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This paper explores an empirical methodology of investigating it diffusion factor term structure models. This method is used to diagnose the validity of term structure models of given number of factors by investigating the uniqueness of stochastic discount factors implied by the models, or the equivalence of market price of risk across different bonds. Since we do not impose any parametric assumptions about dynamics of interest rates and market price of factor risk, this test constructs a direct inference on the consistency of diffusion factor models with bond data. We apply this methodology to a single factor diffusion model using daily data of Japan Government Bond (JGB) market over the period from January 2005 to December 2008.
In spite of misconception and/or neglect concerning mental disorders of adolescence, increasing attention to adolescents' mental health problems arises from a number of sources. A perspective from developmental psychopathology provides a conceptual tool for understanding the range of processes and mechanism underlying how and why psychopathology in adolescents emerges. This will enable primary physicians to diagnose and/or provide treatments to adolescents with mental health problems in clinical practice. More information about mental disorders in adolescents will be needed for primary physicians in the future. Adolescents' mental disorders are significant societal problem. Physicians should perform a leadership in multidisciplinary approach for diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders in adolescents.
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This article examines the meaning of nature as a space of healing and awakening through Walden written by the 19th century American transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau, and the usefulness of this work as reading material for a potential developmental bibliotherapy program. To this end, it reviews the healing and awakening some of the university students have gained from the text. Evidence is provided to show that the students took comfort in the work's portrayal of nature and gained insight to better set their future course of life, which is related to the merits of this work as an effective text for developmental bibliotherapy. Walden has the advantage of being a nonfiction bibliotherapy text. It also deals with the universal value of truth. Furthermore, Thoreau criticizes capitalism, one of the advantages of which is that the criticism of materialistic world views is still relevant to our society today. Finally, Thoreau's positive attitude toward facing and accepting his own feelings might be considered a good example for students who need to learn to explore, understand, and accept their own thoughts and feelings. The fact that the class in which students read and discussed the text was part of the school's regular curriculum imposed certain restrictions on it as a bibliotherapy program. There was the restriction of having classes at a set time in a prescribed format. The amount of text to be dealt with and the pace of the course progress were not sufficiently student-centered. There was not much room to expand the class content and activities outside of the class and the relationship between the professor and students was somewhat hierarchical. It would have been more effective as bibliotherapy if it could have been more communicative and horizontal. Considering these problems, we might create more effective bibliotherapy programs using the text Walden. 이 글은 19세기 미국 초월주의 철학자 소로우(Henry David Thoreau, 1817-1862)의 작품 『월든』(Walden, 1854)을 통해 치유와 성찰의 공간으로서의 자연의 의미를 고찰하고, 발달적 독서프로그램텍스트로서 이 작품이 가진 유용성을 검토한다.『월든』에서 자연은 사회의 가치관으로부터 벗어나 사색할 수 있는 공간이고, 간소하게 삶을 유지함으로써 더 본질적이고 중요한 일에 몰두할 수 있는 공간이며, 동시에 자연의 일부로서 인간이 진정한 쉼을 얻는 곳이다. 자연을 소재와 주제로 삼은 이 작품은 독자에게 각성과 치유의 계기를 제공한다. 『월든』은 몇 가지 점에서 독서치료의 자료로서 유용하다. 우선, 이 작품은 논픽션으로서 장점을 가진다. 또한 『월든』은 진리라는 보편적 가치를 추구하며 자연 속에서의 인간의 위치에 대해 고민한다. 더불어, 소로우는 그는 당시 사람들의 물질주의적 가치관을 비판하는데, 이 비판은 현재 우리 사회를 비춰보는 척도로서도 유효하다. 마지막으로 자신의 감정을 직면하고 그에 공감하는 소로우의 긍정적인 태도는 자신을 들여다보고 이해하고 수용하는 것을 훈련하는 학생들에게 좋은 모범이 된다. 본 논문은『월든』을 텍스트로 대학에서 이루어진 한 수업에서 학생들이 어떤 토론을 하였는지 소개한다. 또한 이 수업을 통해 어떤 치유를 경험하고 어떤 각성에 도달했는지, 그들의 글을 통해 확인한다. 학생들은 이 작품의 구체적 자연묘사에서 편안함과 위안을 얻었으며, 동시에 앞으로 자신들의 삶의 방향을 설정하기 위한 통찰을 얻었다. 이것은 위에서 언급한 독서치료의 자료로서 이 작품이 가진 장점들과 관련이 있었다. 이 수업이 학교의 정규 수업 일부라는 것은 독서치료 프로그램으로서는 일정한 제약이 되었다. 이 점을 고려한다면 더욱 효과적인 독서치료 프로그램을 설계할 수 있을 것이다.
In this study, nano-scale copper powders were reduction treated in a hydrogen atmosphere at the relativelyhigh temperature of 350℃ in order to eliminate surface oxide layers, which are the main obstacles for fabricating anano/ultrafine grained bulk parts from the nano-scale powders. The changes in composition and microstructure beforeand after the hydrogen reduction treatment were evaluated by analyzing X-ray diffraction (XRD) line profile patternsusing the convolutional multiple whole profile (CMWP) procedure. In order to confirm the result from the XRD lineprofile analysis, transmitted electron microscope observations were performed on the specimen of the hydrogen reduc-tion treated powders fabricated using a focused ion beam process. A quasi-statically compacted specimen from the nano-scale powders was produced and Vickers micro-hardness was measured to verify the potential of the powders as thebasis for a bulk nano/ultrafine grained material. Although the bonding between particles and the growth in size of theparticles occurred, crystallites retained their nano-scale size evaluated using the XRD results. The hardness results dem-onstrate the usefulness of the powders for a nano/ultrafine grained material, once a good consolidation of powders isachieved.
The production of emulsion sausage generally contain nitrite as a curing agent for preservative effect and color as well as flavor development. This investigation describe a study on the inhibitory effect of chitosan against some spoilage bacteria and substitution effect of nitrite in sausages. Among of the chitosan, M.W. 120KDa of chitosan has shown an antimicrobial effect. When 0.2% of chitosan and half of normal nitrite content were added to sausage, effect of preservative quality was same that added to normal content of nitrite in sausages. Sausage added to 0.5% of chitosan has been a good storage property even though without nitrite. The growth of most of bacteria was inhibited 80% or more at 0.01~0.2% of chitosan. These results indicated that M.W. 120KDa of chitosan as a natural material could provide sausage protection and very reduced or substituted amount of nitrite against spoilage bacteria.
Purpose: This study was a part of preliminary survey for establishing Korean HPS(Health Promoting School) model which was originally suggested by WHO Methods: Three elementary and middle schools were sampled in urban and rural area across three level of social-economic status and survey was conducted on one class in each grade by random selection To measure mental health and social and familial factors self-esteem scale self-efficacy scale depression scale family cohesion scale, parent-child communication scale adolescent's mental health and problem behavior questionnaire(AMPQ), and other question items about family status and economic level were conducted. Students' mental health level was compared by region, sex, grade and other familial and economic factors Results: Familial and social factors such as economical and educational level of parents number of family members were different between rural and urban area Also, students of rural area got lower scores at self-esteem, self-efficacy but higher scores at extroverted problem behavior than their urban counterparts In pre-school students high grade student's self-esteem, and family cohesion scores were lower than low grade students And sexual differences were found across problem behavior domain and region in middle school students Especially the students of single-parent family and lower economic family got insistently low scores at various mental health related scales Conclusion: These results should be considered when the HPS model is designed and applied in Korea