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Background: We investigated surgical outcomes after the surgical repair of cor triatriatum sinister (CTS). Methods: Thirty-two consecutive patients who underwent surgical repair of CTS from 1993 through 2020 were included in this study. The morphological characteristics, clinical features, and surgical outcomes were described and analyzed. Results: The median age and body weight at operation were 9 months (interquartile range [IQR], 3–238 months) and 7.5 kg (IQR, 5.8–49.6 kg), respectively. There were 16 males (50%). According to the modified Lucas classification, type IA (classical CTS) was most common (n=20, 62.5%). Atrial septal defect was associated in 22 patients (68.8%) and anomalous pulmonary venous return in 8 patients (25%). Pulmonary hypertension was preoperatively suspected with a high probability in 18 patients (56.3%). There was 1 early death (3.1%) after emergent membrane excision and hybrid palliation in a high-risk hypoplastic left heart syndrome patient. There were no late deaths. The overall survival rate was 96.9% at 15 years post-repair. No early survivors required reoperation during follow-up. Most survivors (31 of 32 patients, 96.9%) were in New York Heart Association functional class I at a median follow-up of 74 months (IQR, 39–195 months). At the latest echocardiography performed at a median of 42 months (IQR, 6–112 months) after repair, no residual lesion was observed except in 1 patient who had moderate pulmonary hypertension (mean pulmonary arterial pressure of 36 mm Hg). Conclusion: Surgical repair of cor triatriatum could be performed safely and effectively with an extremely low risk of recurrence.
세계적으로 민간경비산업의 문제점으로 지적되고 있는 것 중에 하나는 경비원의 전문성 확보 및 자질 문제 일 것이다. 경비업무의 전문화를 위해서는 무엇보다도 경비원들에 대한 체계적인 교육훈련이 이루어 져야 한다. 경비원들에 대한 교육훈련은 민간경비서비스의 양과 질에 직결되기 때문에 경비산업 전반에 미 치는 파급효과는 매우 크다고 할 수 있다. 이를 발전시키기 위해서는 선진국들의 경비업무 관련 교육에 대 한 분석과 벤치마킹이 필요할 것이다. 이를 위하여 미국, 일본, 영국, 독일, 프랑스, 호주 민간경비의 대표 적인 특징을 알아보고자 한다.
Inchon Port is the second largest import-export port of Korea, and has the point at issue such as the excessive logistics cost because of the limits of handling capacity and the chronic demurrage. There are few research activities on the analysis and improvement of the whole port operation, because Inchon Port not only has the dual dock system and various facilities but also handles a various kind of cargo. The purpose of this paper is to develop the simulation program as a long-term strategic support tool, considering the dual dock system and the TU(Terminal Operation Company) system executed since March, 1997 in Inchon Port. The basic input parameters such as arrival intervals, cargo tons, service rates are analyzed and the probability density functions for these parameters are estimated. The main mechanism of simulation model is the discrete event-driven simulation and the next-event time advancing. The program is executed based on the knowledge base and database. From the simulation model, it is possible to estimate the demurrage status through analyzing various scenarios and to establish the long-term port strategic plan.
The purpose of this study is to analysis the training programs for native assistant teachers and research and analysis their perceptions about the training program in order to develop the blended learning-based training program for native assistant teachers which is suitable for the 60 hours of mandatory training. The research was conducted by comparing training programs operated by NIIED to the programs of POEs'and MOE's through literatures. Also it was conducted by contents analysis of on-line and on-site training programs of NIIED's and frequency analysis of survey results. The results of this study showed that the training program for Native Assistant English Teachers does better to be formed and operated as on-line and on-site according to contents and purpose of the training. On-line program is adequate to the pre-departure course for delivering general informations of education and living in Korea. On-site program is adequate to delivering detail practice of the educational theories and experience and exercise the theories. Results also showed that additional programs of systematical Korean lesson and co-teaching training course were arose. 본 연구의 목적은 2010년부터 시행되고 있는 원어민 영어보조교사 60시간 연수 의무제 실시에 적합한 블렌디드 러닝 기반의 교육프로그램 모형을 개발하기 위하여 현재 국내에서 시행되고 있는 원어민 영어보조교사 대상 연수 프로그램을 분석하고, 프로그램에 참가한 원어민 영어보조교사들의 교육에 대한 인식을 조사․분석하는 것이다. 연구 방법으로는 문헌을 통하여 국립국제교육원의 교육프로그램 내용과 시․도교육청 자체 교육프로그램을 비교 분석하고, 2010년 국립국제교육원 EPIK팀에서 실시한 온․오프라인 교육프로그램의 중요성에 대한 원어민 영어보조교사의 인식을 설문 결과를 통해 분석하였다. 연구결과에 따르면, 원어민 영어보조교사 연수는 연수 목적과 내용에 따라 온라인과 오프라인으로 실시하되, 온라인 프로그램은 원어민 영어보조교사 입국 전 및 일반화 된 교육내용 전달에 적합하였으며, 오프라인 프로그램은 구체적인 교수법에 대한 교육내용이 적합한 것으로 나타났다. 한국어 교육은 한국 교육 경험 유무에 따라 요구가 달라 별도의 연수 과정이 개설되어야 함을 시사하였으며, 특히 원어민 영어보조교사들은 협력 수업에 대한 중요도를 가장 높게 인식하고 있어 향후 사전 연수 이외에 협력 수업 중심의 별도의 연수과정이 필요한 것으로 나타났다.
Background and Purpose This study was to investigate the effects of recovery of upright standing posture on balance control in patients with stroke. Subjects and Method Two participants received treatment of physical therapy to perform realignment training for upright standing posture on 30 minutes a day, five days a week during four weeks. Patients were measured with OLST(One Leg Standing Test), TUG(Timed “Up & Go” Test) and MCTSIB(Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction and Balance) by a therapist. Result The results were as following: OLST and MCTSIB were improved, but TUG was increased in two subjects. Conclusion Postural stability was improved after training of upright standing posture to recover alignment. We suggests that realignment of upright standing posture is feasible and suitable for individuals with stroke.
A 74-year-old man was diagnosed with aortic root aneurysm and two-vessel coronary disease. Echocardiographic assessment revealed an enlarged sinus of Valsalva 60 mm in diameter with mild aortic regurgitation. Florida sleeve repair was performed using a vascular graft combined with coronary artery bypass grafting. The postoperative course was uncomplicated and follow-up echocardiographic evaluations showed an aortic root diameter of 38 mm without aortic insufficiency up to 1 year after surgery.
Background: Elderly persons are rapidly increasing in Korea. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in this age group. In this research, we evaluated the clinical characteristics of the elderly patients presenting chest pain. Methods: A total of 471 patients who visited cardiovascular center of Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong for chest pain were reviewed and divided by three groups, via age; under 40, from 40 to 69 and over 70 years old. Results: The number of patients over 70 years was 142 (30.1%). The proportion of patients diagnosed as having significant, multivessel coronary diseases was higher than that of younger patients (p=0.0002). The rate of atypical chest discomfort presenting as a cardiac symptom was not higher than in the middle-aged group (4.8% vs. 2.1%, p=0.255). Conclusion: In elderly patients, the proportion of female patients and significant multivessel diseases were more common than younger patients.
이 논문은 저궤도 이동 위성 통신에서 나타나는 심각한 도플러 천이와 페이딩을 극복하면서 패킷 전송효율을 증가시킬 수 있는 DS/CDMA 시스템의 초기동기기법으로 분할 정합 여파기/참조 여파기 기법을 제안한다. 정합여파기의 정합구간을 분할하는 분할 정합여파기를 이용하여 극심한 도플러 천이를 극복하였으며, 참조여파기를 이용하여 시변하는 간섭과 페이딩에 강인한 초기동기를 이룰 수 있다. 성능분석의 척도로써 평균초기동기시간과 패킷 전송효율을 이용하며, 도플러 천이와 칩당 에너지대 잡음비, 사용자 이동속도, 음영 표준편차, 패킷 프리앰블내 심볼수 등과의 관계를 고찰한다. A divided matched filter-reference filter(MF-RF) technique for LEO satellite packet transmission is proposed to increase the packet throughput in the presence of severe Doppler shift and fading. To overcome the severe Doppler shift, the divided matched filter is adopted where the integration region of matched filter is divided and ouputs of divided matched filer are added to decide the correct pseudo-noise (PN) phase. To maintain the constant false alarm rate in time varying interference and fading channel, the adaptive threshold for acquisition is obtained from the reference filter. As a performance measure, average acquisition time and packet throughput are used, and the effets of the parameters, i.e., Doppler shift, chip energy to noise ratio, user velocity, standard deviation of shadowing, and preamble length are shown.