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Objectives : Gamisoyosan (GMS) is a useful prescription for treating insomnia, dysmenorrhea and infertility induced by a stress. Also, GMS has been used traditionally to improve systemic circulation and biological energy production. The purpose of this study was to assess the anti-oxidant activity and anti-inflammatory effects of Gamisoyosan Formulation (Soft extract, GMS-SE). Methods : The biological activities such as anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects were measured through cell line-based in vitro assay. We investigated the anti-oxidant properties of GMS-SE on the 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, contents of total flavonoid and polyphenol. GMS-SE compared to butyl hydroxy anizole (BHA). Furthermore, based on this result the anti-inflammatory effects of GMS-SE have verified by mechanism from LPS- treated Raw264.7 macrophages. Results : The anti-oxidant activities of GMS-SE increased markedly, in a dose-dependent manner. The GMS-SE showed significant scavenging activity (GMS-SE 500 ㎍/㎖ : 32.77±1.65%, GMS-SE 1000 ㎍/㎖ : 45.06±1.04% and BHA 100 ㎍/㎖ : 39.25±2.41% for DPPH assay). and, The total phenolic compound and flavonoids contents of GMS-SE were 73.93±6.87 ㎍/㎎ and 698.75±6.78 ㎍/㎎. GMS-SE which is LPS has diminished in the LPS-induced release of inflammatory mediators (NO, iNOS, COX2 and PGE2) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) from the RAW264.7 macrophages. Moreover, GMS-SE inhibited the activation of phosphorylation of p38 and ERK MAPKs by induced LPS. Conclusion : The present results indicate that GMS-SE has an anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, therefore may be beneficial in diseases which related to oxidative stress-mediated inflammatory disorders.
Objectives : Samchulkunbitang (SCKBT), an oriental herbal formula, has been used in Asian countries including Korea, China and Japan to treat the chronic gastritis, gastric ulcers and gastroptosis. However, there was not report on the anti-obesity-related diseases efficacy of SCKBT. we investigated the antioxidant effects of Samchulkunbitang soft extract (SCKBTSE). We also investigated the anti-obesity-related diseases effect of SCKBT-SE, on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells and PDGF-BB-induced proliferation of rat aortic Vascular smooth muscle (VSMC, A-10). Methods : Preferentially, we analyzed the component of SCKBT-SE using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In vitro, We investigated the anti-oxidant properties of SCKBT-SE on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, contents of total flavonoid and polyphenol. 3T3-L1 cells were treated with SCKBT-SE (100 to 500 ㎍/㎖) during differentiation for 8 days. The accumulation of lipid droplets was determined by Oil Red O staining. And, To investigate the A-10 cells anti-proliferative effect of SCKBT-SE, we performed MTT assays. Results : SCKBT-SE showed inhibitory activity on adipocyte differentiation at 3T3-L1 preadipocytes without affect cell toxicity. In addition, The pre-incubation of SCKBT-SE (100 ㎍/㎖) significantly inhibited proliferation of PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs. Conclusions : The SCKBT-SE according to the present invention has excellent antihyperlipidemic and antiatherogenic effects as well as an antiobesity effect, has an effect of simultaneously treating obesity, hyperlipidemia, and arteriosclerosis, and is free from side effects by containing a traditional medicine as an active ingredient, and thus can be useful as an agent for preventing or treating obesity-related diseases
Objectives : The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of oriental medicine therapy on the growth of children, and to assess the relation of BMD(Bone Mineral Density) and the stature growth during the period of bone growth. Methods : We measured height and weight of the children, percentile of the growth by using the growth curve, BMD and bone age by using Osteoimages Plus. We treated the children with acupuncture, herbal acupuncture, herbal medication, physical therapy. Then we measured difference of height and percentile change of the children. Results and Conclusions : 1. According to sexual type, percentile change of the growth is higher in the female. 2. According to age group, percentile change of the growth is higher in period Ⅱ(Male;11-14, Female;10-12). 3. According to treatment group, percentile change of the growth is higher in acupuncture and herbal-acupuncture, herbal-medication treated group. 4. According as BMD increases, BMI(Body Mass Index) were ascending significantly.
본 연구는 리츠의 이익공시정보가 주식수익률에 미치는 영향을 실증적으로 분석하였다. 이익 공시전후의 기간 동안에 리츠 수익률에 영향을 주는 변수로 이익예측오차, 내재변동성, 고유변동성, 투자심리 등에 대하여 검토하였다. 분석대상기간은 2010년 1월부터 2013년 12월까지이며, 이 기간 동안에 한국거래소(KRX) 유가증권시장에 상장되어 있는 모든 리츠를 대상으로 분석하였다. 본 연구에서는 분기별 리츠의 이익 공시에 따른 누적초과수익률에 이익예측오차, 내재변동성, 고유변동성, 투자심리, 그리고 이러한 변수들 간의 상호작용이 미치는 영향을 실증적으로 검토하였다. 본 연구의 주요 분석결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 리츠의 이익 공시에 따른 주가반응을 분석한 결과, 이익공시일 전후에 누적초과수익률이 약간 상승하는 패턴을 보였다. 특히, 이익공시 이전의 D-27일에서 D-20일까지의 기간 동안에 상당한 수준의 양(+)의 누적초과수익률이 존재하였다. 또한 이익 공시에 따른 주가반응은 이익예측오차에 의해 영향을 받는 것으로 나타났는데. 이익예측오차가 양(+)인 표본에는 이익 공시 전후에 양(+)의 주가표류 현상이 존재하며, 이익예측오차가 음(-)인 표본에는 음(-)의 주가표류현상이 존재하였다. 둘째, 리츠의 이익 공시에 따른 누적초과수익률은 이익예측오차에 의하여 영향을 받으며, 내재변동성, 고유변동성, 투자심리 등에 의해서도 영향을 받는 것으로 나타났다. 또한 이익예측오차는 내재변동성, 고유변동성, 투자심리 등의 변수와 상호작용하여 리츠의 이익 공시에 따른 누적초과수익률에 영향을 미치지만, 영향의 방향에 대해서는 일관성 있는 결과를 발견하기 어려웠다. 그리고 투자심리는 내재변동성, 고유변동성 등의 영향을 통제한 경우에만 리츠의 이익 공시에 따른 누적초과수익률에 유의적인 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. The purpose of study is to analyze effects of earning prediction error, information uncertainty, and investor sentiment on REITs returns. Using event study methodology, abnormal returns of REITs earning announcement are measured with market model, and then cumulative abnormal return (CAR) is regressed on the variables known to have influence on stock return. The cumulative abnormal returns around disclosure of the REITs" earning information are investigated. After then to determine the effect on REITs" cumulative abnormal return, CARs measured on various horizons are regressed on earning prediction error, uncertainty of market information, corporate information uncertainty, and investor sentiment. Period of analysis is from January 2010 to December 2013. All the REITs listed on Korea Exchange (KRX) are investigated. The data of earning announce information were obtained from corporate information disclosure site DART of Financial Supervisory Service (FSS). Profit prediction errors are calculated based on the simple prediction model for earnings forecasts. KOSPI 200 implied volatility index of KRX are used as proxy of market information uncertainty. The idiosyncratic volatility measured on 3-factor model are used as proxy of corporate information uncertainty. Investor sentiment is calculated using the monthly consumer sentiment index announced by Economic Statistics System (ECOS) of the Bank of Korea. Average abnormal returns and cumulative abnormal returns of entire sample are investigated, though stock returns exhibit a slight increase around disclosure, it"s hard to state that there are stock return drift phenomena around earning disclosure of REITs in Korea. However, significant return reaction is observed during the period between D-20 and D-27 prior to earning information disclose. The stock market reaction to REITs earning information release occurs mainly by investors" prediction of earning. The impact on cumulative abnormal returns are investigated when profit prediction error, market information uncertainty, company information uncertainty, and investor sentiment are combined and applied as interacting variables. The prediction error appeared to affect the positive effect to the cumulative abnormal returns. And also, market information uncertainty, company information uncertainty, and investor sentiment are found to be effecting cumulative abnormal returns. Influence was different for each independent variable, market information uncertainty and corporate information uncertainty showed positive effect consistently, investor sentiment differed based on types of interaction. Market information uncertainty showed significant positive effect to REITs disclosure, when interacting with profit prediction error. Corporate information uncertainty was found to affect the largest effect on positive cumulative abnormal returns of REITs among the variables examined in this study. Even when it adding profit prediction error, upon interaction, market information uncertainty and investor sentiment by strong positive influence. Investor sentiment interacting with profit prediction error has negative influence to cumulative abnormal returns. And when market information uncertainty and corporate information uncertainty are added, the influence of interaction is amplified and may have greater impact on cumulative abnormal returns.
본 논문에서는 OFDMA-TDD 환경에서 서비스 사용자들에게 QoS를 보장해줄 수 있도록 예측 알고리즘을 이용하여 한정된 무선 자원을 효율적이고 공정하게 스케줄링 해주는 알고리즘을 연구하였다. 예측 알고리즘은 각 사용자의 이동 정보와 단말들의 변화해온 채널상태의 history data를 이용하여 앞으로의 채널상태를 예측하고, 예측된 결과는 사용자의 이동 정보와 함께 무선 자원 스케줄링에 적용한다. 또한 이동단말과 고정단말이 공존하는 환경에서는 QoS 보장에 있어 공정하지 않음을 밝히고, 이와 같은 문제를 해결하는 방안을 제안하였으며, 실험결과를 PF알고리즘과 비교하였다.
The propose of this paper is to examine mediating effect of family relationships satisfaction between job participation continuity and job satisfaction for elderly. 251 residents in the Seoul area participated in this study. In order to test the hypothesis on the characteristics of the participants, frequencies and multiple regression analysis were conducted. The major results of the study are as followed: First, job participation continuity was not the variation directly related to job satisfaction. Second, family relationships satisfaction has a complete mediating effect between two variables: job participation continuity, job satisfaction. Based on these results, this paper suggests a variety of programs for enforcing family relationships.
Objectives: This study was performed to evaluate the effect of occulsal plane balancing therapy on pain control without another therapy. Methods: This clinical study was carried out in 6 cases of patients which had neck and shoulder pain. In this study we treated the patients by balancing therapy of occulsal plane using paper. We measured Visual Analogue Scale(V.A.S.) for pain intensity, Range of Motion(R.O.M.) and difference of thermographic temperature between pain site and the opposite before and 15 minutes after treatment and analyzed the change of variables. Also, we analyzed the correlation among hypomovable site of neck rotaion(HS), pain site(PS) and thick site of paper(TS). Results: 1. The average of skin temperature was decreased from 0.45±0.11 to 0.24±0.13 significantly(p<0.05). 2. The average of V.A.S was decreased from 10.00±0.00 to 3.83±0.99 significantly (p<0.05). 3. In the correlation analysis among HS, PS and TS, there is negative correlation between HS and TS, but there was no statistical significance. Conclusions: In the study, the balancing therapy of occulsal plane warrants further investigation in the change of skin temperature and R.O.M. of the joint, pain control.