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냉수관개에 의한 수도생육 및 수량의 감소정도를 구명하기 위해 실시한 연구의 결과는 다음과 같다. 1) 냉수답과 온수답에서의 분얼수의 차이는 생육초기에는 커서 냉수답에서 평균적으로 35%정도의 감소를 보였으나 생육후기로 갈수록 차이가 없었고 오히려 냉수답에서 많은 분얼수를 보였다. 2) 냉수처리에 의한 초장은 생육초기에는 차이가 없었으나 생육중반에는 그 감소정도가 26%로 높았고 생육후기로 갈수록 낮아졌는데 그 크기는 19%정도였다. 3) 수온처리에 따라 고사엽수는 발생하지 않았고 생육초기에 적고정도에서 차이를 보였으나 그 정도는 미미한 정도였다. 4) 냉수답에서의 출수는 온수답에 비하여 대략 1주일정도 지연되었다. 5) 수확시 냉수답에서 평균 74.2㎝의 간장을 보여 온수답의 78.1㎝에 비해 약 5%의 단축을 보였다. 6) 냉수답과 온수답은 수장에서 각각 17.3과 19.2㎝를 보여 냉수에 의한 수장단축율은 12.2%였다. 7) 냉수답과 온수답은 주당수수에서 각각 17.2와 15.9개를 보여 냉수처리에 따라 주당수수는 오히려 증가하는 경향이었다. 8) 수당 영화수는 냉수답과 온수답이 각각 67.6개와 82.2개를 보여 냉수에 의한 수당 영화수의 감소율은 17.8%이었다. 9) 냉수답의 등숙율은 평균 72.2%로 온수답의 등숙율 78.1%보다 5.9% 낮은 경이었다. 10) 냉수답의 정조수량은 평균 545.2㎏/10a로 온수답의 평균 713.5㎏/10a보다 168.2㎏/10a정도 낮은 수준이었으며 냉수에 의한 수량감소가 적은 품종은 동진벼나 만금벼이었다. 냉수에 의한 수량감소는 간장의 감소와 등숙율의 감소에서 기인한다 할 수 있었다. This study was conducted to determine the effects of irrigating cold water on the growth and yield of rice. Rice plants were grown by irrigating water with two different temperatures, that is, irrigating cold water and warm water. In the condition of irrigation cold water, water from lake Sangsa of temperature from 11 to 20℃ was irrigated directly. In irrigating warm water, the same source of water but with 5-10℃ higher in water temperature was irrigated. Water temperature was increased by storing the water for several hours in a pond with a size of 14m in width, 25m in length and 30cm in depth. Rice plants were transplanted on June 15, and plant height and number of tillers per hill were measured nine times with the interval of 7 days from June 30. Heading date, and culm length, panicle length, yield and yield components were observed at harvest date. Water temperatures were monitored automatically at a interval of 1 hour from June 30 to Sept. 28. The results were summarized as follows. Number of tillers per hill appeared to be more than 30% lower in cold water treatment at the growing period up to July 14, but at the later growth stage, cold water treatment showed slightly higher value of number of tillers per hill compared with warm water treatment. There was no significant difference in plant height between treatments at the sampling date of June 30. From the sampling date of July 7, plant hight significantly decreased up to by 26%, but at the last sampling date of Aug. 25, the difference became smaller by 19%, compared with that of warm water treatment. The heading date of cold water treatment delayed about 7 days. Culm and panicle length in cold water treatment decreased 5% and 12.2%, respectively, compared with warm water treatment. Number of panicles per hill were 17.2 in cold water treatment and 15.9 in warm water treatment, so that cold water treatment showed higher value in number of panicles than that of warm water treatment. Number of spikelets per panicle in cold and warm water treatment were 67.6 and 82.2, respectively, so that cold water treatment showed 17.8% lower value in number of spikelets compared with warm water treatment. Percent of filled spikelets in cold water treatment was 72.2%, which was 5.9% lower than 78.1% of warm water treatment. Rough rice yield in cold water treatment were 545.2㎏/10a in average, which was 168.2㎏/10a lower than 713.5㎏/10a of warm water treatment. Decrease in yield under cold water irrigation mainly appeared to come from the decrease in culm length and percentage of filled spikelets.
Most students of Korean affairs would hardly disprove that South Korea's spring of 1990 was characterized as the season of a ''total crisis.'' This terIn was coined by an econoInic lninister at the late March cabinet lneeting, shortly after the cabinet reshuffle on March 18, in order to delineate the then situation into which South Korea was believed to be graduaIly but unwittingly plunging. The terln won overwhehning popularity, alInost in the twinkling of an eye, arnong the Korean politicians and journalists. For instance, even Young-sam Kim (hereafter YS Khn) encouraged the mernbers of the ruling Democratic Liberal Party (hereanter DLP) to help the nation escape the total crisis, even though in a later presidential address, President Tae-woo Roh lightly declined to ternl the situation as a crisis. The term''total crisis,'' despite its alnbiguity and obscurity, con- tinued to retain the status of being the subject of conversation until the historic n1eeting of Roh and Mikhail Gorbachev in early June. In other words, Roh's monlentous meeting with Gorbachev in San Francisco surprisingly evaporated the total crisis, at least apparently hronl the Korean political scene, particularly ftom the voices of politicians and from the tips of journalists'fingers. An ordinary citizen must accept such ephemerality of the crisis even if he was lefL bewildered by its genesis and abscondence. The lnysterious denlection of crisis in the beginning of June only left nlore mysteries and conlplication than satisfaction behind to the naviet6 of the ordinary citizens. So a National Assemblyrnan hrom the Peace Democratic Party (hereafter PDP), the largest opposition party in South Korea, made a cynical renlark concerning such ephemeral crisis in his speech at the late- June Nationa1 Assemlbly interpellation session that the total crisis was a ''total fraud,'' to which no ready reply was appropriately given either by YS Kim or by that econonlic minister. Many questions are allowed to spring fron, but few answers are available for, such ''queer'' transiency of crisis in the current Korean political scene. First, was the situation referred to by the economic minsiter a real crisis at al1? If it had been a real one, how could the Korean governlnent and people have extricated theInseIves ffonl such a mysterious way, perhaps just as we recover from a mild cold by ourselves? `Vhy did not econonhc n1inister and others agree to char- acterize that situation as a total crisis with what sort of facts and data, anyway? VVere they avant-gardes who are able to foresee what the ordinary citizens fail to do? Had the ordinary people agreed to this, or to a lesser degree, had they been weII infornled and thereby weI1 persuaded of the graveness of the situation as much as the eco- nomic minister and other hnportant political nigures perceived the situation? Or, was the characterization of the situation a real hoax or fraud? VVhat was the aim if it had been a po1itically manipulated deception? `Vhy was the opposition's insight was so slow if it were a hoax devised by the ruling power? To answer these questions we rnay need Inany facts and data nlore than we can collect. But even if we could, these facts and data are Ineaningful only within an appropriate frarnework or Inodel of crisis. Hence we will here dea1 wdth a lnodel of a crisis first and then examine the characterization based on that n1odel, with particular attention to political, economic and socio-cultural developments in current Korea.
This paper explores translation strategies of a Netflix documentary series, Our Planet (2019), based on a contrastive analysis of the original narration and the Korean subtities. The thematic choices of the source text is contrasted to the first mentioned elements of the target text to examine the possibility of any congruency or discrepancy. The results are presented in three sub-topics - reference to the actor, transformation of thematic themes, integration of theme and rheme. Multiple translation strategies are illustrated throughout the subtitle excerpts that include cases such as added topical themes, omitted textual themes, added textual themes, reconstituted textual themes, pre-processed textual themes, and integrated theme and rheme. The last section demonstrates how the readability of subtitles can be enhanced by matching the original theme with the first mention in the translated clause. The findings of this study can be of practical use for AVT instructors, students, and novice translators who aspire to create subtitles of improved readability and effective condensation from the perspective of thematic structure.
Article 46 number 1 of the Korean Commercial Code provides that "Sale and Buy" is a fundamental commercial activity (Grundhandelsgescha¨ft). Regarding to the meaning of this provision there are many interpretations. One insists that the concept sale and buy have inherent co-relation (innerer Zusanmenhang) and mere sale or mere buy can not be a fundamental commercial activity, but others argue that either sale or buy also can be a fundamental commercial activity. In this case study the writer discusses diverse theories and views of text book writers of the Korean commercial Law concerning to the meaning of "sale and buy". He also studied relating theories in Germany and Japan. The writer concludes that the interrelation between sale and buy is the core element as a fundamental commercial activity. In other words mere sale or mere buy can not be a fundamental commercial activity. On the contrary the Judgement 93 da 7174, 93 da 7181, dated 11. June 1993 of the Korean Supreme Court decided that the unilateral activity such as "mere sale" or "mere buy" also can be a fundamental commercial activity. The writer critisized this judgement and proposed the adoption of new concept of "sale and buy".
[연구목적] 비영리조직 만족도 기준의 중요성을 확인했다. 비영리조직의 관심과 역할이 더욱 중요해지고 있어 고객 만족의 중요성을 측정하여 개선의 도구로 활용하고 비영리조직이 체계적이고 합리적으로 운영될 수 있도록 한다. [연구방법] 비영리단체 연구에 활용될 조직을 추출하고 관련 분야에 오래 종사한 직원이나 교수로부터 자료를 수집한 후 지향점과 만족도를 구성하는 개념에 대해 계층적 분석방법을 수행했다. [연구결과] 가치 지향, 사회적 가치 지향, 시장지향 순으로 중요하다고 분석되었다. 시장지향에서는 고객지향과 기능별 상호협력이 중요했고 경쟁 업체는 상대적으로 중요하지 않았다. 본질적 만족도를 측정하는 ‘상품 품질’로 측정되는 요소 만족도가 중요했다. 사회적 만족도가 낮게 나오는 경우가 많아 비영리조직의 본래 역할에 집중하는 것이 중요하다. [연구의 시사점] 비영리조직의 지향점과 비전을 수립해야 한다. 비영리조직의 본질적인 역할에 역량을 집중하는 것이 고객의 요구에 가장 부합되는 활동이다. [Purpose] This study confirms the importance of satisfaction criteria for non-profit organizations. The interest and role of non-profit organizations in society are becoming more important. The important factors of customer satisfaction are utilized as tools for improvement so that non-profit organizations can operate systematically and reasonably. [Methodology] A hierarchical analysis method was performed on the concepts that constitute orientation and satisfaction after extracting the organizations to be used for research among non-profit organizations, collecting data from employees and professors majoring in related fields in the organization. [Findings] It was analyzed as important in order of value orientation, social value orientation, and market orientation. In market orientation, customer orientation and mutual cooperation by function were important, and competitors were relatively unimportant. Element satisfaction, measured as product quality that measures intrinsic satisfaction, is important. In many cases, social satisfaction is low, so it is important to fulfill the natural activities and roles of non-profit organizations. [Implications] The orientation and vision of non-profit organizations should be established. Focusing on the essential role of the non-profit organization is the activity that best meets the needs of the customer.
Since November 1990, the observations of methane (CH₄) level have been carried out at Tae-ahn Peninsula (TAP) in Korea. Analysis on atmospheric data obtained in the period from November 1990 to August 1992 is carried out and the results are included in this study. We note that CH₄ does not have a clear seasonal cycle with a minor maximum in August-September and with a minimum in June-July. The variations in monthly average level are much larger with 1765.01∼1857.21 ppb (amplitude 92.20 ppb). The occurrence of a minimum in June-July is due to the inflow of the North Pacific air, an increase of OH radical and due to a decrease in CH₄ emission from rice paddy. A maximum in August and September appears to result from an increase in organic materials in agriculture (rice paddy) and forests, inputs of local sources due to weak airflows, stagnation of the warm and moist air and from a decrease in OH radical. The present analysis indicates that according to CH₄ data from Mongolia and from several sites in North Pacific TAP is influenced as much as 31 ppb in average from the inputs of Chinese emission. When the atmospheric CH₄of TAP is compared with data observed at Korea National University of Education (KNU), the values of KNU are higher (127 ppb) than those of TAP. It is clear that air samples taken at KNU are influenced strongly by local sources in central Korea than those at TAP. According to analysis of trajectories and airflows, we find that there are 4 types in classification. Firstly, when an air flow is originated mainly in China values of CH₄ gas are in medium ranges. Secondly, when an airflow is from both local(Korea) and China we find higher values. Thirdly, with an airflow from both local (Korea) and Japan origins medium values are recorded. Fourthly, when an airflow of maritime origin arrives low values of atmospheric CH₄are observed at TAP.
Since November 1990, the observations of methane (CH_4) level have been carried out at Tae-ahn Peninsula (TAP) in Korea. Analysis on atmospheric data obtained in the period from November 1990 to August 1992 is carried out and the results are included in this study. We note that CH_-4 does not have a clear seasonal cycle with a minor maximum in August September and with a minimum in June-July. The variations in monthly average level are much larger with 1765.01∼1857.21 ppb (amplitude 92.20 ppb). The occurrence of a minimum in June-July is due to the inflow of the North Pacific air, an increase of OH radical and due to a decrease in CH_4 emission from rice paddy. A maximum in August and September appears to result from an increase in organic materials in agriculture (rice paddy) and forests, inputs of local sources due to weak airflows, stagnation of the warm and moist air and from a decrease in OH radical. The present analysis indicates that according to CH_4 data from Mongolia and from several sites in North Pacific TAP is influenced as much as 31 ppb in average from the inputs of Chinese emission. When the atmospheric CH_4 of TAP is compared with data observed at Korea National University of Education (KNU), the values of KNU are higher (127 ppb) than those of TAP. It is clear that air samples taken at KNU are influenced strongly by local sources in central Korea than those at TAP. According to analysis of trajectories and airflows, we find that there are 4 types in classification. Firstly, when an air flow is originated mainly in China values of CH_4 gas are in medium ranges. Secondly, when an airflow is from both local (Korea) and China we find higher values. Thirdly, with an airflow from both local (Korea) and Japan origins medium values are recorded. Fourthly, when an airflow of maritime origin arrives low values of atmospheric CH_4 are observed at TAP.
Background : This study was conducted to developed the propagation method by cutting for mass cultivation of Vitex roundifolia. We were pitched the cutting two times and treated plant growth regulators to enhance the rooting percentage. Vitex roundifolia is live in beach sandy soil south of Hwanghae-Do and Gangwon-Do. Vitex roundifolia have been used to bath foam. It is good for aromatic plant. It has 0.8% essential oil content in leaf and flower. Major components of essential oil were alpha-Pinene, Sabinene, beta-Pinen, 1,8-cineole, d-Limone. Despite the superior usability, it had not yet been made by the artificial cultivation Methods and Results : We were pitched the cutting of a first-year branch on June 5, which was greenwood cutting and July 17, which was semi-hardwood cutting at Kwangseung-ri beach, Gochanggun, Jeonbuk. The length of cutting was 10cm. It had 3~4 nodes, we stuck a cutting remain 2 nodes above ground on ordinary raise seedling soil. Rooting percentage was measured at 60 days after stuck a cutting. Rooting percentage was higher greenwoody cutting(95%) than semi-hardwood cutting(57.6%). In green wood cutting, there was no significance with plant growth, but chemical injury was occurred in IBA 5,000ppm. In semi-hardwood cutting, there was significance with plant growth regulators. The rooting percentages of all the treat were higher than control(no treatment). Rooting percentage was the highest in NAA 5,000ppm treated. Conclusion : Greenwood cutting method was more proper to propagation for Vitex roundifolia than semi-hardwood cutting. The optimum time to cutting for Vitex roundifolia propagation was the early in June. If miss a time to propagation Rooting percent was elevated by plant growth regulator.
On the Development and Distribution of Infinitives in English Choi, June-Young In this paper I investigate constructions involving bare, prepositional, pro- and split infinitives, and accusative with infinitives, from the historical perspective. In origin, the bare infinitive in English was the noun of neuter gender used as nominative and accusative cases. The prepositional infinitive was evolved out of gerund, with to signifying a dative preposition. Albeit its ending has been phonologically weakened, the infinitive in English still has a null head with features [-V, +N], which needs to satisfy the Case Filter in the same way as the overt infinitival head in Romance does. Therefore the placement of infinitives complies with the Case Filter. With the gradual decline of infinitival ending, the bare infinitive is generally being replaced by the prepositional infinitive in the history of English directly due to the loss of verb movement. The placement of infinitives depends on the correlation of the matrix verb and its infinitival complement structurally and semantically. When the matrix verb and the infinitive are separated by a noun or a group of words, the infinitive is preceded by to. But when the two verbs are detached by a light or a pronominal NP, the φ-infinitive is needed. In meaning, the bare infinitive signals directness, i.e. it indicates the actuality of an event and the simultaneity of tense domains of the two verbs. On the other hand, the prepositional infinitive shows indirectness, i.e. a separation between the activity of the matrix verb and that of the infinitive, either in time and reality.
Before the declaration of democratization on the 29th of June, 1987, the unions were weakly organized and collective bargaining were poorly developed. However, as of the end of 1989, 7,883 local unions were established and these were 3.6 times as many as in 1986. The increased number of the unions brought the vigorous negotiations for advancing in wages and other working conditions. In the course of negotiations, more conflicting strikes than ever occured far and wide. The Labor Ministry and the employers attribute economic depression and social unrest to the lenthening labor disputes and insist on the substitution of joint bargaining for company bargaining. They prefer joint bargaining which has brought successful result in the cotton industry to company bargaining. Yet a recent field research by the Korea Labor Institute shows that 57.2 percents of whole bargaining are company bargaining, 15.0% factory bargaining, and joint bargaining composed of regional and industrial bargaining are 27.7%. Here the unexpectedly high percentages of joint bargaining and also the salient percentages of factory bargaining reveal the trend toward the centralization and the decentralization in bargaining structure, respectively. Therefore, considering this diversified tendency, the government must not induce joint bargaining forcedly. In so far as the deep-rooted distrust between employees and employers exist, too much intervention of the government may disturb the foundation of industrial peace.