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Cymbopogon citratus (CC) and Perilla frutescens (PF) are known to exert various biological effects. However, their skin hydration and skin barrier effects remain unclear. This study investigated effects of their extracts on skin hydration and skin barrier and analysed the phenolic compounds. effects of these extracts on skin hydration in HaCaT cells showed that Hyaluronic acid production in cells treated with ethanol extracts was higher than that treated with water extracts for both CC and PF. HPLC was used to analyse 19 phenolic compounds in CC and PF ethanol extracts (CCE and PFE). Results revealed chlorogenic acid and p-coumaric acid in CCE and rosmarinic acid and caffeic acid in PFE. Expression levels of hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1), HAS2, HAS3, and aquaporin 3 (AQP3), which are related to skin moisturization, and filaggrin and loricrin, which are related to skin barrier were higher in cells treated with CCE than with PFE. CCE and PFE also increased expression of PPAR-a protein involved in skin moisturization and epidermal differentiation in a concentration-dependent manner. As major components of CCE, chlorogenic acid and p-coumaric acid increased PPAR-a protein expression. Thus, CCE and PFE could be used as functional cosmetic materials for skin hydration and skin barrier effects. 레몬그라스와 자소엽 추출물은 다양한 생리 효과를 나타내는 것으로 알려져 있지만, 피부보습과 피부장벽에 미치는 영향은 아직까지 연구되지 않았다. 본 연구에서는 레몬그라스와 자소엽 추출물의 피부보습과피부장벽에 미치는 영향과 페놀성 화합물을 분석하였다. 피부각질형성세포에서 각 추출물이 피부보습에 미치는 영향을 조사한 결과, 두 추출물 모두 물보다 에탄올 추출물에서 히알루론산 생성이 많았다. HPLC를 이용한19종 페놀성 화합물 분석 결과는 레몬그라스 에탄올 추출물(CCE)에서 chlorogenic acid와 p-coumaric acid가검출되었으며 자소엽 에탄올 추출물(PFE)에서 rosmarinic acid와 caffeic acid가 검출되었다. 피부보습에관련된 HAS1, HAS2, HAS3 및 AQP3와 피부장벽에 관련된 filaggrin, loricrin 발현은 PFE보다 CCE에서높았다. 또한, CCE, PFE 모두 피부보습과 표피분화 조절에 관여하는 PPAR-α 단백질의 발현이 농도 의존적으로 증가하였으며 CCE의 주요성분인 chlorogenic acid와 p-coumaric acid가 PPAR-α 발현을 증가시켰다. 결론적으로 피부보습과 피부장벽보호 효과에 있어서 CCE가 PFE보다 우수한 효과를 나타내었고, 두 추출물은피부보습과 피부장벽개선에 대한 기능성 소재로써 활용될 수 있을 것이라 생각된다.
In this study, we investigated anti-obesity effect of isoegomaketone (IK) isolated from leaves extract of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt. cv. We verified differentiation and lipid accumulation by Oil Red O staining in 3T3-L1 cells after IK treatment with differentiation media. IK inhibited mRNA expression of adipocyte specific genes that were related with differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. We confirmed the effects of IK on body weight and visceral fat mass in obese mice. Mice were randomly divided into three groups; normal diet group (ND), high-fat diet group (HFD) and high-fat diet with IK group (HFD-IK). The obesity mice were induced by feeding the 45% high-fat diet to the C57BL/6J mice during 4 weeks. After HFD-IK was orally administered 10 mg/kg of IK. As a result, the body weight of HFD and HFD-IK was increased 2.4 times and 1.7 times of ND, respectively. Also visceral fat mass of HFD was increased 24 times but in the case of HFD-IK was increased to 13 times in comparison with ND. Taken together, our findings suggest that IK reduced differentiation and adiogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells, decreased the body weight and visceral fat mass in obesity mice. These results suggest that IK may have a potential benefit as anti-obesity material.
The present study aimed to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of each solvent fraction of a mutant Perilla frutescens produced by radiation breeding. Following extraction with 80% methanol, P. frutescens was fractionated in the order of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and butanol; the chloroform fraction exhibited less cytotoxicity, the greatest inhibitory effect on the production of nitric oxide (NO), and the highest rate of inhibition on the generation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and interferon-β (IFN-β). The chloroform fraction also suppressed the mRNA and protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and reduced the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Finally, the presence of corosolic acid in the chloroform fraction was identified. Taken together, the present findings indicate that the chloroform fraction obtained from mutant P. frutescens inhibited NO production in LPSstimulated RAW264.7 cells via the suppression of iNOS expression and the inactivation of NF-κB.
In previous study, the radiation mutant Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton with a higher anti-inflammatory activity was selected. The extracts were obtained from the mutant and wildtype using a supercritical carbon dioxide technique. This study aimed to compare the antiinflammatory activities between the mutant supercritical extract (MSE) and wild-type supercritical extract (WSE). The contents of isoegomaketone (IK) of MSE and WSE were measured through an HPLC analysis. MSE contained IK contents approximately 7-fold higher than those of WSE. To compare the anti-inflammatory activities of MSE and WSE, the expression levels of the mRNA and protein of pro-inflammatory mediators were measured in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells. As a result, MSE inhibited the expression levels of the mRNA and protein of pro-inflammatory mediators, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) to a much greater extent than did WSE. Taken together, MSE had more IK contents and higher antiinflammatory activities than WSE. Therefore, MSE is proposed based on its therapeutic potential in the prevention of inflammatory disease.
Isoegomaketone (IK) was isolated from Perilla frutescens, which has been widely used as a food in Asian cuisine, and evaluated for its biological activity. We have already confirmed that IK induced the HO-1 expression via Nrf2 activation in RAW264.7 cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of IK on the mechanism of HO-1 expression. IK upregulated HO-1 mRNA and protein expression in a dose dependent manner. The level of HO-1 mRNA peaked at 4 h after 15 μM IK treatment. To investigate the mechanisms of HO-1 expression modulation by IK, we used pharmacological inhibitors for the protein kinase C (PKC) family, PI3K, and p38 MAPK. IK-induced HO-1 mRNA expression was only suppressed by SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK. ROS scavengers (N-acetyl-L-cysteine, NAC, and glutathione, GSH) also blocked the IK-induced ROS production and HO-1 expression. Furthermore, both NAC and SB203580 suppressed the IK-induced Nrf2 activation. In addition, ROS scavengers suppressed other oxidative enzymes such as catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and NADH quinone oxidoreductase (NQO-1) in IKtreated RAW264.7 cells. Taken together, it can be concluded that IK induced the HO-1 expression through the ROS/p38 MAPK/ Nrf2 pathway in RAW264.7 cells.
This study was conducted to analyze the protective capacity of cyanidin-3-glucoside(C3G), which is rich in mulberry and blackberry as an anthocyanin pigment. In this study, we foundthat treatment with C3G significantly reduced ROS production in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-treated HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, treatment with C3G significantlyincreased the cell viability in a dose-dependent manner in H2O2-treated HepG2 cells. Moreover,treatment with C3G dose-dependently decreased the release of LDH and activation of caspase-3 inHepG2 cells treated with H2O2. Furthermore, the DNA damage in H2O2-treated HepG2 cells wasdecreased by C3G treatment when compared with the control group in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, treatment with C3G recovered the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxidedismutase and catalase in H2O2-treated HepG2 cells. To summarize, these results suggestthat C3G protects cells from H2O2-induced oxidative damage by activating antioxidant enzymes.
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of fermented blackberry drinks (BD)on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomlydivided into four groups with 6 rats per group: control, CCl4, CCl4 plus BD 3 ml kg-1, andCCl4 plus BD 6 ml kg-1. We found that the levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) andalanine aminotransferase (ALT) were significantly increased and the activity of antioxidant enzymeglutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the liver was decreased in rats treated with CCl4 alone when comparedwith the control group. However, the administration of BD attenuated the levels of serumAST and ALT in CCl4-treated rats. Moreover, the administration of BD significantly increasedthe activity of GPx in CCl4-treated rat livers. Taken together, these results suggest that BD couldprotect the liver from CCl4-induced hepatic damage.
This study was designed to elucidate the effect of fermented blackberry drinks (BD) onalcohol metabolism and hangover in alcohol-treated rats. We showed that the administration ofBD increased the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) inalcohol-treated rats. Moreover, the administration of BD reduced the serum alcohol and acetaldehydeconcentrations in alcohol-treated rats. Furthermore, the administration of BD attenuatedthe levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in alcohol-treatedrats. Taken together, these results suggest that BD plays an important role in alcohol metabolismand liver function by reducing blood alcohol and acetaldehyde through the activation of ADH andALDH in alcohol-treated rats and could be used as a functional anti-hangover drinks.