 recipients. The pregnancy rate were higher in Korean Cattle (38/53, 72%) than Holstein (17/26, 65%) in recipients. However, there were no significantly difference between Korean Cattle and Holstein in recipients. In embryo transfer using fresh embryos (28/39, 72%), the pregnancy rate was slightly higher than frozen-thawed embryos (68%, 27/40). In another experiment, the number of transferred embryos showed no difference in pregnancy rate, but when two embryos (75%, 21/28) transferred, the pregnancy rate was slightly higher than with one embryo (65%, 33/51). In summary, it will be useful to apply effective system for improvement of pregnancy rate and increase of the income in a farmhouse on embryo transfer of Korean Cattle by educational-industrial complex.
The objective of this study was to comparatively analyze the vocalizations of farrowing sows and their piglets in a welfare certified farm and a conventional farm as they are useful parameters for animal welfare assessment. The conventional farm using the gestation stall, farrowing crate and nursery, grower‐finisher pigs were accommodated in small pens. On the other hand, in the welfare certified farm using the group feeding gestation sows, which allows them to turn around in the furrowing pens, unlike in the crates and nursery, grower‐finisher pigs were accommodated in large pens. Vocalization of farrowing sows and their piglets were recoded and acoustic parameters were analyzed. Eight vocalizations―screaming, fighting, playing, suckling competition, suckling, piglet call, frightened, and space competition―were recoded in the farrowing crate and classified; 4 ordinary and 4 non‐ordinary vocalizations were identified. However, frightened and space competition vocalizations were not detected in the farrowing pen. Screaming, fighting, playing, suckling competition, and suckling vocalizations were significantly (p<0.01) different in pitch, intensity and duration between the farrowing pen and the farrowing crate. Piglet call vocalization did not differ between the farrowing facilities. These findings will aid us in using the differences in vocalizations, under different conditions, as parameters of animal welfare assessment.
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary oils on the levels of the γ-linolenic acid in chicken meat lipids. Three hundred ten five, 1-d old, male, Ross strain, broiler chicks were fed for 35 d to compare diets containing evening primrose oil(EPO) and hemp seed oil(HO) to a control diet. Fatty acid composition of lipid from chicken skin, thigh and breast muscle were determined at the end of the trial. The level of γ-linolenic acid of lipids from chicken meat fed diets containing EPO or HO was significantly higher than that of the control group(p<0.05). The level of γ-linolenic acid of lipids from chicken skin was highest in the group, which had been fed the EPO 0.85%, followed in order by EPO 0.7%, 0.5%, EPO mixed oil, HO and HO mixed oil. There was a significant difference in the level of γ-linolenic acid of chicken skin between the control and treatment groups(p<0.05). The level of γ-linolenic acid of lipids from chicken thigh muscle was also similar to skin, and significantly higher than that of the control group(p<0.05). The level of γ-linolenic acid of lipids from chicken breast muscle was highest in the group, which had been fed the EPO 0.5%, followed in order by EPO 0.7%, 0.85%, HO 0.5% and HO mixed oil. There was a significant difference in the level of γ-linolenic acid of chicken breast muscle between the control and treatment groups(p<0.05).
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of parity and region on the live body charateristics of Hanwoo cows. The data used were logissimus muscle area (LMAU), back fat thickness (BFTU), marbling score (MSU), and p8 point fat thickness (P8 FTU), by ultrasound from 1,239 heads of hi-lok branded Hanwoo cows. Based upon ultrasound characteristics of LMAU, BFTU, MSU and P8 FTU were significantly high in Hanwoo cows in Hwacheon area. Live body characteristics were increased with the parity, however estimated value tended to decreased after sixth parturition. Also, comparative of pre or after parturiti- on on the live body characteristics, pre parturition value showed little lower than after parturition
Consumers may have different reasons to buy the animal welfare eggs by purchase places. They may have preferred places to buy the eggs, also. The objective of this study was to compare the purchase places for the eggs. If the producers of the eggs understand the different reasons by the places, they will establish marketing strategies for the eggs by the purchase places. A total of 355 Korean consumers was surveyed. There were statistical significances at traditional market, major retail outlet, and convenience store for female consumers and at traditional market, major retail outlet, department store, internet shopping and convenience store for married people. For age groups, over 40s group showed a significance at traditional market, major retail outlet, department store and convenience store. There were statistically significant at traditional market, major retail outlet, and convenience store for the respondents who had over three million won as their monthly income. It was significantly proven at traditional market and major retail outlet for full time housewives. From the results of the study, the following marketing strategies can be suggested for the places to buy the eggs by demographic classification. The producers should classify the markets and focus their strategies to each place for increasing their market share. These results suggest that focus on traditional market for female and middle-aged group, and retail shop like discount store for the people classified by over 3 million won in income. This study also could be used to aid marketing strategy and animal welfare eggs research.
The aim of this study was to investigate change of plasminogen activators (PAs) and their inhibitors (PAIs) mRNA and protein expression level by heat stress in porcine endometrial cells. The endometrial epithelial cells were isolated from endometrial epithelium in porcine uterus and cultured in different temperature conditions (38.5 and 41.5℃) for 24 h. Expression of urokinase-type PA (uPA), tissue-type PA (tPA), PA inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and -2 (PAI-2) mRNA in epithelial cells were analyzed using reverse transcription-PCR and protein levels were measured by immunofluorescence. In result, mRNA expression of uPA, tPA, PAI-1 and PAI-2 were decreased in 41.5℃ than 38.5℃ culture condition, however, significant differences were no detected. uPA, tPA and PAI-2 protein were mainly expressed in nucleus, whereas PAI-1 was distributed in cytoplasm and nucleus. uPA and tPA protein levels were increased by heat stress treatment and significant difference was only detected in tPA level (p<0.05). In contrast, two types of PAIs protein level were decreased in 41.5℃ cultured group compared with 38.5℃ group. In present study, tPA protein expression was upregulated by heat stress in porcine endometrial cells. This result suggest that change of tPA by heat stress may be related to blood flow into uterus and intrauterine microenvironments, and could directly and indirectly influence to reproductive performance in pigs.