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경기도 인성 七長寺에 전하는 1628년 〈五佛會掛圖〉는 1622년 죽림사 1627년 무량사 괘불화에 이어 제작시기가 세 번째로 올라가는 작품으로 16세기 중반 文定王后 시기 왕실에서 후원한 불화의 양식을 계승하고 있어 주목된다. 〈오불회괘불도〉는 맨 밑에 발원자 혹은 공양자상이 그려지고 그 위로 용이 감싸고 있는 수미산과 지장ㆍ관음보살을 그 죄우에 배치하였다. 그 위로 三身ㆍ三世佛을 비로자니불로 통합한 五佛會圖가 그려져 있다. 이 불화는 맨 밑의 인간계에서 佛界로 상승하는 구조를 취하며, 영혼을 천도하는 위신력있는 지장과 관음보살의 존재로 정토왕생신앙에 강조되어 있다. 화면의 상단 3분의 2를 차지하고 있는 五佛會上은 죽은 사람이 궁극적으로 도달하고자 했던 정토로, 모든 불국토를 포괄하고 있는 화엄정토를 상징한다고 하겠다. 조선전기 宗派가 통폐합되면서 왕실을 중심으로 ‘多佛信仰'이 싹트게 되었고, 『법화경』과 『화엄경』사상을 포괄하고 있는 ‘五佛'은 ‘다불'의 대표적인 예로서 신앙되었다. 칠장사 괘불화는 法?이라는 비구가 혼자 그렸는데 그는 경기ㆍ충청도 일대애서 17세기 전반에 활약했던 승려화가이다. 칠장사 괘불화는 1년 전에 그린 무량사 괘불화와 동일한 화승이 그렸음에도 불구하고 畵風상의 차이는 컸다. 오히려 칠장사 괘불화는 16세기 중반 문정왕후 시기에 그려졌던 왕실 발원 불화를 보고 그린 듯 불ㆍ보살의 형상이 유사하여 왕실발원 불화의 밑그림을 제공받아 그렸을 가능성이 있다. 반면 불ㆍ보살보다 지위가 낮은 10대 제자나 신장상 등은 얼굴표정이 개성 없어 보이는 등 사찰을 중심으로 활동했던 화승의 화풍이자 17세기 전반 양식화된 화풍이 반영되어 있다. 칠장사 〈오불회괘불도〉의 후원자는 노비나 평민과 같은 신분이 낮은 사람들이었다. 그러나 화풍이 16세기 중반의 왕실발원 불화와 유사하였고, 金泥로 畵記를 쓰고, 마지막 마무리선을 금니로 한 점 등을 고려할 때 이 불화는 민간 발원의 불화가 아닌 왕실 후원의 작품일 가능성이 있다. 이러한 점은 화엄으로 포괄하고 있는 淨土의 往生사상을 불화 속에 구현한 사실에서도 볼 수 있다. 안타깝게도 화기에 실린 시주자와 왕실인물과의 연결고리는 찾을 수 없었다. 그러나 당시 왕실여인들이 적극적으로 불사를 할 수 없었던 궁정내의 분위기 등을 볼 때 왕실 여인 가운데 누군가가 이 불화의 조성을 간접적으로 후원을 했고 그 인물이 仁穆大妃일 가능성을 제시하였다. 광해군 때 일가족과 아들까지 정쟁에 희생당한 인목대비는 간접적으로나마 이들의 극락정토로의 왕생을 희구하며 괘불화를 발원하였을 것이고, 그의 간절한 염원이 그림 속에 그대로 투영되어 있다. 조선후기 괘불화를 걸고 야외에서 행했던 의식의 대부분은 靈駕의 극락천도를 빌기 위한 의식이었다. 이 때 괘불화에는 부처가 도량에 강림하는 듯한 모습으로 표현되어 극적인 분위기를 연출하는데 비해 칠정사 괘불화는 도상 자체에 극락왕생시장이 표현되어 있어 조선후기 괘불화와 차별화된다는 점에서 의의가 있다. The Buddhist Hanging Painting(1628) at Chiljang Temple is the 3rd oldest Buddhist hanging painting following that at the Jukrim Temple(l622) and that of Muryang Temple(I627). The Painting depicts the style of Buddhist paintings that was supported by the royal family in the middle of the 16th century at the time of Queen Moonjeong. In the Buddhist Hanging Painting, there is the image of the devotees in prayer or donators. Above them, there is the imaginary mountain, Mt. Sumi, and a dragon wrapped around the top of the mountain. Then a female Bodhisattvas Jijang and Kwaneum are standing left and right, respectively. On the upper part of the screen, there is the image of Buddha Virocana. This image integrates Sam-sin-bul and Sam-se-bul. The structure of this Buddhist painting is one of gradation; that of ascending from man's world at the bottom to the Buddha's world at the top. It emphasizes the Faith of Heaven through the existence of the female Bodhisattvas Jijang, who guides the spirit of the dead, and Kwaneum. The image of the Buddhist Assemblies, which make up 2/3 of the upper part of the painting, represents the heaven thai the dead spirit wants to reach eventually for eternal life. In the early stages of the Joseon Dynasty, the denomination of Buddhism were integrated into one, and Multi-Buddhism started to form, led by the royal families. The faith of the Buddhist Assemblies, which comprises the thoughts of the Sutra of Lotus and the Garland Sutra, was served as the representative example of Multi-Buddhism. The Hanging Buddhist Painting at Chiljang Temple was painted solely by the monk Beophyung(法?). He was a monk artist and actively worked in the early 17th century in Gyenggi or Chunchong-do. The Hanging Buddhist Painting at Chiljang Temple was quite different from the one at Muryang Temple, although it was painted by the same painter one year from that time that is, in terms of painting style. The painting in Chiljang Temple has similar male and female Buddhists in terms of appearance just as it seemed to be affected by the Buddhist paintings for the prayers of royal families, which were painted in the middle of the 16th century. On the other hand, the 10 Pupils and Guidance Statues and on which the post (or rank) was lower than for the male and female Bodhisattvas, have ordinary facial appearances. The quality of painting at Chiljang Temple is inferior to the paintings drawn by government painters because the former was affected by the style of the monk painters and the typical pattern style of the early 17th century. It has been surmised that the sponsors of the painting at Chiljang Temple were the lower rank people such as laymen or slaves. However, there is a possibility that the sponsorship was that of the royal families, nor that of the common laymen and this is based on certain aspects found in the painting style that was very similar to the paintings for the prayers of royal families in the middle of the 16th century that the paining diary was recorded with gold powder and, that the final finish was made in gold powder, etc. These factors may be found in the fact that the thought of eternal life in the Heaven of Hwaeom was realized in the Buddhist paintings. Unfortunately, we have not found as yet any relationship between royal families and the donators as recorded in the painting diary. However, considering the environment of the palace at that time under which the royal families could not be involved in Buddhist service actively, there was a possibility that somebody secretly sponsored the painting and it might have been Queen Inmok whose son and her family were killed by her stepson, King Gwanghaegun. She secretly tried to pray for the eternal peace of the dead by sponsoring the Buddhist painting. We observed that her desperate longing was reflected very well in the painting. Most ritual services performed outside the hanging of the Buddhist painting were for the prayers for eternal peace
During the late-Goryeo period, a large number of illustrated manuscripts of the Lotus Sutra in small letters was published. Among them, the frontispiece illustration of the assembly of Sakyamuni preaching at vulture peak (Yeongsan Hoesang Byeonsangdo) bears significant academic value as it exhibits diverse aspects of the late Goryeo period including Buddhism and Buddhist thought, rituals, and diplomatic relations with the Song Dynasty. The iconographical representations in the lower register of the illustration, stupa rising from the ground and Ajātaśatru and Sāriputra worshiping the stupa, are understood as reflecting the attaining Buddhahood and the practice of repentance, which are central to the Lotus Sutra. In particular, Ajātaśatru was the fundamental figure who led Sakyamuni to preach to Queen Vaidehi the “sixteen visions,” the method to visualize the Western Pure Land of Amitayus and achieve reincarnation in the Paradise. Ajātaśatru is the icon of hope, who ultimately attained Buddhahood through penitence despite his act of immorality of killing his father. As the representations of the stupa and Ajātaśatru are depicted side-by-side in the Illustration, the stupa comes to the endowed with the meaning of an auspicious pagoda that only those who have repented of their wrongdoings can see, and they therefore symbolize salvation. The prevalence of the representations of stupa and Ajātaśatru as important iconographical depictions of the Illustration of the assembly of Sakyamuni preaching at vulture peak is because the images reflect the Buddhist culture at the time, when there prevailed religious practices such as recitation transcription of the Lotus Sutra and ceremonial repentance before the Buddha and Bodhisattva(Yecham). This study goes beyond the visual characteristics of the Illustration of the assembly of Sakyamuni preaching at vulture peak and interprets the iconographical representations through an understanding of the Buddhist culture embedded in the social changes and historical transition of late-Goryeo and based on Buddhism and its thought.
This experiment was designed to investigate the effect of Dichroa febrifuga(DIF) on the Alzheimer's disease. The effects of DIF extract on IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α mRNA of THP-1 cell treated by Aβ plus LPS and amyloid precursor proteins(APP), acetylcholinesterase(AChE), glial fibrillary acidic protein(GFAP) mRNA of PC-12 cell treated by Aβ plus rIL-1β and AChE activity of PC-12 cell lysate treated by Aβ plus rIL-1β and behavior of memory deficit mice induced by scopolamine and mice glucose, uric acid, AChE activity of memory deficit rats induced by scopolamine were investigated, respectively. The results were summarized as follows ; 1. DIF extract suppressed APP, AChE, GFAP mRNA in PC-12 cell treated by Aβ. 2. DIF extract suppressed IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α mRNA in THP-1 cell treated by LPS. 3. DIF extract suppressed AChE activity in cell lysate of PC-12 cell treated by Aβ. 4. DIF extract increased glucose, decreased uric acid and AChE significantly in the serum of the memory deficit rats induced by scopolamine. 5. DIF extract group showed significantly inhibitory effect on the memory deficit of mice induced by scopolamine in the experiment of Morris water maze. According to the above results, it is suggested that DIF extract might be usefully applied for prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease and memory deficit.
This study analyze consumers' unconscious visual attention to color and images of internet shopping malls by using eye-tracking method. Twenty-nine participants, including 15 females and 14 males, participated. The average ages of the male and female participants were 27.3 years and 27.7 years, respectively. Ten images of five layouts (multi-composition images, single-model images, gender-composed images, videos, and moving banner images) of internet shopping malls were shown on an eye-tracker computer screen. Quantitative analyses of the eye-tracking responses were conducted. SPSS was used to analyze the descriptive characteristics and to conduct an independent-sample t-test, along with an ANOVA. The data analysis showed that the image area generally had the shortest time to first fixation (TFF), the longest duration of fixation (DOF), the highest number of fixations (NOF), and the highest numbers of revisits(NOR).Notably, visual attention towards female models was high among various images. The results can be used to improve credibility and design online shopping layout with a scientific evidence that helps consumers through their purchase decisions.