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한국에서 자생하는 125종의 식물에서 추출한 141가지 메탄올 추출물들에서 식품부패미생물인 Bacillus subtillis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes 그리고 Pseudomonas aeruginosa에 대한 항균 활성도를 조사하였다. Bacillus subtillis에 대해 가장 강한 항균력을 보인 것은 오미자였으며 staphylococcus aureus 에 대해서 대황이, Pseudomonas aeruginosa에 대해서는 산사가 가장 강한 항균력을 나타냈다. 금은화는 Bacillus subtilis를, 산사는 Stophylococcus aureus를, 모과와 황금은 Pseudomonas aeruginosa를, 모감주나무꽃, 밤나무꽃, 장미꽃과 파꽃은 Enterobacter aerogenes를, 오미자는 Escherichia coli를 제외한 나머지 4가지 균주에 모두 항균력이 있었다 141 methanol extracts from 125 plant species which populate in Korea were screened for antimicrobial activity against various food-borne pathogens and food spoilage microorganisms. Those plants were selected from 3 different plant groups : traditional herbs, edible plants and flowers. The methanol extracts were tested by using the disk diffusion assay against five bacteria : Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli. From the evaluation of the inhibition zone diameter of microbial growth, the most significant antimicrobial activity against bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli was observed from the extract of Schizandra chinensis (Turcz) Baill., Rheum officinale Baill., Schizandra chinesis (Turcz) Baill., Koelreuteria paniculata Lax and Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge, respectively. The extract from many plants - Koelreuteria paniculata Lax, Chaenomeles sinensis Koehne, Scutellaria bacicalensis Georgi, Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc., Rosa centifolia L;, Allium fistulosum L. var. giganteum Makino, Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge, Schizandra chinensis (Turcz) Baill., Lonicera japonica - showed antimicrobial activity all four tested bacteria.
천연 호르몬 보충 제제의 개발을 위한 기초 연구로 이란산 흑석류 과즙 농축액과 이를 이용한 제품의 화학성분들을 분석하였다. 석류 농축액의 일반성분은 수분 39.3%, 조지방 0.4%, 조단백질 0.9%, 조회분 1.4%, 그리고 탄수화물은 42.0%이었다. 아미노산 함량은 글루탐산이 1310.Oppm, 아스파르트산이 896.2ppm, 아르기닌이 877.7ppm, 페닐알라닌이 57.5ppm순으필 무기 성분들은 철분 6640.Oppm, 염소 3464.Oppm, 칼륨 2550.8ppm, 인 150.Oppm, 칼슘 80.Oppm 순으로 많이 함유되 어 있었다 비타민은 5가지의 수용성 비타민이 함유되어 있었으며 그 중 비타민 C(20mg/100g)를 제외한 나머지 비타민들이 아주 적은 양이 있었다. 주요 지방산은 palmitic acid(8.3%)와 stearic acid(69.4%)로 전체 지방산의 약 60~80%를 차지하고 있었다. 또한 6종의 phyto및 에스트로겐류가 들어 있었으며 각각daidzein 23.72ppm, quercetin 9,75ppm, catechin 1.48ppm, genistein 0.29ppm, 2,3-di-MeO-estradiol이 0.04ppm, 그리고 17β-에스츠라디올이 0.15ppm이 함유되어 있었다. 이상의 결과들을 석류 농축액으로 제조한 제품 포에버 120과 칡과 대두 isoflavon 농축분말과 비교하다. Phytoestrogens are non-steroidal compounds found in a variety of plants, which exert estrogenic effects in animals. In this study, the physico-chemical properties of Iranian black pomegranate extract and its products as preliminarily research for the developing of natural estrogen supplement were evaluated. The chemical components of Iranian black pomegranate extracts and its product (Forever 120) were analyzed. Proximate compositions of pomegranate extracts were as follows; crude lipid 0.4%, crude protein 0.9%, crude ash 1.4% and carbohydrate 42.0%. Major amino acids of pomegranate extracts are glutamic acid (1310.Oppm), aspartic acid (896.2ppm), arginine (877.7ppm) and phenylalanine (57.5ppm). Fatty acid compositions of pomegranate extract lipid extracted by chloroform-methanol (2:1) were myristic (13.1%), stearic (69.4), oleic acid (6.8%) and palmitic acid (8.3%). Mineral elements were ferrous (6640.Oppm) and potassium (2550.8ppm). Vitamins were composed of ascorbic acid(20.Omg/100g), Vit. B_1 (0.12mg/100g) and niacin (0.80mg/100g), 20 phytoestrogens and 20 estrogens of pomegranate extracts were detected Daidzein (0.29ppm), quercetin (9.75ppm) genistein (0.29ppm) and 17 β-estradiol(0.15ppm). Above the chemical components of pomegranate extracts were compared with that of pome granate its product or other isoflavon concentrates.
The Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated gene transfer is widely used to generate genetic transformation of plants and transient assay of temporal exogenous gene expression. Syringe infiltration system into tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) leaves is a powerful tool for transient expression of target protein to study protein localization, protein-protein binding and protein production. However, the protocol and technical information of transient gene expression, especially double strand RNA (dsRNA), in tobacco using Agrobacterium is not well known. Recently, dsRNA is crucial for insecticidal effect on destructive agronomic pest such as Corn rootworm. In this study, we investigated the factor influencing the dsRNA expression efficiency of syringe agro-infiltration in tobacco. To search the best combination for dsRNA transient expression in tobacco, applied two Agrobacterium cell lines and three plant vector systems. The efficiency of dsRNA expression has estimated by real-time PCR and digital PCR. As a result, pHellsgate12 vector constructs showed the most effective accumulation of dsRNA in the cell. These results indicated that the efficiency of dsRNA expression was depending on the kind of vector rather than Agrobacterium cells. In summary, the optimized combination of transient dsRNA expression system in tobacco might be useful to in vivo dsRNA expression for functional study and risk assessment of dsRNA.
The RNA interference (RNAi) has been considered as an important genetic tool and applied to develop a new living modified (LM) crop trait which is an improvement of nutrient quality or pest management. The RNAi of DvSnf7 has been used for resistance to LM maize and the Western Corn Rootworm which is a major agricultural pest for the US Corn Belt. Most of the environmental risk assessments (ERA) of double strand RNA (dsRNA) have been performed using in vitro transcript products, and not in vivo expressed product. A large amount of dsRNA was required for the acute toxicity assay of water fleas. Therefore development of massive dsRNA purification techniques is critical. Daphnia, a freshwater microcrustacean, is a model organism for studying cellular and molecular mechanism involved in life history traits and ecotoxicology. In this study, we established the massive dsRNA purification method using Escherichia coli and implemented acute toxicity assays to Daphnia magna. As a result, the present RNase A and DNase I, dsRNA was efficiently purified without any special techniques or equipment. Even though purified dsRNA existed during the acute toxicity test, lethality or abnormal behavior were not observed in D. magna. These results indicated that GFP and DvSnf7 dsRNA were not significantly affected to D. magna due to their lack of sequence matching in its genome. The purification method of dsRNA and the acute toxicity assay of water fleas using purified dsRNA would be suitable for the toxicological studies of LMOs to aquatic non‐target organisms.
Clay mixtures with petalite or β-eucryptite were studied with the aim of obtaining thermal shock resistant porcelain. β- eucryptite was synthesized by mixing Li2CO3 and Al(OH)3 with silica in stoichiometric compositions, and the synthesized β- eucryptite showed a thermal expansion coefficient of −7.10 × 10-6/ o C. The final phase and coefficient of thermal expansion of the fired petalite-clay and eucryptite-clay samples were examined according to changes of the mixing ratio and firing temperature. In the petalite-clay samples, lithium alumina silicate (Li2O • Al2O3 • 7.5SiO2) and keatite-type β-spodumene, which shows a positive thermal expansion coefficient, were observed. In the eucryptite-clay samples, β-quartz-type β- spodumene was well developed according to the increase of eucryptite content and firing temperature. Under the conditions of 70 wt% eucryptite content and at a firing temperature of 1350 o C, the eucryptite-clay sample yielded a low thermal expansion coefficient of 0.7 × 10-6/ o C. The mixing of β-eucryptite into clay enabled the realization of excellent thermal shock resistant porcelains.
Since the early 1990s when the first commercialization of living modified organism (LMO), LMO has been developed to improve nutrient quality and productivity of crops. As the self-sufficiency rate of soybean has gradually decreased in South Korea, most of soybeans have been imported. The cultivation and trade of LM crops are regulated in many countries and authorizations for the use are mandatory in most. In South Korea, the cultivation of LM crop is not allowed and unintentional release of LMO into the natural environment is prohibited. In this study, we developed a novel multiplex PCR method for four LM soybean events (CV127, MON87705, FG72 and MON87701) which were approved recently in South Korea. Multiplex PCR primers were designed for PCR amplification of four LMO event-specific fragments, and we analyzed 41 environmental monitoring samples to confirm the efficiency of this method. These results indicated that the multiplex PCR detection method is sufficient for four LM soybeans found in the natural environment. Based on our finding, we suggest that the new technique may be useful as a lead tool for the development of a detection method for various LMO/GMOs.
Capillary electrophoresis(CE) is a versatile microanalytical technique that has gained much attention, particularly from those working with biologically active molecules. Its appealing characteristics include unprecedented sensitivity and the ability for automating the rapid electrophoretic separation of a number of low volume samples in a reproducible manner, with relarively short analysis times. The picomole femtomole sensitivity of UV CE has been enhanced tremendously by the interfacing of detection systems such as laser induced fluorescence, which has extended the sensitivity into the attomole-zepptomole range. This paper is CE research of DNA analysis and development has taken on directions focused primarily on improving detection, understanding and exploiting the basic chemistry of CE and devising new applications.