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      • KCI등재

        간호대학생, 119 구급대원, 기계식 흉부압박기의 각 그룹이 평지 및 이송중인 구급차에서 실시한 흉부압박의 질 비교

        최용준,박대성,최용준,이원석,하원선,정준영 대한응급의학회 2009 大韓應急醫學會誌 Vol.20 No.4

        Purpose: In an emergency, the quality of CPR prior to hospital arrival is a very important component for the survival of victims. We want to know differences in chest compression quality performed by groups that have variant experiences of CPR, and automatic CPR machine on the floor, or in an ambulance moving at 40 km/hr, or at 80 km/hr. Methods: We analysed the chest compression quality of each group, and that performed on the floor, in an ambulance moving as 40 km/hr, and at 80 km/hr. We measured the following factors: mean compression depth; mean compression rate; exact performance percentile; and the compression error through too deep, too weak, wrong compression location, and no full recoil. Results: In the student-nurse group, the quality of chest compression performed on the floor was better than that performed in a moving ambulance. In 119 member group, chest compression performed in an ambulance moving as 40 km/hr was better than that performed in an ambulance moving at 80 km/hr. The use of an automatic CPR machine, there were no differences in chest compression quality in all circumstances. In comparing each group, compression quality of the 119 member group and the automatic CPR machine group was better than that of the student nurses. Conclusion: In the group with real CPR experience, there were no differences between chest compression performed on the floor and that performed moving at 40 km/hr. Chest compression performed moving as 40 km/hr is better than that performed moving at 80km/hr. In the group without CPR experience, chest compression performed on the floor is better than that performed in a moving ambulance.

      • KCI등재

        A. H. 프란케의 교육사상과 그 영향에 관한 고찰

        최용준 기독교학문연구회 2017 신앙과 학문 Vol.22 No.1

        This article deals with August Hermann Francke’s Christian philosophy of education and his influence. He has transformed German society through his work. Francke is both one of the representative protestant theologians of pietism in Germany and Christian educators who, by founding Francke Foundation at the 18th century in Halle, Germany, has done so many remarkable ministries. His philosophy of education made a very important contribution to the present German education system, German unification and world mission. In this article, to begin with, his life is briefly summarized. After that a research is done to clarify how his pietistic mind and educational thought were concretely executed by Francke Foundation and what is his legacy. In conclusion, the implications of his Christian philosophy of education to Korean context is be drawn. 본 논문은 독일의 교육 제도 및 사회 개혁에 큰 영향을 끼친 아우구스트 헤르만 프란케(August Hermann Francke)의 기독교 교육사상에 관한 고찰이다. 프란케는 독일 경건주의를 대표하는 개신교 신학자 중 한 사람이면서 기독교 교육자로서 18세기에 독일의 할레(Halle) 지역에서 프란케 재단을 통해 다양한 사역들을 펼쳐 괄목할 만한 업적을 남겼으며 그의 교육사상은 나중에 독일의 교육 제도 뿐만 아니라 독일의 통일 및 세계 선교에도 중요한 공헌을 했다. 본 논문에서는 우선 그의 생애를 간략히 살펴본 후 그의 경건주의적 사상 및 교육 철학이 그가 설립한 프란케 재단을 통해 어떻게 구체적으로 실현되었으며 그가 남긴 유산이 무엇인지에 대해 살펴보겠다. 그 후 결론적으로 그의 기독교 교육사상이 한국 기독교육에 주는 교훈이 무엇인지를 서술하겠다.

      • KCI등재

        18세 이하 무비증 환자에서 발생한 침습성 세균 감염증에 대한 후향적 연구

        최용준,서유리,이진아 대한소아감염학회 2017 Pediatric Infection and Vaccine Vol.24 No.3

        Purpose: Because children with asplenia have an increased risk of fulminant infection associated with a high fatality, chemoprophylaxis, and vaccinations against encapsulated bacteria are recommended. However, there have been few reports of the burden of severe bacterial infection and the current status of chemoprophylaxis and immunization among children with asplenia in Korea. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study including children with asplenia who were treated at our institute between January 1997 and December 2016. Results: From a total of 213 children with asplenia, 114 (53.5%) had congenital asplenia and 58 (27.2%) had functional asplenia. The remaining 41 (19.3%) had acquired asplenia with the median age at splenectomy being 12.2 years (range, 5.0 to 16.9 years); the most common cause of splenectomy was hereditary spherocytosis (39.0%). The chemoprophylaxis rate was 16.4%. The immunization rates were 44.1% for pneumococcus, 53.0% for Haemophilus influenzae type B, and 10.7% for meningococcus. The incidence of invasive bacterial infection among children with asplenia was 0.28/100 person-year; a total of six episodes (2.8%) were observed in five patients with congenital asplenia and one patient with functional asplenia. The median age for these infections was 15 months (range, 4 to 68 months). Five of the six episodes were bacteremia, and the other was meningitis. The most common pathogen was Streptococcus pneumoniae (n=3), followed by H. influenzae (n=1). Three of the six patients (50.0%) died, all of whom had pneumococcal bacteremia. None of the six had chemoprophylaxis or proper vaccinations. Conclusions: Although there is an increased risk of a severe infection proper vaccinations and chemoprophylaxis are still lacking. Physicians should be encouraged to implement appropriate chemoprophylaxis and immunizations for patients with asplenia. 목적: 무비증 환자에서 높은 사망률을 보이는 침습성 세균 감염의 위험성은 잘 알려져 있으며 예방적항생제 처방 및 특히 피막세균에 대한 예방접종이 강조된다. 최근 피막세균에 대한 국내 백신 영역에서많은 변화가 있었으나 국내 무비증 소아청소년 환자의 현황과 침습성 세균 감염, 예방적 항생제 처방및 예방접종의 실태에 관한 보고는 찾기 어렵다. 방법: 1997년 1월부터 2016년 12월까지 20년간 단일 3차 병원의 18세 이하 소아청소년 무비증 환자를 대상으로 후향적 의무기록 분석 기술 연구를 시행하였다. 결과: 총 213명의 소아청소년 무비증 환자 중 선천성 무비증은 114명(53.5%), 기능성 무비증은 58명(27.2%)이었으며 나머지 41명(19.3%)은 후천성 무비증이었다. 비장절제술을 받은 중앙 연령은 12.2 세(범위, 5.0–16.9세)였으며 수술의 가장 흔한 원인은 유전구형적혈구증(39.0%)이었다. 전체 무비증환자 중 16.4%만이 1년 이상 예방적 항생제를 유지하였고 항균제는 amoxicillin이 94.3%로 가장 흔하였으며 유지기간 중앙값은 41개월(범위, 12–161개월)이었다. 전체 무비증 환자 중 168명(78.9%)에서 예방접종력을 확인할 수 있었으며, 각 피막세균에 대한 예방접종률은 폐렴사슬알균이 44.1%, b형인플루엔자균(Haemophilus influenzae type B)은 53.0%, 수막알균은 10.7%로 낮았고 3가지 백신을모두 완료한 환자는 8.7%에 불과하였다. 연구 기간 동안 총 6명에서 6예(2.8%, 0.28/100인년)의 침습성 세균 감염증이 발생하였고 5예는 선천성 무비증, 1예는 기능성 무비증군에서 발생하였으며 발생 중앙 연령은 15개월(범위, 4–68개월)이었다. 6예 중 5예는 균혈증, 1예는 뇌수막염이었고, 가장 흔한균은 폐렴사슬알균(n=3)이었으며 그 외 H. influenzae 가 1예 있었다. 6예 중 3예(50.0%)가 사망하였고 모두 폐렴사슬알균 균혈증이었다. 6예 모두 예방적 항생제를 처방받지 않았고 예방접종력을 확인할수 있었던 4예 중 1예만 Hib의 접종을 완료하였으나 나머지 모두는 피막세균 예방접종을 전혀 받지 않았다. 결론: 무비증 환자에서 높은 사망률을 보이는 침습성 세균 감염의 위험은 전통적으로 잘 알려져 있음에도 불구하고 적절한 예방적 항생제 처방 및 필수 예방접종률은 여전히 낮은 수준이다. 따라서 임상 의사는 무비증 환자의 정기적 추적 관찰뿐만 아니라 적절한 예방적 항생제 및 필수 예방접종에 대해 숙지할 필요가 있다.

      • KCI등재

        역삼투-압력지연삼투 조합공정 공정모사 및 비용예측 프로그램 개발

        최용준,신용현,이상호,김승현 대한상하수도학회 2016 상하수도학회지 Vol.30 No.3

        The main objective of this paper is to develop computer simulation program for performance evaluation and cost estimation of a reverse osmosis (RO) and pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) hybrid process to propose guidelines for its economic competitiveness use in the field. A solution-diffusion model modified with film theory and a simple cost model was applied to the simulation program. Using the simulation program, the effects of various factors, including the Operating conditions, membrane properties, and cost parameters on the RO and RO-PRO hybrid process performance and cost were examined. The simulation results showed that the RO-PRO hybrid process can be economically competitive with the RO process when electricity cost is more than 0.2 $/kWh, the PRO membrane cost is same as RO membrane cost, the power density is more than 8 W/m2 and PRO recovery is same as 1/(1-RO recovery).

      • KCI등재

        하수처리수 재이용을 위한 직접접촉식 막증발법 적용 가능성 연구

        최용준,최지혁,신용현,조형락,손진식,이상호 한국막학회 2016 멤브레인 Vol.26 No.1

        The reuse of wastewater is being diffused to manage and develop the water resources. Generally, the treated wastewater is discharged to the river after being treated to meet the effluent quality standard or reused for diverse uses through the reprocessing. And recently, as the reuse of the treated wastewater is activated, the technologies to utilize for the high quality water resources such as industrial water by reusing the wastewater with Membrane Distillation (MD) are under development. In this study, the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process has been applied to treat sewage discharge water for water reuse. The laboratory scale experiment was performed by using a hydrophobic PVDF membrane with the pore size of 0.22 μm. The influence of operating parameters, such as feed temperature, feed flow rate, feed concentration, on the permeate flux and rejection has been investigated. All filtration tests were conducted till the feed volume reached a concentration factor of 3.0. Thus, the operating period ranged between 19 hr and 49 hr depending on filtration performance. The results showed that above 92% of TN, TP, COD and TOC in the feed could be rejected regardless of an operating condition. The water flux was ranged from 13.8 to 20.3 LMH. The lowest flux was obtained at the operating condition with the feed temperature of 50°C and feed flow velocity of 500 mL/min while the highest one was measured with 60°C and 900 mL/min. When the concentration factor reached 3.0, water flux declined by approximately ranged from 14.5% to 33.3%. But the fouling in MD is almost fully reversible, with more than 90% recovery of permeate water flux following a DI water rinse without the addition of chemical cleaning reagents. 본 연구에서는 하수처리수를 원수로 사용하여 직접 접촉식 막증발법을 적용하여 원수 온도와 원수 유량 변화에 따른 하수처리수의 COD, TN, TP, TOC의 제거율 변화와 여과플럭스의 변화를 측정하였다. 또한 하수처리수에 의한 분리막의오염 가역성을 평가하기 위해 1차 증류수만을 사용하여 물리세정을 수행한 후 플럭스의 회복률을 측정하였다. 실험결과 원수의 온도 및 유량에 관계없이 원수가 3배 농축될 때까지 여과를 진행하였음에도 불구하고 하수처리수의 주요 오염물질인 COD, TN, TP, TOC에 대한 제거율이 92% 이상으로 높게 나타났다. 또한 비교적 낮은 온도인 50°C와 60°C에서 원수의 유량에 따라최소 13.8 LMH에서 20.3 LMH로 높은 여과플럭스를 나타냈다. 그리고 높은 농축계수까지 여과 실험을 진행했음에도 불구하고 낮은 여과플럭스의 감소를 나타냈으며 1차 증류수를 이용한 짧은 시간 동안의 물리세정만으로 최소 90% 이상의 높은 여과플럭스 회복율을 나타냈다. 따라서 하수처리수 재이용을 위한 공정으로 막증발법의 적용이 충분히 가능할 것으로 판단된다.

      • KCI등재

        엠든(Emden)의 종교개혁과 변혁에 관한 역사적 고찰

        최용준 기독교학문연구회 2017 신앙과 학문 Vol.22 No.4

        This article is a historical research on how the reformation movement in Emden, Germany took place in the 16th century and transformed the whole city. At that time Emden was a shelter to the protestant refugees from Europe who were persecuted by the Catholics. Johannes a Lasco, Gellius Faber, Albert Hardenberg and Menso Alting did so many remarkable ministries in Emden. Therefore, Emden became one of the most important reformation cities in Europe, together with Wittenberg and Geneva and so was called the ‘Geneva of the north’ and nominated as the first reformation city in Europe in 2017. Through the synod in 1571, the reformed church was firmly established in Emden as well as in Europe. The population increased from 3,000 to 20,000 due to the protestant refugees so it became one of the biggest cities in Germany and the most important port of Europe. Most protestant refugees who came to Emden were high skilled workers such as textile traders, grain traders, craftsmen and skilled printing workers. They made an enormous contribution for the economic and cultural prosperity of Emden. At the same time, various ministries were done to help the poor. In this article, therefore, an investigation is made to see how this reformation happened and changed Emden. In conclusion, the implications of this reformation to Korean context are drawn. 본 논문은 16세기에 독일 오스트프리슬란트(Ostfriesland) 지역의 엠든에서 어떻게 종교개혁이 일어났으며 그 결과 그 도시 전체가 어떻게 변혁되었는가에 관한 역사적 고찰이다. 당시 유럽에서 개신교도들이 가톨릭으로부터 박해를 받을 때 엠든은 그들에게 피난처가 되었다. 그리고 요하네스 아 라스코(Johannes a Lasco), 겔리우스 파버(Gellius Faber), 알버트 하르덴베르그(Albert Hardenberg) 및 멘조 알팅(Menso Alting) 등은 이곳에서 개혁의 지도자들로 다양한 사역들을 펼쳐 괄목할 만한 업적을 남겼다. 그리하여 당시 엠든은 비텐베르크(Wittenberg) 및 제네바(Geneva)와 함께 가장 중요한 종교개혁 도시 중 하나가 되어 ‘북구의 제네바’라는 별명을 얻었고 2017년에 유럽에서 최초로 종교개혁도시(Reformationsstadt)로 지정될 정도였다. 나아가 1571년에 개최된 엠든 총회(Synode von Emden)를 통해 개혁교회(Reformierte Kirche)가 확고하게 자리를 잡았다. 인구도 3천 명에서 개신교 난민들의 유입되어 2만 명으로 급증하여 당시 유럽에서 가장 큰 항구도시가 되었고 독일에서도 가장 큰 도시들 중의 하나가 되었다. 이곳에 왔던 개신교 피난민들은 다수가 무역업자, 곡물상인, 수공업자 및 인쇄기술자들과 같은 전문 직업인들이어서 이들을 통해 엠든은 문화적, 경제적으로도 번영을 누린 동시에 가난한 사람들에게는 다양한 구제가 시행되었다. 따라서 본 논문에서는 이 개혁이 구체적으로 어떻게 일어나 엠든을 변혁시켰는지 살펴본 후 이것이 남긴 유산은 무엇이며 한국 교회 및 사회에 주는 교훈이 무엇인지를 결론적으로 도출하겠다.

      • KCI등재

        Effects of dietary fermented spent coffee ground on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen utilization in sheep

        최용준,임종수,Youngjun Na,이상락 아세아·태평양축산학회 2018 Animal Bioscience Vol.31 No.3

        Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the effect of fermented spent coffee ground (FSCG) on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen utilization in sheep. Methods: Fermentation of spent coffee ground (SCG) was conducted using Lactobacillus plantrum. Fermentation was performed at moisture content of 70% and temperature of 39°C with anaerobic air tension for 48 h. Four adult rams (initial body weight = 56.8±0.4 kg) were housed in a respiration-metabolism chamber and the treatments were: i) control (Basal diet; 0% SCG or FSCG), ii) 10% level of SCG, iii) 10% level of FSCG, and iv) 20% level of FSCG in 4×4 Latin square design. Each dietary experiment period lasted for 18-d with a 14-d of adaptation period and a 4-d of sample collection period. Results: In SCG fermentation experimental result, acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN) concentration of FSCG (64.5% of total N) was lower than that of non-fermented SCG (78.8% of total N). Digestibility of dry matter and organic matter was similar among treatment groups. Although crude protein (CP) digestibility of the control was greater than FSCG groups (p< 0.05), the 10% FSCG group showed greater CP digestibility and nitrogen retention than non-fermented 10% SCG group (p<0.05). Body weight gain and average daily gain were linearly decreased with increasing FSCG feeding level (p<0.05). When the feeding level of FSCG was increased, water intake was linearly increased (p<0.05). With an increasing FSCG level, dry matter intake did not differ among groups, although the gain to feed ratio tended to decrease with increasing level of FSCG (p<0.10). Conclusion: Microbial fermentation of SCG can improve protein digestibility, thereby increasing CP digestibility and nitrogen utilization in sheep. Fermentation using microorganisms in feed ingredients with low digestibility could have a positive effect on improving the quality of raw feed.

      • KCI등재

        Research on the Christian Philosophy of Education in the Netherlands: a historical approach

        최용준 기독교학문연구회 2016 신앙과 학문 Vol.21 No.2

        This article deals with the Christian philosophy of education in the Netherlands from a historical perspective. First, the purpose of Christian philosophy of education is briefly discussed. After that, the history of Dutch education is briefly surveyed and is categorized into four different types and stages. The first stage is in the 16-17th centuries where Calvinism was dominant in education after achieving independence from Spanish rule. Reformed church leaders played a crucial role in this period. The second part is the 18th century when France ruled the Netherlands with ideas of the Enlightenment which introduced public school system by the state. However, this philosophy actually promoted humanism in the public sphere. Thirdly, the so called ‘school struggle’ initiated by the neo-Calvinists such as G. Groen van Prinsterer and A. Kuyper is dealt with. They have tried to restore Christian education through private schools and to receive the financial support from the government. Fourthly, pluralism since the second part of the 20th century is explained due to the influence of post-modernism. After that, one case study of the ‘vrijgemaakte reformed school’ which tries to preserve the Christian identity ends the main body. Finally, a conclusion is drawn by suggesting the lessons and implications of this research for Christian education in Korea.

      • 막여과 공정의 에너지 흐름분석 기술 개발

        최용준,이상호 한국막학회 2016 한국막학회 총회 및 학술발표회 Vol.2016 No.05

        본 연구에서는 MF/UF/RO/MD와 같은 다양한 종류의 막여과 공정에 대하여 에너지 사용량을 분석하기 위한 기법을 개발하기 위하여 수행되었다. 에너지 흐름 분석을 위하여 공정모사 모델을 개발하였으며 이를 이용하여 각 단계별 유효에너지와 에너지 손실을 계산하였다.

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