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종족음악학(Ethnomusicology)이라는 학문은 서양의 학문이다. ‘사양의’라는 수식어를 사용하는 것은 어쩌면 과장된 제스추어인지 모른다. 왜냐하면 물리학이 서양에서 길러진 학문이라 해서 서양물리학이라 할 필요가 있을까라고 할지 모르기 때문이다. 그러나 음악을 연구하는 학문을 크게 자기네(서양)음악연구, 음악학(Musicology)과 남의(비서구)음악 연구, 종족음악학(Ethnomusicology)이라는 두갈래로 키운 것은 극히 서양적인 조망의 결과이다. 음악학이 역사적음악학(Histoical musicology)와 체계적음악학(Systematic musicology)으로 나누는 분류체제가 많은 문제점이 있음에도 불구하고, 대부분의 교과서에 문헌에 교과과정에 학위수여체제에 편의상 그대로 적용되는 것처럼, 음악학과 종족음악학의 이분법도 점차로 편의상의 분류로 그대로 남아 있게 될 것이다. 그 연구범위와 영역이 학문 이름과의 관련해서 서로 전도되어 있다는 문제점 등이 지적되고는 있지만 말이다.(이러한 이분법을 그대로 우리의 학계에 적용시킬 수 있는 것인가의 문제는 필자의 다른 논문에서 논의하였다(박미경 1988:300-304)
This paper explores the ways in which miscarriages of justice urge readers to critique juridical reason on the basis of the transactions of moral sentiments, focusing on William Godwin’s novel, Caleb Williams (1794). Godwin’s work presents the possibility of rectifying the failure of justice with the limited and yet forceful performance of sympathy for Caleb Williams. The novel foregrounds the question of inequity between Caleb and his victimizer, Ferdinando Falkland. In particular, class and economic inequity intensifies the unequal distribution of justice. Narrated in the first person, the novel elaborates upon the contradictions of the law that conspires to shore up the established social order by playing on the limitations of the narrator’s perspective. Seemingly transparent, the first-person narrative serves to reveal the very opacity of legal and ethical judgment. Insofar as the law entails power, the novel reveals the corruptibility of juridical institutions as opposed to justice, which always remains yet to be realized in Jacques Derrida’s sense. Caleb Williams shows the ways in which the law defers political justice and consequently undermines its foundation, even as it circulates the excess of feelings such as resentment, sympathy, frustration, guilt, anxiety, of not only Caleb but also Falkland. Sympathy serves as a useful vehicle for the protagonist to elicit poetic justice from readers, however limited it may be. Bearing witness to the repeated failures of serving justice, readers must rely on their own private judgment and attempt to recuperate justice outside of the text. Nonetheless, the moral value of sympathy is equivocal as Caleb’s sympathy for Falkland accounts for his uncontrollable curiosity about the impenetrableness of the latter’s mind and thus blurs the borderline of criminality. Yet, regardless of his predicament as an object of constant surveillance and social injustices, Caleb proves his moral superiority and consequently asserts his independence though his private judgment not because of his triumph at the court, but by maintaining his capacity of feeling sympathy for his victimizer. Therefore, Godwin’s novel challenges Enlightenment rationalism that precludes moral sentiments, thus highlighting the instability and limitations that both the legal institutions and the narrative technique entail. Godwin demands his readers to maintain a critical distance from the dominant ideology of justice and morality, questioning the violence of legal rhetoric and the autonomy of private judgment that the novel endorses.
Background: Soluble ST2 (sST2) has emerged as a biomarker of heart failure. Previous studies indicated 35 ng/mL of sST2 as the clinically prognostic cut-off value. This study aims to establish reference intervals in a Korean population using an sST2 assay and to evaluate the applicability of the cut-off value. Methods: From March to May 2014, sST2 levels were assayed in serum samples of 255 cardio-healthy Koreans (128 men and 127 women) using the Presage ST2 ELISA kit (Critical Diagnostics, USA). The reference interval for sST2 was defined using the nonparametric percentile method according to the CLSI EP28-A3c guideline. Results: The median sST2 concentrations were 23.8 ng/mL (interquartile range (IQR), 19.0-28.7), 26.6 ng/mL (IQR, 21.0-30.9), and 21.9 ng/mL (IQR, 17.3-26.5) for the entire cohort, men, and women, respectively. sST2 levels were significantly higher in men than in women (P<0.0001). The 97.5th percentile upper reference limits for sST2 were 43.8 ng/mL, 49.6 ng/mL, and 35.4 ng/mL for the cohort, men, and women, respectively. Gender-specific upper reference limits were similar to limits reported by other studies. Conclusions: We suggest that gender-specific reference intervals should be used for the Korean population, as application of a single cut-off value of 35 ng/mL may be overcautious of the possibility of false positivity, especially in men. 배경: Soluble ST2 (sST2)는 새로운 심장 표지자이다. 기존 연구들에서, 심부전 예후를 판정하는 임상적 기준치로 35 ng/mL가 사용되었다. 이 연구의 목표는 한국인에서 sST2의 참고 범위를 설정하고, 임상적 기준치의 진단적 적용을 평가하는 것이다. 방법: 2014년 3월부터 5월까지, 총 255명의 건강인(남성 128명과 여성 127명)의 혈청 잔여 검체로 Presage ST2 ELISA assay (Critical Diagnostics, USA)를 사용하여 sST2을 측정하였다. CLSI EP28-A3c 가이드라인에 따라 비모수적 퍼센타일 방법을 사용하여 sST2의 참고 범위를 설정하였다. 결과: 혈청 sST2 농도의 중앙값(사분범위)은 총 대상자, 남성, 그리고 여성에서 각각 23.8 (19.0-28.7) ng/mL, 26.6 (21.0-30.9) ng/mL, 21.9 (17.3-26.5) ng/mL였다. 혈청 sST2 농도는 남성이 여성보다 유의하게 높았다(P<0.0001). 혈청 sST2의 97.5 퍼센타일 상한참고치는 총 대상자, 남성, 그리고 여성에서 각각 43.8 ng/mL, 49.6 ng/mL, 35.4 ng/mL 였다. 성별에 따른 상한참고치는 기존 연구들의 결과와 유사하였다. 결론: 성별에 따라 혈청 sST2의 농도 분포가 다르므로, 성별 특이적인 참고 범위를 사용할 필요가 있다. 건강인에서 심부전의 임상적 기준치인 35 ng/mL을 적용하는 것은, 특히 남성에서 위양성 결과를 보일 수 있으므로 유의해야 한다.
본 연구는 우리 사회에 만연한 부의 불평등한 분배의 심각함을 숙지하고, 한국 교회 역시 동일한 현실에 처해 있음을 직시하면서, 부의 공평한 분배를 통한 기독교 경제관에 입각하여 목회자의 사례를 책정할 수 있는 방안을 제안하고자 한다. 성경에서 제시하고 있는 경제 원리는 주님의 한 몸을 이룬 공동체성의 원리를 바탕으로 생명권과 생존권을 중시하며, 약자를 보호할 수 있는 경제법에 기초하고 있으며 물질에 대해 청지기적 태도를 견지해야 함을 강조한다. 기독교의 경제원리가 우리 사회를 향해서도 의미 있는 영향력을 끼칠 수 있기를 바라며, 먼저 교회 내에서 목회자 간 빈부의 격차를 해소할 수 있는 방법을 찾고자 한다. 목회자의 사례비 수준이 우리 사회에서 어느 위치에 있는지 살펴보기 위해 먼저 일반 기업의 노동자들의 임금과 목회자의 사례수준을 비교한 후, 기독교 경제 원리에 기초하여 십일조와 희년의 정신에 따라 목회자 사례비 운영의 원리를 제시하고자 한다. 첫째, 필요에 기초한 사례비 운영의 원리이고, 둘째는 결과적 평등에 기초한 사례비 운영의 원리이다. 셋째, 공동체성에 기초한 사례비 운영과 마지막으로 넷째는 희년정신에 기초한 소득 재분배의 원리이다. Our society is struggling with the gap between the rich and the poor across the world. So do many Korean protestant churches. Most of them do not have specific denominational guidelines for pastor’s honorarium standard. This study aims at proposing the principles of managing the proper amount of pastors’ honorarium as a guide for building a common good society of solidarity and responsibility of the community of faith, the Body of Christ. The Bible emphasizes the priority of life than the ownership and the protection for the poor and the least in the society. The Biblical principle of economic law is based upon the community of faith. As an organic community of faith, people take care for each other. For this, Christians needs the stewardship on money and property which are come from God. The church can give the direction for the broader society which is the prototype of the Kingdom of God. For the life of more equitable society based on the mutual responsibility, this research proposes a way of managing pastor’s honorarium based on the Biblical economic law such as the tithe and the Jubilee law. First, the principle of operating pastor’s honorarium is based on the necessity. Next is based on the resulting equity. The third is based upon the community, the Body of Christ. Last is based on the spirit of Jubilee law. It is expected that the Christian economic principles can give an insight for the extremely disparity society today.
In order to get a better understanding of the role of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) in type 2 helper T (Th2) cell responses against Trichinella spiralis infection, we analyzed Th2 responses in T. spiralis-infected PAR2 knockout (KO) mice. The levels of the Th2 cell-secreted cytokines, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 were markedly reduced in the PAR2 KO mice as compared to the wild type mice following infection with T. spiralis. The serum levels of parasite-specific IgE increased significantly in the wild type mice as the result of T. spiralis infection, but this level was not significantly increased in PAR2 KO mice. The expression level of thymic stromal lymphopoietin, IL-25, and eotaxin gene (the genes were recently known as Th2 response initiators) of mouse intestinal epithelial cells were increased as the result of treatment with T. spiralis excretory-secretory proteins. However, the expression of these chemokine genes was inhibited by protease inhibitor treatments. In conclusion, PAR2 might involve in Th2 responses against T. spiralis infection.
The decisive role of education in developing children’s faith has become more important in today’s society. Even though we live in an ever-changing world, there is an unchanging requirement for children’s education in faith. The history of Christian education has shown this concern. Throughout history, Christian educators have pursued a way of providing appropriate and sometimes transformative education for faith and a faithful life. This article is designed for understanding the historical continuity of the importance of Christian education for children, focusing on Horace Bushnell in the 19th century,who has been regarded as the Father of modern education, and Elizabeth Caldwell in the 21st century, who is examining and proposing several ways to build the Christian family in an educational context for future generations. Through the examination on Bushnell’s view of Christian nurture and Caldwell’s view of homemaking, this article includes a conversation between Bushnell and Caldwell on the issues of Christian education, the role of parent as an educator, and the partnership between home and church for children’s education in faith. The researcher, finally, suggests Christian education as nurture with intention, as good enough parents(educators), and the church as the big home and the home as the little church under the close partnership. The decisive role of education in developing children’s faith has become more important in today’s society. Even though we live in an ever-changing world, there is an unchanging requirement for children’s education in faith. The history of Christian education has shown this concern. Throughout history, Christian educators have pursued a way of providing appropriate and sometimes transformative education for faith and a faithful life. This article is designed for understanding the historical continuity of the importance of Christian education for children, focusing on Horace Bushnell in the 19th century,who has been regarded as the Father of modern education, and Elizabeth Caldwell in the 21st century, who is examining and proposing several ways to build the Christian family in an educational context for future generations. Through the examination on Bushnell’s view of Christian nurture and Caldwell’s view of homemaking, this article includes a conversation between Bushnell and Caldwell on the issues of Christian education, the role of parent as an educator, and the partnership between home and church for children’s education in faith. The researcher, finally, suggests Christian education as nurture with intention, as good enough parents(educators), and the church as the big home and the home as the little church under the close partnership.
This study shows the optimum attachment of Two-Way Shape Memory Alloy (TWSMA) springs onto thermal liner and its sewing method for the mass production of fire fighter's intelligent turnout gear. SMA springs were attached to the fabric by four different methods and stitched by two different shapes (square and wave). The durability of the attached springs was tested by laundering up to 50 cycles. Examined were whether the springs would remain attached to the fabric after repeated laundering, the shape memory effect and reaction of the springs, and the anti-corrosiveness of the springs. A Human-Clothing-Environment simulator evaluated thermal insulation according to attachment methods, air layer volume, and stitch types. The findings showed that silicon attached springs remained intact after repeated laundering; in addition, repeated laundering did not influence the responsiveness and anti-corrosiveness of SMAs. Air volume had positive relations with the insulation. Attachment methods or stitch methods had limited impact on the thermal insulation. As a result, a wave type stitch with silicone attachment was suggested as the optimum method to attach the SMA springs onto the intelligent turnout gear for fire fighters.
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Fenofibrate is a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) activator and is prescribed to treat hyperlipidemia. The mechanism through which PPARα agonists reduce food intake, body weight, and adiposity remains unclear. One explanation for the reduction of food intake is that fenofibrate promotes fatty acid oxidation and increases the production of ketone bodies upon a standard experimental dose of the drug (100∼300 mg/kg/day). We observed that low-dose treatment of fenofibrate (30 mg/kg/day), which does not cause significant changes in ketone body synthesis, reduced food intake in Long-Evans Tokushima (LETO) rats. LETO rats are the physiologically normal controls for Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, which are obese and cholecystokinin (CCK)-A receptor deficient. We hypothesized that the reduced food intake by fenofibrate-treated LETO rats may be associated with CCK production. To investigate the anorexic effects of fenofibrate in vivo and to determine whether CCK production may be involved, we examined the amount of food intake and CCK production. Fenofibrate-treated OLETF rats did not significantly change their food intake while LETO rats decreased their food intake. Treatment of fenofibrate increased CCK synthesis in the duodenal epithelial cells of both LETO and OLETF rats. The absence of a change in the food intake of OLETF rats, despite the increase in CCK production, may be explained by the absence of CCK-A receptors. Contrary to the OLETF rats, LETO rats, which have normal CCK receptors, presented a decrease in food intake and an increase in CCK production. These results suggest that reduced food intake by fenofibrate treatment may be associated with CCK production.