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본 연구에서는 가상현실을 사용한 영어 회화 학습 프로그램을 개발하고 이를 몰입형 가상현실과 모바일 기기 조건에서 비교하였다. 학습자는 가상 캐릭터와 일상에서 일어날 수 있는 회화 패턴을 9 개의 에피소드에 걸쳐 학습하였다. 학습을 시작하기 전(사전)과 모든 학습을 마친 뒤(사후)의 언어불안감을 비교한 결과, 언어불안감은 몰입형 가상현실과 모바일 조건 모두에서 유의하게 감소하였고, 특히 몰입형 가상현실 조건에서 언어불안감이 더욱 크게 감소하였다. 학습 성취도를 알아보기 위해 각 에피소드에서 회화 패턴을 학습하기 이전의 반응(1단계)과 가상 캐릭터와의 회화 학습이 일어난 후의 문장(4단계)을 문장 길이, 적절성 및 정확성으로 구분하여 비교하였다. 그 결과 두 조건 모두 1단계보다 4단계에서 문장 길이, 적절성, 정확성이 향상되었다. 그 중 문장 길이는 몰입형 가상현실 조건에서 더욱 길어진 것으로 나타났다. 본 연구의 결과는 몰입형 가상현실이 학습자가 영어 회화 학습과 관련하여 경험하는 언어불안감 감소 및 회화능력 향상에 긍정적인 영향을 줄 수 있다는 것을 보여준다. This study developed an English conversation learning program using virtual reality(VR) and mobile devices. Participants learned and practiced English conversational patterns in immersive virtual reality and mobile conditions. In the program, participants learned and practiced nine conversational patterns with virtual characters in four steps. Language anxiety and conversational fluency were measured to examine the effects of this program. Language anxiety questionnaire was administered before and after the experiment. The results showed that language anxiety was significantly reduced after learning in both conditions, and the reduction waa significantly greater in the immersive condition. Conversational fluency was assessed based on the changes in the length, appropriateness, and accuracy of the responses before and after participants learned and practiced conversational episodes. The results showed that the length, appropriateness, and accuracy of the responses were improved in both conditions after learning. The response length was significantly longer in the immersive VR conditions. These results suggest that immersive VR can be an effective tool to enhance English conversational abilities.
Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is an intraoral chronic pain disorder characterized by continuous burning sensations. BMS occurs particularly in postmenopausal women, and its etiology is not definite and considered idiopathic. Various treatments such as analgesics, anticonvulsants, and antidepressants are found to be effective, but the definitive treatment has not been established. We report two cases of postmenopausal BMS that were relieved by clonazepam, and review the literature about the various possible etiologies and treatment modalities of BMS.
Eight rabbits exhibited head tilt and subsequently died. At necropsy, three rabbits had crusty deposits inears and four had reddish lungs. The main histopathological features were severe diffuse suppurative meningoencephalitis(75.0% of rabbits), fibrinopurulent pneumonia (37.5%), and otitis externa (37.5%). Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida)was isolated from brains, ears, and lungs. The capsular serogroups of the isolates were untypable. Based onhistopathological features and bacterial analysis results, the rabbits were diagnosed as P. multocida infection. P. multocidainfections might result in considerable economic loss in commercial rabbit production facilities in Korea.
신약개발은 많은 투자비와 시간이 필요하면서도 성공률이 낮아 위험성이 높은 분야로, 국내 제약 기업의 투자 역량과 인력이 부족하여 민간 R&D 투자만으로는 한계가 있다. 현재 바이오 분야 중 신약 분야에 가장 많은 정부 R&D 예산이 투입되고 있으나, 특정 단계가 아닌 신약 개발 단계 전주기에 걸쳐 지원하고 있기 때문에 투입 예산을 효율적으로 활용하여 성과를 창출하기 위해서는 투자 현황에 대한 분석이 필요하다. 본 연구에서는 정부 R&D 사업 중 신약개발 과제를 대상으로 신약개발 단계, 의약품 종류, 대상 질환을 기준으로 정부 R&D 투자 현황을 분석하고자 한다. 이는 향후 신약 분야의 경제적 성과 창출을 위한 정부의 투자 방향과 전략 수립에 활용 가능할 것이다.
Background: Shipbuilding involves intensive welding activities, and welders are exposed to a variety of metal fumes, including manganese, that may be associated with neurological impairments. This study aimed to characterize total and size-fractionated manganese exposure resulting from welding operations in shipbuilding work areas. Methods: In this study, we characterized manganese-containing particulates with an emphasis on total mass (n = 86, closed-face 37-mm cassette samplers) and particle size-selective mass concentrations (n = 86, 8-stage cascade impactor samplers), particle size distributions, and a comparison of exposure levels determined using personal cassette and impactor samplers. Results: Our results suggest that 67.4% of all samples were above the current American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists manganese threshold limit value of 100 mg/m3 as inhalable mass. Furthermore, most of the particles containing manganese in the welding process were of the size of respirable particulates, and 90.7% of all samples exceeded the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists threshold limit value of 20 mg/m3 for respirable manganese. Conclusion: The concentrations measured with the two sampler types (cassette: total mass; impactor: inhalable mass) were significantly correlated (r = 0.964, p < 0.001), but the total concentration obtained using cassette samplers was lower than the inhalable concentration of impactor samplers.
There are two viewpoints of perspective on moral lessons: assessment and understanding. The artistic and intrinsic aspects of a moral lesson that are difficult to view in terms of evaluation can be understood through lesson criticism. To understand the characteristics of a moral lesson, I would like to criticize moral lessons by applying the performance theory. In view of the performance of moral lesson, one can discuss the meaning of ‘moral doing’. Moral lesson is seen as performance in terms of similarity between the producers and the receptive response. To see a moral lesson as a performance, the 'rehearsal' concept and 'liminality' concept of the performance theory applies to the topic of lesson criticism. When I consider moral lessons as 'rehearsal', moral lessons can be viewed as ‘intentional open’, which can be interpreted differently depending on learners. The topic of ‘moral doing as intentional openness’ is set, because 'moral doing' can be realized through 'intentional open' moral lessons. When I consider moral lessons as 'liminality', which emphasize intermediation, it places a focus on the role of moral lessons between knowledge and ignorance. Moral lessons aim to change or transform students into moral doers. This leads to the topic of ‘change and transformation to moral doing’. It reveals the intrinsic meaning of moral lessons and meaning of 'moral doing' in moral lessons, by criticizing actual moral lessons on the topic of ‘moral doing as intentional openness’ and ‘change and transformation to moral doing’. 도덕과수업이 지닌 내재적이고 예술적인 측면은 수업 비평을 통해 이해될 수 있다. 도덕과수업의 특성을 담아내는 수업 비평을 위해 본 연구는 도덕과수업을 퍼포먼스로서 보고자 한다. 먼저 퍼포먼스 이론에서의 리허설 개념과 리미널리티 개념을 통해 도덕과수업 비평을 위한 비평의 토픽을 도출한다. 여기에서 도출된 비평의 토픽을 통해 2015 교육과정에서 강조된 ‘도덕함’이 지닌 의미에 관해 논의할 수 있다. 리허설 개념에서는 ‘의도적 열림으로서 도덕함’이, 리미널리티 개념에서는 ‘도덕함으로의 변화와 변용’이라는 비평의 토픽이 도출된다. 비평의 토픽에 따라 실제 실행된 도덕과수업을 비평하였을 때, 도덕과수업에서의 ‘도덕함’에 관한 다음과 같은 시사점을 얻을 수 있다. 수업 구성원의 상호작용에 따라 도덕과수업이 변경될 때 학생들의 ‘도덕함’은 담보될 수 있다. 또한 학생들이 도덕과수업에서 ‘도덕함’을 체험하기 위해서는 몰입이 전제되어야 한다.
Background: The prognosis of syncope is related to the severity of the underlying disease, including cerebral disease, rather than of the syncope itself. The aim of this study was to identify the clinical factors related to the cerebral comorbidity confirmed on brain imaging of syncope patients. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who were diagnosed as syncope and underwent brain magnetic resonance [MR] imaging between January 2011 and December 2014. An abnormal MR lesion was defined as the presence of one or more of the following: (1) ischemic lesion, (2) major cerebral artery occlusion or stenosis over 50%, (3) cerebral aneurysm or vascular abnormalities, and (4) other traumatic or parenchymal lesion. The findings of electroencephalography and clinical factors that might be related to abnormal lesions in brain MR images were investigated. Results: Of 347 (mean age 50.5 years, 48.1% females) patients, abnormal imaging findings were observed in 48 (13.8%). The clinical factors related to abnormal findings were age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease. Independent factors for an abnormal MR lesion were age (odds ratio=1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.08, p <0.001) and hypertension (odds ratio=2.73, 95% CI 1.34-5.60, p=0.006). Abnormal electroencephalography findings were noted in 52 (20.3%) of 256 investigated patients. Generalized or focal slowing was observed more frequently in elderly patients (p<0.001) and in the presence of abnormal brain MR lesions (p=0.013). Conclusions: In syncope patients with hypertension or who are elderly, a brain MR image may be helpful for detecting comorbid brain lesions.
While cardiac myxoma is a rare cause of stroke, it needs to be considered so that it can be detect promptly. We report the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of three patients who were histologically confirmed as cardiac myxoma. MRI revealed multiple infarctions in bilateral hemispheres and hemorrhagic transformation including microbleeds and macrobleeds. If either petechial hemorrhage or microbleeds along the cortical border zone are identified in MRI of acute stroke patients, the possibility of cardiac myxoma should be considered.
Background: Inactivation in p53 tumor suppressor gene through a point mutation and deletion is one of the most frequent genetic changes found in human cancer, with 50% of an incidence. This high rate of mutation mostly suggests that the gene plays a central role in the development of cancer and the mutations detected so far were found in exons 5 to 8. Mutation of p53 locus produced accumulation of abnormal p53 protein, and negative regulation of cell proliferation and transcriptional activation as a suppressor of transformation were lost. In addition, inhibition of its normal cellular function of wild-type by mutant is an important step in tumorigenesis. Method: 4 colon cancer cell lines (SNU C1, C2A, C4, C5) were examined for mutation in exons 5 to 8 of the p53 tumor suppressor gene by PCR-SSCP analysis and expression pattern by western blotting and immunoprecipitation. p53-mediated transactivation ability were examined by CAT assay and base substitution of p53 in SNU C2A cell were detected by DNA sequencing. Results: 1) SNU C2A cell and SNU C5 cell were detected mobility shifts each in exon 5 and exon 7 of p53 gene by the PCR-SSCP method, implicating being of p53 mutation. 2) 3 colon cancer cell lines (SNU C1, SNU C2A, SNU C5) expressed wild type and mutant type p53 protein. 3) In northern blot experiment, SNU C2A and SNU C5 cell expressed high level of p53 mRNA. 4) Results of p53-mediated transactivation in colon cancer cell lines by CAT assay represented only SNU C2A cell has transcriptional activity. 5) DNA sequencing in SNU C2A cell showed missense mutation in codon 179 of one allele, histidine to arginine and wild type p53 in the other allele. Conclusion: Colon cancer cell lines showed correlation with mutation in p53 gene and accumulation of abnormal p53 protein. Colon cancer cell SNU C2A retained p53-mediated transactivation as heterozygous p53 with one mutant allele in 179 codon and the other wild-type allele.