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      • KCI등재

        스와힐리어의 Tense-marker

        김윤진 한국외국어대학교 외국어 종합연구센터 언어연구소 1986 언어와 언어학 Vol.12 No.-

        스와힐리어의 시제는 14종류의(-a-, -na-, -hu-, -me-, -li-, -ta-, -ka-, -ki-, -nga-, -japo-, -nge-, -ngali-, -kali-, -ngali(bado형)- 단일 시제와 이들의 결합에 의한 24개의 복합 시제로 구성되고 있다. 단일 시제로서는 -li-와 -ta- tense만이 temporal tense market의 기능을 가지고 있으며 9개의 tense market(-hu-, -ka-, -ki-, -nga-, -japo-, -nge-, -ngali-, -kali-, -ngali(bado형)-)는 상(相 aspect)을 3개의 tense market(-a-, -na-, -me-)는 time과 aspect를 동시에 표현하는 aspectual temporal tense market의 기능을 하고 있다. 또한 아래 제시한 38종류의 tense market 중 36가지가 aspect (相)를 표현하고 있음은 스와힐리어 사용 언어권의 의식세계는 시간적 관점보다는 현상학적 관점에 의식의 비중을 두어 왔다는 사실을 말해주고 있다. 또한 우리말 시제의 폭이 학자에 따라서 적게는 5가지 (현재형, 미래형, 과거형, 대과거형, 과거미완형)로부터 많게는 13가지 (현재, 과거, 미래, 대과거, 과거미완, 과거미래, 과거추상, 현재진행, 과거진행, 미래진행, 현재진행완료, 과거진행완료, 미래진행완료)로 분류되고 있으나 38가지의 시제를 가지고 있는 스와힐리어를 처음 학습하는 경우 스와힐리어의 다수의 시제가 우리말의 어느 한 시제로 치환되어야 하기 때문에 이해의 혼란이 야기될 것이다. 차후 우리말의 시제 체계와 스와힐리어의 시제 체계를 상호 비교하는 작업이 스와힐리어 학습자를 위한 연구작업으로 남아 있다.

      • KCI등재

        Photosynthetic Characteristics of Cymbidium ‘Red Fire’ and ‘Yokihi’ at Different Developmental Stages

        김윤진,이승연,김기선 한국원예학회 2013 Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology Vol.54 No.1

        Photosynthetic characteristics of two Cymbidium hybrids, ‘Red Fire’ and ‘Yokihi’, were investigated at different developmental stages. The net CO2 assimilation rate (An) as a function of incident photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), and relative humidity (RH) in a leaf chamber head was determined in a greenhouse with 1- and 2-year-old plant leaves. The maximum net CO2 assimilation rate (Anmax) in response to PPF of 1-year-old ‘Red Fire’ was 6.11 μmol·CO2·m-2·s-1 at 700 μmol·m-2·s-1 PPF, whereas it was 4.9 μmol·CO2·m-2·s-1at 500 μmol·m-2·s-1 PPF in ‘Yokihi’. Under low light intensity (below 250 μmol·m-2·s-1 PPF), An was more pronounced in ‘Yokihi’ than in ‘Red Fire’. In 2-year-old Cymbidium, however, the maximum An was less than 2 μmol·CO2·m-2·s-1in both cultivars at the same CO2 condition of 600 μmol·CO2·mol-1 air. The An increased in the leaves of 2-year-old plant under an elevated CO2 condition up to 1,500 μmol·CO2·mol-1 air with increasing PPF up to about 800 μmol·m-2·s-1. The An increased with increasing Ci and showed the highest value when Ci was over 1,000 and 2,000 μmol·mol-1 air in ‘Red Fire’ and ‘Yokihi’, respectively. The carboxylation efficiency of ‘Red Fire’ and ‘Yokihi’ were 0.044 and 0.036 μmol·CO2·m-2·s-1, respectively, while An of ‘Yokihi’ was higher than that of ‘Red Fire’ at above 1,000 μmol·mol-1air Ci. The An tended to increase with RH, increasing from 15 to 70% in both hybrids. The Anmax of ‘Yokihi’ was observed at over 70% of RH, whereas 45% of RH was sufficient enough to show Anmax in ‘Red Fire’. The results shows that the photosynthetic characteristics of Cymbidium ‘Red Fire’ and ‘Yokihi’ can be increased by controlling the PPF, CO2, and RH conditions and the optimal conditions for maximum photosynthetic efficiency vary by cultivar,developmental stage, and greenhouse conditions.

      • KCI등재

        Effect of Night Interruption with Mist and Shade Cooling Systems on Subsequent Growth and Flowering of Cymbidium ‘Red Fire’ and ‘Yokihi’

        김윤진,김기선 한국원예학회 2014 원예과학기술지 Vol.32 No.6

        Growth and flowering of Cymbidium ‘Red Fire’ and ‘Yokihi’ plants were examined in a greenhouse with cooling systemsin summer, and with night interruption (NI) lighting in winter as a forcing culture system. The greenhouse was divided intotwo sections with separate cooling controls during the summer season. One section was cooled by a mist system (mist), whilethe other section was cooled by a shade screen (shade). During the winter, the greenhouse was redivided into three sectionswithin each cooling system. Plants were grown with NI either at a low light intensity of 3-7 μmol・m-2・s-1(LN I) or a high l ightintensity of 120 μmol・m-2・s-1(HN I) u sing h igh-pressure sodium l amps during the 22:00-02:00 HR. The control plants were grownunder 9 h short-day condition. NI for 16 weeks and cooling for 9 weeks were employed twice during the 2 years of the experimentalperiod. The air temperature was approximately 2°C lower in the mist than in the shade and the relative humidity was 80± 5% in the mist compared to 55 ± 5% in the shade. The daily light integral in the mist section was 48% higher than inthe shade section. The time from initial planting to flowering pseudobulb emergence decreased with both LNI and HNI forboth c ultivars, regardless of t he c ooling t reatments. U nder N I conditions, h owever, between 60% a nd 1 00% of p lants of b othcultivars flowered in the mist, whereas no or 20% of ‘Red Fire’ or ‘Yokihi’ plants, respectively, flowered in the shade treatmentover 2 years. Plants grown under the mist had bigger pseudobulbs than those grown in the shade under both NI treatments. These results show that commercial use of NI in winter and a mist cooling system in summer would decrease crop productiontime to 2 years and increase profits in Cymbidium forcing culture.

      • KCI등재

        Night Interruption and Night Temperature Regulate Flower Characteristics in Cymbidium

        김윤진,박채정,노형민,김기선 한국원예학회 2012 원예과학기술지 Vol.30 No.3

        We investigated the influences of night interruption (NI) and night temperature on flowering and flower coloration in Cymbidium. Cymbidium ‘Red Fire’ and ‘Yokihi’ were grown under a 9 hours photoperiod (control), a 9 hours photoperiod with NI at a low light intensity (LNI) of 3-7 µmol·m-2·s-1, or a 9 hours photoperiod with NI at a high light intensity (HNI) of 120 µmol·m-2· s-1 for four hours (22:00-02:00 HR)for 16 weeks during the reproductive growth stage (Experiment 1). Thirty month-old Cymbidium ‘Red Fire’plants with initiated flowering buds were placed in four different growth chamber with night temperature set points of 6, 9, 12, or 15oC for 16 hours (18:00 to 09:00 HR) and a daytime temperature of 25oC (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, the numbers of visible buds and flowers increased, and time to flowering decreased in both the LNI and HNI treatments, as compared to the control in both cultivars. Red color in Cymbidium ‘Red Fire’ increased by both LNI and HNI, as evidenced by an increased a* in plants grown under these conditions, relative to those grown under the control condition. Number of days to visible buds at 9-15oC ranged from 31-34 days, as compared to 39 days at 6oC in Experiment 2. Although as the temperature increased days to flowering decreased when the plant was grown at 15oC as compared to 6, 9, or 12oC, the red color (a*) also decreased. The number of flowers and percent flowering increased when the night temperature was maintained higher than 9oC. Therefore, NI treatment and maintaining the night temperature at approximately 9-12oC during the winter season after flower spike initiation in the reproductive developmental growth stage improve flower quality and controls flowering time.

      • Enhanced Detection of Glycans by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry Using a Binary Matrix of 2,5-Dihydroxybenzoic Acid and 2,6-Dihydroxybenzoic Acid

        김윤진,김태희,이지현,임해주,김정권 사단법인 한국질량분석학회 2013 Mass spectrometry letters Vol.4 No.2

        Glycans released from ovalbumin by PNGase F were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-offlight(MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry using three different dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) matrix systems: 2,5-DHB, 2,6-DHB, and a 2,5-DHB/2,6-DHB binary matrix. Relative to the results obtained with the single-component matrices (2,5-DHB or2,6-DHB), the 2,5-DHB/2,6-DHB binary matrix boasted lower background noise and higher sensitivity. A total of 16 glycanpeaks were observed using the 2,5-DHB/2,6-DHB binary matrix, while only 10 and 9 glycan peaks were observed using the 2,5-DHB and 2,6-DHB matrices, respectively.

      • 주요국 경기 회복 비교

        김윤진 한국경제연구원 2015 KERI Brief Vol.15 No.14

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        2009년 글로벌 금융・경제위기 전후의 주요 8개국 8대 거시 지표 증가율을 분석한 결과, 금융 위기 이전으로 증가율이 회복된 부문이 가장 많은 나라는 미국이었고, 일본이 상위권, 한국은 최하위권을 기록했다. 미국은 성장률・투자・주가지수・주택 가격 등 4개, 일본은 실업률・투자・주가지수 등 3개 지표의 증가율이 상승했고, 한국은 민간소비・수출입・주가지수・주택가격 등 7개 지표의 증가율이 감소했다. 미국・영국 등 성장률의 회복 정도가 큰 국가의 경우, 통화 정책의 파급력이 커 자산 부문(주가지수, 주택가격)과 실물 부문(투자, 민간 소비)의 회복이 병행해서 이루어진 데 따른 것으로 분석됐다. 반대로, 홍콩・한국・싱가폴 등 성장률 회복이 더딘 국가의 경우, 자산 부문과 실물 부문 전반에 걸쳐 회복이 부족한 지표가 6개 이상이었는데 통화 정책의 파급 경로 이탈 때문인 것으로 풀이된다. 한편, 8개국에 공통적으로 나타나는 사항은 수출증가율의 회복세가 부진한 것이다. 이는 세계 수출물량 증가율이 2006~2007년 7.6% 증가에서 2013~2014년 2.8%로 크게 하락한 것에 기인한다. 수출의존도가 상대적으로 높은 우리나라의 경우, 회복세 전망이 어두운 또 다른 이유이다. 이에, 개입이 어려운 해외 부문의 긍정적 변화를 기대하기보다는 통화 정책의 이동 경로를 정비하고 금융 시장을 고도화하는 등의 자산 부문 회복을 통해 한국의 투자 및 소비의 활성화를 이룩함이 현명해 보인다.

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