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연구목적 : 본 다기관 공동임상연구는 국내 환자를 대상으로 새로운 항정신병약물인 올라자핀의 치료 효과와 안전성을 확인하고자 시행되었다. 방 법 : 1999년 7월부터 2000년 3월까지 국내 10개 병원에 방문한 정신분열병 및 정신분열형 장애 105명을 대상으로 비대조 개방 임상연구를 시행하였다. 중등도 이상의 정신병 증상을 지니거나, 부작용으로 약물교체가 필요한 경우 또는 기분장애 증상의 치료가 필요한 환자를 대상으로 하였다. 2∼7일간의 약물 배설기간 후에 1일 10mg의 올란자핀을 투여하였고, 이후로 3∼7일 간격으로 용량을 조절하여 총 8주간 투여하였다. 치료 효과는 PANSS(Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale), BPRS(Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale), CGI(Clinical Global Impression-Severity), MADRS(Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale), HAM-A(Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety)로 판정하였다. 안전성 평가는 자발적인 이상반응 보고, 활력징후와 혈액 검사 및 SAS(Simpson-Angus Scale), BARS(Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale), AIMS(Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale)척도를 이용하였다. 결 과 : 105명중에서 85.7%인 90명이 8주간의 치료를 완료하였다. 평균 최빈 용량은 일일 16.1(±4.7)mg이었고, 종료시점에서의 BPRS전체 점수가 기저 상태에 비해 40%이상 감소된 반응군은 69.5%이었다. PANSS의 양성 증후군과 일반정신병리 뿐만 아니라 음성 증후군 소척도에서도 유의한 감소를 보였으며, 이 감소들은 치료 초기부터 나타나서 8주간 지속되었다. 43.8%의 피험자가 중등도 이상의 우울증상을 같이 지니고 있었으며, 올란자핀에 의해 MADRS와 HAM-A가 유의하게 감소하였다. 치료 기간 동안에 활력징후에는 뚜렷한 변화가 없었으나 체중은 8주간 지속적으로 증가하였다. SAS와 AIMS는 감소하였으며, 정좌불능증을 제외한 나머지 추체외로 증상의 발생비율도 낮았다. 임상적인 증상이나 징후를 동반하지 않는 ALT/SGPT의 상승을 보였지만 프로락틴을 포함하는 대부분의 혈액 검사상 뚜렷한 이상 변화는 없었다. 결 론 ; 비록 본 임상연구가 비대조 개방 임상연구로서 많은 제한점을 가지고 있지만, 올란자핀이 기존 약물에 내약성을 보이거나 기분증상을 동반하는 정신병에 치료 효과가 있었다. 그리고 기존 항정신병약물 치료시에 문제가 되었던 추체외로 증상과 고프르로락틴 혈증을 포함하는 대부분의 부작용면에서 안전성을 보여 주었다. Objective : This multicenter clinical trial was carried out to investigate the efficacy and the safety of olanzpine for the treatment of Korean patients. Mothod : 105 patients with schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder, visited at 10 mental or university hospitals, had received an open and non-comparative treatment with olanzapine for 8 weeks. Patients had psychotic or depressive symptoms with the severity above moderate degree or intolerable side effects to previous antipsychotics. After a wash-out period of 2-7 days, 10mg olanzapine was prescribed initially to all the patients, and then the dosage could be adjusted within the range of 5-20mg/day of olanzapine by 3-7 days. Results : 90(85.7%) of 105 patients completed the 8-weeks trial and the mean modal dose of olanzapine was 16.1(±4.7%)mg/day. At the end of the trial, 73 patients(69.5%) were classified as responder, which was defined as 40% or more improvement in BPRS(Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale) score comparing to baseline. There was a significant reduction in the scores of PANSS(Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale)and subscales including negative symptom scores and CGI. Also weekly analysis showed that the reductions in scores were kept on for the whole period of the trial. 43.8% of all the patients had depressive symptoms at the baseline and total scores of MADRS(Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale) and HAM-A(Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety) were also reduced after the trials. Vital signs revealed no clinically significant changes but continuous weight gain was observed during the treatment with olanzapine. The scores of SAS(Simpson-Angus Scale) and AIMS(Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale) for assessing the EPS(extrapyramidal symptoms)and tardive dyskinesia respectively were significantly decreased and only a few patients reported EPS as adverse events. Although mild and clinically non-significant of ALT/SGPT was observed, most laboratory parameters including plasma prolactin level showed to significant changes during the trial. Conclusions : Although this trial had many limitations because it was a non-comparative and open study, olanzapine showed high efficacy on the positive, negative and depressive symptoms in schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder.In addition to that, olanzapine showed a substantially favorable safety profile, such as low incidence of EPS and hyperprolactinemia.
Recently, both climate change and unusual meteorological disasters are becoming a more frequent and serious threat to agricultural production. Destruction of the stabilizing base of agricultural productivity in Korea is a concern. This study provides basic information for stabilizing agricultural production by clarifying and analyzing the features of agro-meteorological disasters which have occurred recently in Korea. The occurrence of meteorological disasters has increased rapidly since the 1940s. A 19-fold increase in occurrence is noted over the past 60 years from 1941 to 2000. Meteorological disasters occurred mostly in August, then in July, and least often in October. In terms of regional occurrences, the frequency of meteorological disasters was the highest in Gangwon (751 times) and in Jeonnam (703 times) provinces, and the lowest in Jeju (459 times) province for the 97 years from 1904 to 2000. Agro-meteorological disasters which caused the most serious damage to cropland were rain storms and typhoons for the 10 years from 1991 to 2000, and they occurred 52 and 18 times during this period, respectively. Agro-meteorological disasters occurred mainly during the summer season (from June to September) when major crops are cultivated in Korea.
Kim, Na-Hyung,Kim, Kyu-Yeob,Kim, Jeong-Ah,Kim, Young-Ho,Kang, In-Cheol,Kim, Hyung-Min,Jeong, Hyun-Ja Kyung Hee Oriental Medicine Research Center 2010 Oriental pharmacy and experimental medicine Vol.10 No.3
Acanthopanax Koreanum stem (AK) has been used in Korea as a tonic and sedative as well as a drug with ginseng like activities. The purpose of our present study was to investigate the effects of AK extract (AKE) and Eleutheroside E, major component of AKE on an exacerbated immune function through utilization of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) diet by using forced swimming test (FST). The immobility time were significantly decreased in the AKE or Eleutheroside E-administrated group compared with the control group on the FST (P < 0.05). The level of blood parameters were not changed significantly. PEM-induced weight loss of mice was reduced by oral administration of 500 mg/kg AKE. AKE oral administration improved the nutritional status such as the food efficiency ratio and the adrenal gland weight. AKE treatment significantly increased the production of interferon (IFN)-$\gamma$ compared with unstimulated splenocytes but not interleukin (IL)-4. Eleutheroside E also significantly increased the IFN-$\gamma$ production but not IL-2 and IL-4 in T cell line, MOLT-4 cells. These results suggest that AKE and Eleutheroside E may influence to immune-enhancing through increasing the physical endurance capacity and immune cell activation.
Do Yeob Kim,Min Su Kim,Ghun Sik Kim,Su Min Jeon,Min Young Cho,Hyun Young Choi,Dong Kyun Jeong,Young Jin Kim,Jin Soo Kim,Jeong-Sik Son,Gi-Seog Eom,Jae-Young Leem 한국진공학회 2009 한국진공학회 학술발표회초록집 Vol.37 No.-
Sweetpotato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci), especially Q biotype, has been recognized one of the most destructive insect pests worldwide because of increased resistance to some insecticide groups requiring alternative strategies for its control. We studied the conidia production of entomopathogenic fungus Isaria javanica Pf04, which had been reported high virulence isolate against Q biotype of B. tabaci, using grain. Brown rice was most suitable for conidia mass production of the isolate of I. javanica. Conidia was produced high at 25 ~ 27.5℃. The isolate produced more spores when conidia suspension directly inoculated onto media than two-phase fermentation. When concentration of inoculum was high spore production was high, but increasing rate of conidia production was highest at low inoculum concentration (1×105 conidia/ml) as 6,700 times increase compared with 20 times increase at high inoculum concentration (1×108 conidia/ml). These results indicated that the isolate can produce more conidia with cheap agricultural product and can develop as a microbial pesticide to control sweetpotato whitefly.
LC : A Randomized, Multi-center, Phase IV Open-label Study to Evaluate the Long-term Effect of Carvedilol versus Propranolol on Reduction in Portal Pressure in Patients with Cirrhosis: An Interim Analysis
( Tae Yeob Kim ),( Joo Hyun Sohn ),( Soon Ho Um ),( Yeon Seok Seo ),( Soon Koo Baik ),( Moon Young Kim ),( Jae Young Jang ),( Soung Won Jeong ),( Young Seok Kim ),( Sang Gyune Kim ),( Dong Joon Kim ) 대한간학회 2013 춘·추계 학술대회 (KASL) Vol.2013 No.1
Background: Carvedilol, a potent non-cardioselective beta blocker with vasodilating properties due to alpha-1 blockade, is more effective in reducing portal pressure than propranolol in randomized controlled hemodynamic studies. Recently, longterm low dose of carvedilol may be suggested an option for primary prophylaxis in patients with high-risk esophageal varices. The aim of this study is to evaluate long-term effect of carvediolol versus propranolol on reduction in portal pressure in patients with cirrhosis. Methods: We conducted this ongoing prospective randomized multicenter study (target sample size: 130 patients) between July 2011 and February 2013 and analyzed clinical and hemodynamic measurement data of 99 cirrhotic patients with severe portal hypertension (HVPG > 12 mmHg). During that period, these patients were randomized to either carvedilol (mean dose 11.6±2.2 mg/day in 50 patients) or propranolol group (mean dose 153.5±100.2 mg/day in 49 patients). After randomization, 8 patients and 11 patients were dropped out in carvedilol and propranolol group, respectively. The responders were defined to achieve a fall in HVPG to < 12 mmHg or a 20% reduction from baseline values 6weeks after treatment. Results: There were no significant differences between carvedilol and propranolol group in age, sex, etiology, Child-Turcott- Pugh score, MELD score, severity of HVPG, presence of ascites and baseline serum parameters. In per-protocol analysis, the rate of responder of patients with receiving carvedilol was 54.8% (23/42) as compared with 45.2% (16/38) of those with receiving propranolol (P=0.258). In intent-to-treat analysis, the rate of responder between carvedilol and propranolol group were 46.0% and 32.7%, respectively (P=0.174). The mean decrease of HVPG was 15.6±18.1% and 8.1±30.1%, respectively (P=0.188). Finally, there was no significant difference in adverse events between two groups. Conclusions: In this interim analysis, low dose of carvedilol showed similar effi cacy in reducing portal pressure compared to propranolol in cirrhotic patients with severe portal hypertension.
Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella and tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura are the three most serious pests of many economically important crops such as cruciferous crops, various vegetables and ornamental plants. Because these pests are known to be resistant to lots of chemical insecticides, integrated control using both or either entomophathogen and/or natural enemy is thought to be an attractive alternative for effective control. One of the obstacles using and expanding mycopesticide is narrow host ranges. At commercial farms, cultivating crops are seriously damaged by various Lepidopteran pests. Farmers want to use a microbial control agent which can control various host insects to reduce cost and labor. In previous study, we selected two entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, which shown high virulence against beet armyworm. For wide use of the isolates in farm, we tested its host ranges, especially to diamondback moth and tobacco cutworm, which also are serious pest in Korea. The two isolates were shown a good control effect in leaf disc bioassy.
Microbe have been considered as potential control agents for pest, as alternative to chemical control methods. Among entomopathogens, fungi cause the mortality by penetrating the cuticle of pest and/or by metabolites such as toxin. Not only this direct control effect of fungi, but repellency of fungi also may be used to prevent the pest. Repellence effect of fungi is considered as inhibitory factor to control termite. A study was reported in Japan that termite was able to detect and remove the conidia of fungi on their surface. The termite can escape from fungal infection and protect their colony. There is few study that insect pest such as moth can detect and avoid the virulence fungi. Therefore, we has been conducting the detection and avoidance of beet armyworm to high pathogenic fungi, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus. Adult of the beet armyworm avoided oviposition at Chinese cabbage treated with P. fumosoroseus compare to control. This result may be used to prevent the infestation of moth in crop production.