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Canine inflammatory mammary carcinoma (CIMC) similar to human inflammatory breast cancer is a very aggressive, metastatic type of cancer. Previous studies have introduced a new type of tumor angiogenesis called vasculogenic mimicry that may play an important role in the progression of inflammatory mammary cancer. The purpose of this study is to investigate the development process of vessels by neoplastic cells in CIMC. Patient dog, 14-year old Shit-Tzu female, had a hard and somewhat movable dark-reddish mammary tumor, sized 6.2 cm in diameter. Bloody dark turbid exudate was released from the tumor. In addition to histological examination, immunohistochemistry for pancytokeratin, VCAM-1, MECA- 32, TWIST-1, and Ki-67 was respectively performed using the ABC method. Histologically, the inflammatory mammary carcinoma was characterized by tubular solid tumor emboli within the lymphatic vessels surrounded by desmoplastic fibrous connective tissue. Some of the neoplastic cells were transforming into elongate or spindle shapes and forming small vessel-like structures in the solid tumor mass. The neoplastic cells were immunoreactive for VCAM-1 and MECA-32, but showed low immunoreactivity for Ki-67. Immunoreactive neoplastic cells for VCAM-1 and MECA-32 suggested the possibility that the neoplastic cells transform into endothelial cells of vessels by epithelial-mesenchymal transition, further supported by serial morphological changes identified by histological investigation and immunohistochemistry for TWIST-1. The high capacity of the neoplastic cells forming the vasculatures in CIMC explains the high ratio of metastasis to other regions, even though Ki-67 index was not so high.
Background: Smoking is a known risk factor for decreasing pulmonary function. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between smoking and lung function considering obesity and age group. Methods: This study was based on the data collected during the 2016 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES VII). A total of 3,411 adults were retrieved from KNHANES VII. Among 3,411 adults, we studied 1,411 male subjects. Impaired lung function was measured by spirometry at least twice. Data were analyzed using one way analysis of variance. Results: In this study, forced expiratory volume in the first second was associated with smoking status (P=0.024). The association was stronger in old subjects (P=0.008). Also, in the obese group, the association of lung function with smoking status was not significant, but the association was significant in the non-obese group (P=0.019). Conclusions: In this study, Smoking was significantly associated with impaired lung function. The association was stronger in old men and obese men. In order to obtain an accurate assessment of the association between smoking and pulmonary function values, further prospective cohort study in the future is necessary. 연구배경: 1초량은 폐기능의 지표로 측정된다. 또한 흡연은 폐기능의 잘 알려진 위험요인이다. 본 연구에서는 한국인 남성에서 폐기능과 흡연의 관련성을 체질량지수와 나이를 고려하여 분석하였다. 방법: 연구 대상자는 2016년 국민건강영양조사에 참여한3,411명의 성인이다. 남성 1,411명이 분석에 포함되었다. 통계 분석은 1요인 분산분석을 하여 집단 간의 평균을 비교하였다. 비만 여부에 따라서 대상자를 나누어 분석하였다. 또한 대상자를 연령의 중앙값인 55세로 나누어서 분석하였다. 결과: 1초량 예측 %는 흡연자에서 비흡연자와 비교하여통계적으로 낮은 값을 보였다(P=0.024). 이러한 관련성은나이가 55세 이상인 대상자만 분석하였을 때 더 차이가 컸다(P=0.008). 또한 BMI가 25 이상인 대상자에서는 흡연 여부에 따른 1초량 예측 %에 차이가 없었으나, BMI가 25 미만인 대상자에서는 흡연 여부에 따라서 1초량 예측 %에 통계적으로 유의한 차이가 있었다(P=0.019). 결론: 본 연구에서 흡연은 55세 이상인 남성과 BMI가 25 미만인 남성에서 예측 1초량 %와 관련이 있었다. 인과관계를 더 정확히 알기 위해서는 추후 전향적인 코호트연구가필요하겠다.
본 논문에서는 주어진 영역 안에서 다중 청소로봇을 동시에 운용하여 전력 소비량을 최소화하는 방법을 제안한다. 협력 게임 이론 중 Nash 협상 해법을 이용하여 다중 청소로봇 사이의 가용 자원 및 대상 영역의 특성을 고려하여 대상 영역을 공평하고 효율적으로 관리하여 자원 효용을 극대화하였으며 궁극적으로 이를 통하여 총 소비전력량을 최소화 할 수 있다. 본 논문에서는 가용 자원 및 대상 영역의 특성을 포괄할 수 있는 효용 함수를 정의하고 이를 통한 다중 로봇 간 협상 게임을 통하여 공평하고 효용이 파레토 최적인 지점에서 각 청소로봇의 해당 영역이 결정된다. 시뮬레이션을 통하여 제안한 해결 방법이 임의 공간 할당 방법 대비 소비전력량 면에서 15-30% 이상의 효율이 개선되는 것을 확인할 수 있었다. In this paper, we propose an approach to minimizing total power consumption by deploying multiple clean-up robots simultaneously in a given area. For this, we propose to use the cooperative game theoretic approaches (i.e., Nash bargaining solution (NBS)) such that the robots can optimally and fairly negotiate the area division based on available resources and characteristics of the area, thereby leading to the minimum total power consumption. We define a utility function that includes power consumptions for characteristics of areas and the robots can agree on a utility pair based on the NBS. Simulation results show that the proposed approach can reduce the total average power consumption by 15-30% compared to a random area division approach.
최지수 ( Ah Young Leem ), ( Joo Han Song ), ( Kyung Soo Chung ), ( Eun Young Kim ), ( Ji Ye Jung ), ( Young Ae Kang ), ( Moo Suk Park ), ( Young Sam Kim ), ( Joon Chang ), ( Young Jin Kim ), ( Song Yee Kim ) 대한결핵 및 호흡기학회 2017 대한결핵 및 호흡기학회 추계학술대회 초록집 Vol.124 No.-
Background: The ratio of diameter of main pulmonary artery (mPA) to the diameter of the aorta (Ao) on chest computed tomography (CT) can be related with diverse clinical conditions. We investigate the mPA/Ao ratio can associated with clinical characteristics and outcomes in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients. Methods: In retrospective study of 303 patients with IPF at a tertiary-care center between 2011 and 2015, we reviewed the size of pulmonary artery and aorta on chest CT at initial diagnosis of IPF, including their clinical characteristics and other examinations. The primary outcomes are death or lung transplant (LTx), and the patients were followed up to June 2017. Results: One hundred eight patients (35.64%) were died and 58 patients (19.14%) were underwent the LTx during follow up duration. The mean mPA diameter and mean Ao diameter were 28.34 mm and 34.02 mm, respectively, and the mean mPA/Ao ratio was 0.84. In total, 31 patients (10.23%) presented to the mPA/Ao ratio > 1.0. The patients with mPA/Ao ratio > 1.0 were associated with lower FVC, FEV1 and DLCO, and higher right ventricular pressure. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, the patients with mPA/Ao ratio > 1.0 had worse outcome, including death or transplantation, than the patients with mPA/Ao ratio ≤ 1.0. Conclusions: The mPA/Ao ratio > 1.0 is related with poor functional capacity and prognosis in IPF patients.
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Objectives The aims of this study were to evaluate acceptability and usefulness of the Korean version of Self-report Standardized Assessment of Personality-Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS-SR) as an instrument for screening patients with a personality disorder. Methods The Korean version of the SAPAS-SR was administered to a non-random sample of 186 psychiatric patients (155 patients with a personality disorder and 31 patients with no per¬sonality disorder). The International Classification of Diseases 10th version Personality Assess¬ment Schedule was used as a gold standard in diagnosis of personality disorder. Receiver-oper¬ant-characteristics and validity indicators were determined. In addition, the SAPAS-SR was administered to 22 healthy men to examine the test-retest reliability. Results The area under the curve for the SAPAS-SR was 0.69 (95% confidence interval 0.59–0.79). The SAPAS-SR score of 4 or more correctly classified 67.2% of patients with a personality disorder. Sensitivity (0.67) and specificity (0.68) were slightly lower compared with the original English version. Conclusion This study provides preliminary evidence of the usefulness of the Korean version of the SAPAS-SR as a self-administered instrument for screening personality disorders in the clinical population.