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This study aimed to identify the effects of empathy on L2 reading comprehension through the mediated effects of achievement emotions and English reading motivation. Data were collected from 123 college students. Data on students’ characteristics such as empathy, achievement emotions, and English reading motivation were collected using a structured self-reporting questionnaire. Empathy showed a direct effect on English reading motivation and also showed a direct effect on positive achievement emotions and negative achievement emotions. English reading motivation showed a direct effect on English reading comprehension but it was not significantly effective. Positive achievement emotions and negative achievement emotions showed a direct effect on English reading comprehension but it was not significantly effective either. However emotion showed an indirect effect on English reading comprehension and it was significantly effective. The results indicate that it will be effective to develop strategies that can develop students’ empathy to improve L2 reading comprehension.
Internet has grown fast and become one of the most important retail channels now. Various types of Internet retailers, hereafter etailers, have been introduced so far and as one type of Internet shopping mall, 'surrogate Internet shopping mall' has been prosperous and attracting consumers in the domestic market. Surrogate Internet shopping mall is a unique type of etailer that globally purchases well-known brand goods that are not imported in the market, completes delivery in the favor of individual buyers, and collects fees for these specific services. The consumers, who are usually interested in purchasing high-end and unique but not eligible brands, have difficulties to purchase these items overseas directly from the retailers or brands in other countries due to worries of payment failure and no address available for their usually domestic only delivery. In Korea, both numbers of surrogate Internet shopping malls and the magnitude of sales have been growing rapidly up to more than 430 active malls and 500 billion Korean won in 2008 since the population of consumers who want this agent shopping service is also expending. This etail business concept is originated from ‘surrogate-mediated purchase’ and this type of shopping agent has existed in many different forms and also in wide ranges of context level for quite a long time. As marketers face their individual buyers’ representatives instead of a direct contact with them in many occasions, the impact of surrogate shoppers on consumer’s decision making has been enormously important and many scholars have explored various range of agent’s impact on consumer’s purchase decisions in marketing and psychology field. However, not much rigorous research in the Internet commerce has been conveyed yet. Moreover, since as one of the shopping agent surrogate Internet shopping malls specifically connect overseas brands or retailers to domestic consumers, one specific character of the mall’s, image of surrogate buying country, where surrogate purchases are conducted in, may play an important role to form consumers' attitude and purchase intention toward products. Furthermore it also possibly affects various dimensions of perceived risk in consumer's information processing. However, though tremendous researches have been carried exploring the effects of diverse dimensions of country of origin, related studies in Internet context has been rarely executed. There have been some studies that prove the positive impact of country of origin on consumer’s evaluations as one of information clues in product manufacture descriptions, yet studies detecting the relationship between country image of surrogate buying origin and product evaluations rarely undertaken regarding this specific mall type. Thus, the authors have found it well-worth investigating in this specific retail channel and explored systematic relationships among focal constructs and elaborated their different paths. The authors have proven that country image of surrogate buying origin in the mall, where surrogate malls purchase products in and brings them from for buyers, not only has a positive effect on consumers' product evaluations including attitude and purchase intention but also has a negative effect on all three dimensions of perceived risk: product-related risk, shipping-related risk, and post-purchase risk. Specifically among all the perceived risk, product-related risk which is arisen from high uncertainty of product performance is most affected (β= -.30) by negative country image of surrogate buying origin, and also shipping-related risk (β= -.18) and post-purchase risk (β= -.15) get influenced in order. Its direct effects on product attitude (β= .10) and purchase intention (β= .14) are also secured. Each of perceived risk dimension is proven to have a negative effect on purchase intention through product attitude as a mediator (β= -.57: product-related risk → product attitude; β= -.24: shippi...
Purpose: This study examines the patient problems and nursing interventions during telephone consultations by nurses in an ophthalmology nursing unit. Methods: The data were collected during telephone consultations. A total of 13 nurses consulted 170 patients between September 29 and November 30, 2008 at a tertiary teaching hospital. Problems were raised by the patients and nursing interventions were provided to the patients by the nurses. The SPSS program was used to analyze the data. Results: There were 228 telephone inquiries by 170 patients. The problems were categorized into four groups based on a literature review and validated by 14 nurses: physical symptoms, medications, administrative matters, and follow-up care. Interventions provided by the nurses were categorized into six groups: instructing patients; providing information; providing background knowledge; assuring the patients; referring to the patients to other ancillary departments; and delivering doctor's orders. Conclusions: Nurse interventions for a specific patient problem varied depending on the nurse providing the consultation. The participating nurses expressed the need for a common protocol for telephone consultations. Thus, it would be beneficial to develop a guideline for telephone consultations to minimize practice variations among nurses.
This article aims to identify the meaning of the existential poetry world of Jo Byeong-hwa in the 50s by analyzing the nature and format of the "flower" image that appeared in the poem from the first collection of poems to the 8th collection. Among the poetic objects that appeared in Cho Byung-hwa's poems, the "flower" image is a symbol of "pureness," which appears consistently in his poems in the 50s and has noteworthy features at the same time. This article aims to reveal the personality of the world in the case of Jo Byeong-hwa, which has not been fully illuminated, by considering the attitude of the speaker "I" related to "flower-pure" rather than the notion and theme-level approach that the "flower-pure" image means and directs. The article argues that the poet represents the misery and natural vitality of the reality of the time, along with the "flower-pure" image, but more precisely, conveys an ironic effect to the reader by making the image function as a "question.” The poet's "flower-pure" image plays the role of "self-idea" that the poet's "inside" aims for, and also the "confession" that makes him feel more desperate about reality, but more accurately, the "flower-pure" image points to more than that. The poet's "flower-pure" image represents the "difference and contradiction itself" between ideals and reality, by coexisting both the dual nature of the "flower-pure" image, namely the "transcendency" of nature that regenerates spring-to-spring and the "handiness" tied to miserable reality. In other words, the poet is not merely seeking the mysterious comfort provided by nature through an ideal pure-flower image, nor accusing the misery of reality in contrast to purity, but eventually capturing and conveying the estrangement between the two as a "flower-image." According to this poetic image, to a poet, "flower" exists at the scene of miserable history, but at the same time, it is a free stare at the misery of reality outside of history. And the "flower-pure" image serves as a "otherness" that approaches a threatening question to the "me," an actor and observer in history, and makes "me" reflect on itself as a whole. In other words, the poet relativizes the entire "human life" as a historical subject (or victim or observer) as well as the "flower-pure" image as "otherness," which confirms that both the pessimistic and nihilistic attitude he has held toward the world and the comforting attitude focused on self-idential recovery were narcissistic. This creates the possibility that the poet himself and the reader can escape from these traps and move on to true reality awareness and new ways of existence. 이 글은 해방 후 첫 시집부터 제8시집까지 시에 나타난 ‘꽃’ 이미지의 성격과 형식 분석을 통해 50년대 조병화의 실존적 시 세계의 의미를 규명하고자 한다. 조병화 시에 나타난 시적 대상 중 ‘꽃’ 이미지는 ‘순수’의 상징으로, 50년대 그의 시에 일관되게 등장하며 동시에 주목할만한 특징을 지니고 있는데, 이 글은 ‘꽃-순수’ 이미지가 의미하고 지시하는 관념 및 주제적 차원의 접근만이 아니라, ‘꽃-순수’와 관계하는 화자 ‘나’의 태도를 함께 고려함으로써 그간 충분히 조명받지 못한 조병화 시 세계의 개성을 밝히고자 한다. 이 글은 시인이 ‘꽃-순수’ 이미지와 더불어 당대 현실의 비참함과 자연의 생명성을 형상화하되, 이를 넘어 이미지를 하나의 ‘질문’으로 기능하게끔 함으로써 독자에게 아이러니적 효과를 전달한다고 주장한다. 시인의 ‘꽃-순수’ 이미지는 시적 화자 ‘내면’의 지향 대상과 같은 ‘자아의 이상향’ 역할과 더불어 그와 대비되는 현실의 비참함을 더욱 절실하게 느끼게끔 하는 ‘고발’의 기능을 수행하기도 하지만, 보다 정확하게 ‘꽃-순수’ 이미지의 이중적인 성격, 즉 봄마다 재생하는 자연의 ‘초월성’ 및 비참한 현실에 묶여 있는 ‘수동성’을 공존케 함으로써, 시인은 이상과 현실 사이의 ‘괴리와 모순 그 자체’를 형상화한다. 즉 시인은 이상적인 순수-꽃 이미지를 통해 그저 자연이 제공하는 신비로운 위안을 희구한 것도 아니고, 순수와 대비되는 현실의 비참함을 고발한 것도 아닌, 최종적으로 둘 사이의 ‘간극’을 ‘꽃-이미지’로 포착하여 이를 전달하고 있다. 이러한 시적 형상화가 전달하는 바에 따르면, 시인에게 ‘꽃-순수’는 비참한 역사의 현장에 존재하면서 동시에 역사에 빗겨나 현실의 비참함을 무상無想하게 응시하는 존재로, 이는 정확히 역사 내 행위 주체이자 관찰자로서 화자 ‘나’에게 위협적인 질문으로 육박하는 ‘타자’로 역할하며, 그간의 역사적 주체로서 ‘나’를 총체적으로 되돌아보게 한다. 즉 시인은 ‘타자’로서 ‘꽃-순수’ 이미지와 더불어 역사적 주체(혹은 피해자 혹은 관찰자)로서의 ‘인간의 삶’ 전체를 상대화하며, 그동안 세계에 대해 품었던 비관적이고 허무주의적인 태도 및 이 세계를 도외시하며 자기 동일적 회복에만 집중했던 위안적 태도 모두가 나르시시즘적인 감정이자 인식이었음을 파악, 스스로 및 독자로 하여금 위와 같은 함정으로부터 벗어나 진정한 현실 인식과 새로운 실존의 길로 나아갈 수 있는 가능성을 마련한다.
This study aimed to investigate the association between interest in beauty care and dietary behaviors of 581 (analysis rate 96.0%) high school girls in Incheon using a survey done in May 2019. Based on the degree of interest in beauty care, subjects were classified as “Beauty care group (n=346)”, and "Non-beauty care group (n=235)”. The mean age of the subjects was 16.5 years old. The beauty care group had significantly lower BMI than the non-beauty care group (p<0.01). The beauty care group showed a significantly higher interest in weight control than the non-beauty care group (p<0.001). The most time-consuming preschool morning activity in the beauty care group was beauty care, while that of the non-beauty care group was eating breakfast (p<0.001). The beauty care group had significantly higher frequency of exercise than the non-beauty care group (p<0.05). The number of individuals who skipped breakfast was significantly higher in the beauty care group. In addition, the beauty care group had a significantly higher frequency of taking morning snack, convenience food (p<0.01), sweet snacks (p<0.05), and processed beverages (p<0.05) than the non-beauty care group. Our result findings provide important information on the priority groups for nutrition education based on beauty care interest.
Background: Anticonvulsants and antidepressants are adjuvant analgesic drugs that are used widely for treating chronic neuropathic pain syndromes. The combined analgesic effect of gabapentin and milnacipran was investigated with a rat neuropathic pain model. Methods: The rat neuropathic pain model was made by ligating the spinal nerves (L5 and L6). An intrathecal catheter was inserted into the subarachnoid space. Tactile allodynia was tested with the up-down method using von Frey hair. We determined the antiallodynic effect of intraperitoneal (I.P.) and intrathecal (I.T.) gabapentin. The combined effect of I.P. gabapentin (50 mg/kg) and milnacipran (0, 10 and 30 mg/kg) was investigated. Results: Intraperitoneal and intrathecal administration of gabapentin increased the threshold for tactile allodynia (the ED50 was 60.6 mg/kg and 45.5μg, respectively). Co-administration of I.P. milnacipran increased the antiallodynic effect of I.P. gabapentin in a dose-dependent fashion. Conclusion: The combined administration of milnacipran and gabapentin may increase the total analgesic effect during treatment of neuropathic pain.(Korean J Pain 2007; 20: 8-14)