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PURPOSE: Increased cardiovascular reactivity to stressors is one of the important risk factors of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. While the beneficial effects of aerobic exercise training on modulating cardiovascular reactivity have been consistently demonstrated, it remains unclear whether resistance training may also provide similar benefits. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of resistance training on cardiovascular reactivity in young adults. METHODS: Twenty-six healthy subjects (age 23.7±1.8 years) were randomly assigned to either the resistance training (n=13) or the control group (n=13). The resistance training group only underwent a resistance training program (2 sets of 9 exercises targeting all major muscle groups) 2 days per week for 8 weeks. All exercises were performed at 40-50% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) for 15-25 repetitions in the first 4 weeks (Week 1-4), and the exercise intensity increased to 60-70% of 1RM for 10-15 repetitions in the final 4 weeks (Week 5-8). The following outcomes, as indices of cardiovascular reactivity, were measured during 2-min cold pressor testing (ice water at 4°C) before and after training: heart rate, brachial and central blood pressures, rate pressure product, and augmentation index. RESULTS: The 8 weeks of resistance training did not change any of the indices of cardiovascular reactivity (p>0.05) but did significantly increased muscular strength (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Resistance training may not have a mitigating effect on cardiovascular reactivity to sympathetic activation in healthy young adults.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of providing visual feedback and auditory stimulation using a robotic device on balance and gait abilities in stroke patients. Design: Randomized controlled pilot trial. Methods: Fifteen subjects were randomly divided into three groups where five subjects were in the visual feedback robotic device assist gait training (VRGT) group, five subjects in the auditory stimulation robotic device assist gait training (ARGT) group, and five subjects in the control group. Subjects received visual feedback and auditory stimulation while undergoing robotic gait training for 45 minutes, three times a week for 2 weeks, and all subjects had undergone general physical therapy for 30 minutes, five times a week for 2 weeks. All subjects were assessed with the Berg balance scale (BBS), timed up and go (TUG) test, and 10-meter walking test (10MWT) pre- and post-intervention. Results: All subjects showed that BBS, TUG test, and 10MWT scores significantly improved post-intervention (p<0.05), and the control group also had significantly improved post-treatment (p<0.05). The VRGT and the ARGT showed significant improvements in BBS, TUG, and 10MWT scores compared with the control group (p<0.05). The VRGT group showed a significant improvement in BBS, TUG, and 10MWT scores compared with the control group (p<0.05). In addition, it has been confirmed that VRGT had significantly improved in BBS, TUG test, and 10MWT scores compared with the auditory stimulation and control group (p<0.05). Conclusions: The results of this study showed improved balance and gait abilities after VRGT and ARGT groups compared with general physical therapy and was found to be effective in enhancing the functional activity of persons affected with stroke.
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